Guide for exam 1 com 225 2015
Guide for exam 1 com 225 2015 225
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jordan Winowiecki on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 225 at Michigan State University taught by M. Bresnahan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 150 views. For similar materials see An Intro to Interpersonal Comm in Communication at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 02/10/15
Study guide for Exam 1 COMM 225 Jordan Winowiecki From Chapter 1Communication and competence O 90 What is communication 0 Process whereby humans collectively create and regulate social reality Uniquely human Collective activity Regulatory What is the origin of the word communication 0 Latin 0 Communicare to share How do the authors de ne communication 0 The authors de ne communication as quotthe process whereby humans collectively create and regulate social realityquot Interpersonal Communication 5 What do the authors say about de nitions of communication 0 There are many different de nitions of communication 0 The point of de ning something is to set a framework in which we can base further knowledge and ideas of off Although de nitions often differ they often have common elements and concepts with one another Why study communication What is studied in communication What is communication competence o Competent communicators communicate in a personally and socially appropriate manner at the surface level which is performative and the underlying level which is process competence o Communicative competence The ability of an individual to communicate in a personal and socially accepted manner 0 Process Competence This is the ability to process the cognitive skills and knowledge basis in which allows someone to communicate effectively 0 Performance competence The ability to communicate effectively to an audience This can be viewed as the surface competence due to the fact that is the competence that can be seen from daytoday life 0 What 5 kinds of competence do the authors discuss Implicit Knowledge Knowledge we don t stop to think about 0 1 Message Competence Coding and decoding Verbal Non Verbal and Listening 0 2 Interpretative Competence Process of perceiving labeling organizing interoperating o 3 Role Competence Take on social roles and know the appropriate behavior given to these roles 4 Selfcompetence Ability to chose and present a desired self image self concept self esteem 5 Goal Competence Ability to set goals anticipate a problem and choose and effective line of action 0 What is communication chauvinism The assumptions that the people around us think and act in the same way we do This is a barrier to communication because this creates a false sense of security during a communication situation and decreases our ability to be empathetic with others What is communication accommodation Adjusting and ne tuning the process of communication to the needs of other people 0 Relies heavily on nonverbals What are 5 kinds of goals for messages Be able to identify each of these kinds of goals 0 1 Instrumental How to get something done 2 Persuasive Cause someone to believe in something 3 Informational Provide detailsdescribe 4 Relational Create an identity for yourself with someone 5 Affective Focus on emotions Ex Comfort someone else 0000 What are the components of the SMCR communication model 0 lnvented at MSU by Burlough 0 Communication involves 4 elements S Send message M What is communicated C How it is communicated R To whom it is communicated What does it suggest to say communication is a process 0 Communication is a process because there is no set start and end point that de nes where a communication event occurs Communication is always changing molding and shaping How is human communication different from animal communication 0 Human communication is far more complex Do chimps really use human communication in the same way as people 0 No They can recognize symbols but cannot put them together into complex quotsentencesquot Do not exhibit linguistic creativity or use language in their direct activities What does it mean to say that communication is regulatory o This means that communication in uences our everyday lives and the world around us 393 What are the ve types of competence Be able to identify these 0 1 Message Competence Coding and decoding Verbal NonVerbal and Listening 0 2 Interpretative Competence Process of perceiving labeling organizing interoperating o 3 Role Competence Take on social roles and know the appropriate behavior given to these roles o 4 Selfcompetence Ability to chose and present a desired self image self concept self esteem o 5 Goal Competence Ability to set goals anticipate a problem and choose and effective line of action oz Implicit versus explicit knowledge 0 Implicit knowledge Knowledge we don t stop to think about Interpretive competence role competence selfcompetence goa competence message competence o Explicit knowledge Knowledge that has been articulated codi ed and stored in certain media Chapter 2 Communication and relationships oz What are 6 things that change as we move from intrapersonal to mass communication 0 6 things that change from interpersonal