Study Guide Exam 1
Study Guide Exam 1 DEP 3115
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Fatima Ahmed on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to DEP 3115 at Florida International University taught by Bethany Reed Sutherland in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 183 views. For similar materials see Development in Infancy in Psychlogy at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 02/10/15
DEP 3115 Infancy STudy Guide MidTerm 1 ChapTer 1 NaTivisTs people who believe ThaT infanTs come inTo The world wiTh some beliefs Empircis people learn when They come inTo The world Who are The classic TheorisTs for empiricism and naTivism HisTorical NaTivisT Jean Jacques infanTs born pure They are moral beings and as They geT older Their experience Tells Them noT To be moral EmpiricisT John Locke Tabula rossaquot infanTs come inTo The world wiTh a blank slaTe Modern NaTivisT Arnold Gesell He sTudied Twins Looked aT Twins and Tried To give each of Them differenT experiences InfanTs have innaTe disposiTion for moTor behaviors Developed IQ TesTs for infanTs EmpiricisT WaTson BehaviorisT Said give me a group of children and I will Train Them To be anyThing docTors lawyers bankers regardless of TalenTs or IQ They were born wiTh LiTTle AlberT Scared an infanT of raTs and insTilled a fear in him of all furry whiTe objecTs Proved ThaT parenTs could shape kids based on Their environmenT IT is parT of The EThological Theory Proposed by Lorenz and Tinbergen worked wiTh birds Theory ThaT behavior musT be viewed in a parTicular conTexT as having adapTive or survival value CriTical Period A Specific Time in an organisms developmenT during which exTernal facTors have a unique and irreversible impacT SensiTive Period period of Time ThaT is opTimal for The developmenT of parTicular capaciTies and behavior IT is similar To The criTical period buT The Time is noT ThaT specific STudies of looking aT herediTary individual and environmenT Focuses on The relaTive conTribuTion of herediTy and environmenT shared and non shared To individual differences in human behavior using sTaTisTical esTimaTion STudies in differences beTween monozygoTic and dizygoTic Twins AdopTion sTudies researchers find siblings who have been raised in se araTe environmenT Gene x EnvironmenT inTeracTion Genes and inTeracTion boTh have an affecT CerTain gene makeup in individuals makes Them more vulnerable Than cerTains oThers for diseases NaTure and NurTure TransacTional Model Proposed by Sameroff Child one and environmenT one affecT child Two and environmenT Two They are inTerTwined NaTure and NurTure dynamic sysTems perspecTive proposed by GilberT goTTlieb As individuals develop many sysTems are aT play GeneTic acTiviTy Neural acTiviTy Behavior EnvironmenT They all have a bidirecTional relaTionship inTeracT wiTh each oTher in order To develop The individual Idea ThaT The new phenomenon noT presenT in The original ferTilized egg can emerge over The course of developmenT Through The inTeracTion of preexisTing elemenTs wiTh environmenTal influences GeneTic makeup can be changed aT any poinT in life DefineIdenTify Brofenbrenners 5 sysTems of his Ecological Theory InfanT in The cenTer various sysTems ThaT surround The infanT ClosesT To The infanT 1 conTexT in which The child lives and inTeracTs wiTh people and insTuTions closesT To Them family friends 2 inTerrelaTion among The componenTs of The microsysTem ex RelaTionship among family members 3 The collecTion of seTTings ThaT impinge on a childs developmenT buT in which The child does noT play a direcT role impinges buT no direcT role ex MoTher is sTressed ouT because of job child is influenced by This 4 The sysTem ThaT surrounds The microsysTem mesosysTem and exosysTem represenTing The values ideologies and laws of The socieTy or culTure 5 Time based dimension ThaT can alTer The operaTion of all oTher sysTems from microsysTem Through macrosysTem Technology during era growing up