Organismal Biology Exam 3 Review
Organismal Biology Exam 3 Review Bio 1306
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GEOL 1313 - 002
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Rodriguez on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1306 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Science at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
Organismal Biology Exam 3 Review Dr. Carl S. Lieb Exam III Review 1) Nitrogen: absorbed as nitrate or ammonium ions. The source for ammonium ions is ammonia dissolved in water. Bacteria convert ammonium to nitrite and then nitrate. Nitrogen is used for the nitrogenous bases in DNA. Phosphorus: absorbed as phosphate ions. The source of phosphate ions is phosphate- containing sedimentary rock and animal excrement. Phosphorus is also used in DNA and ATP. Potassium: absorbed as potassium ions. The source of potassium ions is sedimentary rocks and granite. Potassium is used for the opening and closing of the stomata. Sulphur: absorbed as sulphate ions. The sulphate comes from parent rock (gypsum) and organic material (manure). Sulphur is used for amino acids. Calcium: absorbed as calcium ions. The calcium comes from carbonate rocks including limestone. It is used to give rigidity to the cell wall of the plant. Magnesium: absorbed as magnesium ions. Comes from earth’s crust, manure, and dead plant material. Magnesium is the building block of chlorophyll. 2) Micronutrients are nutrients that are only required in trace amounts. They have concentrations of less than 1g per kilogram of dry plant mass. Some of these are iron, chlorine, zinc, copper, etc. 3) The cohesion component says that water molecules have the tendency to stick to one another and this happens because water molecules are polar which means that one side of each water molecule is slightly negative and the other is slightly positive. 4) Sources are plant organs where carbohydrates are being released into the phloem because there are excess carbs in that organ. 5) Sinks are places in the plant where carbs are expended to produce energy for the plant or places where the sugar is taken out of the phloem for storage as starch. 6) Multicellular organisms use hormones to regulate activity, growth, and development of their bodies. Plants have hormones that are produced in one part of the body and affect another part. In animals, the hormones are moved through their circulatory system. 7) Auxin: causes elongation of cells in the stem on the opposite side to which light is shining. Promotes lateral roots, prevents side-branch formation and leaf drop. Causes effects such as parthenocarpy where a treated fruit develops without seeds, Gibbrellins: Causes foolish seedling were a plant grows very tall very quick and then dies. Plants that naturally produce gibberellic acid hormones promote stem growth, seed germination and ovule/fruitdevelopmen. Cytokinins: With auxin, it causes rapid cell proliferation. A high cytokinin to auxin ratio stimulates formation of shoot cells. A low cytokinin to auxin ratio stimulates proliferation Organismal Biology Exam 3 Review Dr. Carl S. Lieb of root cells. Counteracts gibberellins by inhibiting stem elongation and stimulating side branch formation. Cytokinins also delay the aging of leaves. Brassinosteroids: Promotes seed germination, apical dominance, leaf aging, ell elongation, growth of pollen tines, and xylem development. Abcisic acid: Prevents seed germination, promotes seed dormancy, and is the hormone that closes the stomata when the plant is experiencing water stress, Ethylene: Ethylene production causes a positive feedback loop so that the plant produces more ethylene. It spreads through the air to ripen other fruits. 8) Filter feeders: animals that feed by filtering out plankton or nutrients suspended in the water Herbivores: animals that eat plants Predators: an animal that preys on others Parasites: an organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits by deriving nutrients at the host's expense. Detritivores: an animal that feeds on dead organic material 9) External fertilization with spermatophores: A package of sperm is placed in the environment for the female to pick up. Or a package of sperm is handed to a female who places it inside herself. (Ex: salamanders, scorpions) 10)Internal fertilization: a male inserts sperm inside the female 11)Oviparity: Mature fertilized eggs are deposited in the environment where the embryo development is completed. Usually has enough energy to hatch. 12)Ovoviparity: Fertilized eggs are equipped with enough stored energy to complete embryonic development but the eggs are inside the female until they’re ready to hatch. 13)Viviparity: Fertilized eggs develop into the hatching stage. The embryos are inside the mom but the food source is provided by her until the embryos are born alive. 14)Characteristics of sponges: Asymmetrical, body is a vase shaped aggregation of cells around a water flow canal system. Porocytes: pore cells. Amoebocytes: wondering amoeboid cells that. Both capture food. 15)Characteristics of comb jellies (Ctenophora): Marine carnivores that are usually zooplankton. They have a complete digestive system (they have both: a mouth and an anus). Lack hox genes. 16)Characteristics of Cnidaria: Marine carnivores that are radially symmetrical and have hox genes. Body plants: polyp and medusa. 17)Nerve nets: • Neurons: carry electrical impulses over their cell surfaces. Made of a cell body and an axon. • Dendrites: carry electrical impulses toward the cell body • Axon: carries electrical impulses away from the cell body • Nerve: cluster of axons into a cable
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