to mass communication 1 Number of interactants 2 Physical closeness 3 Feedback 4 Formality 5 Ability to adapt 6 Amount of planning oz What is the difference between content level and relational Ieve messages 0 Content message About the topic being addressed at the current time o Relational messages About the relationship itself 393 What is virtual reality and what issues does it represent for communication oz What is the difference between intrapersonal interpersonal small group mass communication public comm private comm and mediated communication 0 6 levels of communication 1 Intrapersonal communication is the communication that occurs within an individual This level of communication is more disconnected routine and iogica than interpersonal 2 Interpersonal communication is an interaction that occurs faceto face between two people Dyadic Two people bondexchange is mutual 3 Small Group communication is a level of communication that happens when a three or more people are involved in a conversation Generally this communication is between a small intimate numbers of people 0 38 people Beyond 8 creates public communication O 90 0 0 O 90 4 Organizational communication is complex and involves a hierarchy of roles Each individual is aware of another s standing There is an organizational element at each level of the community 0 Based on Hierarchy Specialized roles More Rules Someone has more power Ex Supervisor has more power than subordinates leader member exchange 5 Public communication occurs when a speaker acts as a leader and addresses a passive receiving audience 0 Face to face public A single speaker addresses a large audience needs clear organization careful planning 6 Mass communication mediated public occurs when a message is relayed to a large audience in an indirect transmission Examples of this are TV broadcasts and newspaper articles 0 Indirect Not in person 0 Uses channel 0 O O 0 Professor B s additions in notes only not in current book What does the situational approach say about interpersonal communication 0 Relationships are situational Key is proximity nearness Being in the right place at the right time What does the developmental approach say about interpersonal communication 0 Relationships develop slowly over time quality time based proximity does not really explain how relationships develop What is the systems approach to interpersonal communication 0 Relationships are governed by rules Characterized by Wholeness System makes sense Interdependence Each part of the system affects every other part 0 Nonsummativity Whole part is more than the sum of it s parts 0 Equi nity Can t predict what will happen in the future oz What are the limitations of each of these perspectives oz What are cultural level rules sociological level and psychological level rules 0 3 Levels of Understanding Cultural Level Common to large group Sociological Level Rules of your group Psychological How you see something personally What is meant by wholeness Interdependence Nonsummativity and equi nality 0 See above Remember positive and negative feedback in systems theory means something different from the ordinary usage of this term What is the difference between a public and a private relationship 0 Private relationships are when two people are homogenous and create a personal bond Traits of this relationship are that members are irreplaceable interdependent particular tone is sentimental rewards are intrinsic knowledge is particular and have a set of rules between them 0 Public relationships are the opposite where the relationship is de ned in an impersonal and autonomous way Member in this relationship are substitutional autonomous universal normative practical and extrinsic What are 6 characteristics of public relationships 0 Impersonal Substitutable Autonomous Knowledge is Universal Rules are normative Tone of the relationship is practical Rewards are extrinsic 000000 What are 6 characteristics of private relationships 0 Irreplaceable Interdependent Knowledge is particular Rules are one s that you make up Tone is sentimental Rewards are intrinsic 00000 Your book talks about reorienting What is this 0 Reorientating Demanding situations cause you to change your behavior What is the difference between minimal competence satisfactory competence and optimal competence 0 Minimal competence When an individual is unwilling to be exible in their relationship role 0 Satisfactory competence is when an individual is willing to be exible in their role as long as they feel it will be reciprocated 0 Optimal competence is the most skilled type of competence in which an individual is aware of how to change their relationship role to best t the situation Chapter 3 Nonverbal Communication oz What is the difference between spontaneous and symbolic communication 0 Spontaneous Do it without thinking about it Involuntary Not really communicating communication is the unintentional display of someone s inner emotions and how the perceive these emotions There is planning symbolic Symbolic Has meaning intentional communication use of intentional arbitrary symbols that society has deemed as tting oz What are the ve basic characteristics of the nonverbal code 0 O O O O 1 Nonverbal cues are more effective than verbal cues 2 Nonverbal cues are more emotional powerful Our true feelings 3 Nonverbal codes have a universal meaning Often in uenced by certain cultures Facial expressions are most universal 4 Nonverbal codes are continuous natural and immediate 5 Nonverbal codes occur is clusters or groups oz How do nonverbal messages modify verbal messages 0 O O O 1 Compliment NV s match what words suggest 2 Emphasize 3 Repear 4 Contradict oz Know regulator olfaction oculesics chronemics etc 0 11 types of nonverbals Regulators Control the ow of communication eg glancing at a watch Emblems Gestures that have a clear verbal meaning peace sign Illustrators Describe or point out something Affect Displays Gestures show emotion Adaptors Body movements that manage anxiety 0 Self adaptors Body movement to manage stress 0 Object Use external object to manage stress Proxemics How people adapt adjust and react to their spatial environment Chronemics Comm associated with use of time Olfaction Comm associated with smell interpret message based on body smells Vocalics Features of voice whisper loudness pauses which accompany talking how message is displayed 0 Vocal Segregates Sounds that interfere with smooth speech Um Ah Vocalic Qualities Features of a particular voice 3 Kinds of Touch 0 Professional social intimate Haptics The study of touch how message is displayed with tactile cues 393 Know Scott amp Lyman s 4 types of territory 1 Public territory Accessible to everyone 2 Interactional territory Space between two people when talking 3 Home Territory Privately owned limited 4 Body Territory Personal space very limited imaginary bubble around you 0000 oz What do authors say about personal space 0 What are differences between men amp women whites amp minorities in gaze o Gaze Eye contact Functions 0 1 Expressive o 2 Control Conversation Women gaze more than men do not like when visual contact is cut off American s look more when they listen African American s use more quotback channelingquot gestures they give more verbal and nonverbal feedback to a speaker while he or she is still talking Constantly trying to monitor feedback others are giving 393 What is a facial blend 0 Several emotions occur in a quick succession overlapping one another oz What is kinesics o The study of body movement aka body language oz Know emblems illustrators affect displays regulators adaptors vocalics etc o 5 classes of gestures 1 Emblems Common gestures in societies that have a designation verbal meaning 2 Illustrators Gestures that compliment the meaning of the verbal communication 3 Affect cues Signal a particular emotion or feeling Ex Temper tantrum 4 Regulators Nonverbal cues that regulate the verbal communication Ex Leaning forward to signal leaving the conversation in the near future 5 Selfadaptors Touch that is used to manipulate our own body and regulate emotions 393 What is equilibrium theory 0 Based on other person we either move closer or distance ourselves nonverbaHy 393 What is equivocal communication 0 A type of vague communication where each message has an equally appropriate and expected interpretation 0 Ambiguous messages generally not a great idea sounds like you are lying Average people tell two lies a day Discussion of hand gestures When people knew that they were under suspicion both liers and truth tellers use the same hand gestures oz What are some ways that people can become more aware of the emotions that they experience Chapter 4 Verbal Competence 0 How are words powerful Why are they hurtful oz What is the difference between and analog code and a digital code 39 o 2 Kinds of Verbal Codes 0 Analogic Code that has some similarity btw the thing and what it represents Symbolic Nonverbal communication is more analogic Ex Map or photo carries meaning Ex The letter A in Englishlt derives from cuneiform writing that symbolizes an ox s head Ex Sundial is analogic Maps the passage of sun across the sky 0 Digital Code based on abstract symbols Ex words Ex quotA girl is putting money in piggy bankquot Without the picture Ex Multiple ways to say Hellon English Korean Chinese Language is a digital code v Why is sexual harassment a problem between men and women in power asymmetric relationships oz What is quotquid pro quoquot 393 What constitutes a quothostile workplacequot oz What are 4 characteristics of verbal codes discussed by the authors 0 Verbal Codes 1 Units 2 Create new meaning 3 lnvolve complex ideas 4 Help us re ect on our behavior Life experiences oz What is metalanguage 0 We analyze our own or another s communication 0 Talking about how someone communicates oz What are 8 functions of language discussed by the authors 0 Functions of Language ldentity Information Control Regulates communication Attitudes Contact Conquers the unknown Expresses emotion Frees us as human beings Build relationships 0 90 What is compliance gaining Compliance resistance 0 90 What is the quotLet it passquot rule When do we use this rule 0 Let It Pass Rule Gothman Ignore a mistake that someone makes Don t correct them This is facethreatening oz What are the 3 levels of language discussed by the authors Know what is meant by semantics pragmatics syntax phonemics o Semantics vs Syntax vs Pragmatics Semantics The study of meaning Syntax Word order makes a difference Pragmatics Most important how people really use language functions of language 0 What is denotative meaning Connotative meaning 0 Denotation vs Connotation Denotation o quotD goes with Dictionaryquot 0 Public meaning as in a dictionary 0 Ex Lemon Lemon is a tropical fruit Connotation 0 Private emotionally charged meaning 0 Ex Your car won t work and you don t have money to x it 0 oz What do changes in word ordering in a sentence convey oz What does pragmatics look at o How people really use language functions of language oz What is speech acts theory 0 Speech Acts Theory Searle and Goffman What language quotdoesquot The act of communication that is accomplishes Ex Make a promise Give a compliment Ridicule somebody o Apologize to another Profess love 0 Some speech act include Compliments Apologies Requests Directives Refusals Invitations Introductions 0 90 What is the Coordinated Management of Meaning 0 Coordinated Mgmt of Meaning Theory Communication is sensitive to Rules of TurnTaking who gets to speak amp Context Rules the situation in which you communicate o What is quotspeaking with namesquot 3 What is the Sapir Whorf hypothesis 0 Examines the relationship btw language and cognition Ex Tells us that English speakers don t normally see the world the same way as Hopi speakers see it 0 90 What is the difference between linguistic determinism and linguistic relativity How do Teamsterville Men use language 0 Linguistic relativity Thought is relative to the language that you speak Language is the way to report how you experience the world 0 Linguistic determinism The language you speak determines how you see the world The language habits of our community lead to certain choices in interpretation 0 Teamsterville In book Fictitious place from the past Suggest famous labor union Gender roles very clear in Teamsterville Men bottled up their emotions oz What is the elaborated code The restricted code 0 Restricted Code Language used with insiders Talk is minimal because people know what you mean without saying it o Elaborated codequot Language used with outsiders Need to be very speci c as outsiders don t share meanings 393 Instrumental talk versus expressive talk oz Conversational signals such as pacing amp pausing softness and loudness pitch amp intonation what do these features of conversation convey 0 What are some differences in the ways that men and women talk 0 Women s vs Men s Language Women s language is more speci c polite Women use more tag endings more quali ers and disclaimers and their language is more descriptive Tag endings Little phrases added to the end of a sentence suggesting uncertainty 0 You are going aren tyou Quali ers Back off from what you have said 0 Well perhaps that s true don t know 0 Disclaimers You don t take responsibility for what you say 0 Other people think that way I do too Men use more direct technicalmechanical vocabulary and goal directedtaskoriented language 0 Gender Differences Results of genderbased research is mostly inconclusive Often real differences come from power and status rather then gender oz What do theorists say about language gender and domination eg Muted Groups theory 0 Critical Theory Focuses on how language is used to control others usually by the dominant group Focus on gender society Muted Group Theory Historically most societies have been dominated by men This has resulted in public suppression of female comm In public females have been prevented from communicating MSU doesn t study this but all other universities do oz How can language be sexist Why is this an issue 0 Sexist Language Language can indicate status difference based on gender hence corrections need to be made Ex Male nurse female mayor you guys actress calling a woman honey chairman reman policeman See page 108109 Gender neutral term Fire ghter oz What do the authors say about conversational closings oz What is a closed and openended question 0 Openended vs Closeended questions Openended Respondent has the freedom to say whatever heshe wants Closeended The way the respondent can answer is constrained to fewer choices lnClass Review Tuesday February 10 2015 1 C 2 B 3 B 4 A 5 C 6 A 7 B 8 Rules shared by a small group of neighbors Sociological level 9 Sums up the idea of equi nity The nal state of a system cannot be predicted by cause and effect logic 10 Interactions classi ed as developmental view None of the above All choices are situational 11 A 12 quotlnteractional Territoryquot Chat between baseball players on the eld during the game 13 When you want to re ect on someone s emotions Become aware of other s feelings nonverbal messages and emotions Not on exam 14 E Not on exam 15 D 16 B 17 D Know all the parts of this model 18 B 19 D Insulting the meat The preference to not boast about oneself 20 E 21 D 22 D 23 A 24 B 25 D 26 C Nonverbal affect display The student s smile shows that they are not hostile 27 D Spontaneous Communication Unintentional You accidently hit your thumb with a hammer and scream with pain 28 E 29 C 30 B
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