for insTance now Television ipads iphones insTances in which any pair of family members affecTs and is affecTed by each oTher39s behavior ConflicT beTween parenTs affecTs how The child views relaTionships HeriTabiliTy you inheriT your genes from your parenTs insTances in which The relaTionship beTween Two individuals in a family is modified by The behavior or aTTiTudes of a Third family member sTress socia supporT IdenTify Baumrind39s 4 ParenTing STyles and Their ouTcomes AuThoriTaTive Warm Responsive ResTricTive Demanding AuThoriTarian RejecTing Unresponsive ResTricTing Demanding m Warm Responsive Permissive And UndersTanding Uninv olved RejecTing Unresponsive Permissive And Undemanding Bes139 Type Of Parenting Warm Involved Responsive Shows Pleasure And SupporT Of Chids ConsTrucTive Behavior Considers Chids Wishes And SoliciTs Opinions Offers AlTernaTives SeTs STandards CommunicaTe Them Clearly And Enforces Them Firmly Does NoT Yield To Chids Coercion Shows Displeasure AT Bad Behaviors ConfronTs DisobedienT Child ExpecTs MaTure IndependenT Age AppropriaTe Behavior EnergeTic Friendly Chid Cheerfu Self ConTroIIed High On Demand Low On WarmTh Show LiTTIe WarmTh Or PosiTive InvolvemenT Does NoT SoliciT Or Consider Child39s Desires Or Opinion Enforces Rules Rigidly BuT Does NoT Explain Them Clearly Moody Unhappy Aimless Fearful ModeraTely Warm Glorifies Free Expression And Impulses And Desires Does NoT CommunicaTe Rules Or Enforce Them IgnoresAccest Bad Behavior Yields To Coercion Whining Hiding Makes Few Demands For MaTure IndependenT Behavior ImpulseAggressive Child Aggressive Domineering ResisTanT NoncomplianT Quick To Anger BuT FasT To Recover Cheerful Mood Lacks Self ConTrol And LiTTle Self Reliance Impulsive Few Goal DirecTed AcTiviTies worsT Type of parenTing SelfCenTered Neglechul Unresponsive Pursues Self GraTificaTion AT The Expense Of Child39s Welfare Tries To Minimize CosTs Time EfforT Of InTeracTion WiTh Child Failed To MoniTor Child39s AcTiviTy May Be Depressive Anxious EmoTional Needy ImpulsiveAggressive NoncomplianTMoody Child How Do Siblings And Peers AffecT DevelopmenT MoThers Typically spend more Time wiTh Their children Than faThers FaThers sTill make significanT conTribuTion To infanT39s developmenT MoThers and faThers have differenT play sTyles FaTher39s play is more physically arousing MoThers play convenTional games inTeracT wiTh Toys and Talk more SimilariTies and differences To infanTpeer and infanT adulT dyads More relaTable due To closeness in age Older sibling acTs as quotTeacherquot in inTeracTions EffecTs of birTh order gtFirsTborn adulT orienTed helpful self conTrolled gtLaTer born less fearful and anxious and have more self confidence and social poise Than Their firsTborn siblings gtOnly Children high achievers personal conTrol maTuriTy and leadership InfanTs own sociabiliTy deTermines how much aTTenTion heshe receives from older sibling Siblings of same sex Typically geT along beTTer Than opposiTe sex siblings ParenTs have subsTanTial influence over how older children reacT To a new sibling FaThers may become more involved wiTh older child Childs friends can serve as buffer when a new sibling arrives PoTenTial benefiT To infanT of older siblings AddiTional caregiving Serve as resource in Times of sTress Serve as Teachers Can comiensaTe for poor peer relaTionships gtO6 monThs babies Touch and look aT each oTher and are responsive To each oTher39s behaviors gt712 monThs infanTs begin To recognize a peer as a social parTner gtAge 12 gains in locomoTion and language increase The complexiTy of social exchanges Turn Taking imiTaTion posiTive affecT sTarT engaging in imaginaTive play gtAge 2 play in groups and engage in complex social exchanges Increasingly prefer peer vs adulT DevelopmenTal PaTTerns of inTeracTion Mildred ParTon Onlooker behavior waTching while oThers engage in play acTiviTies Parallel play sidebyside play of similar acTiviiTes while noT engaging wiTh one anoTher AssociaTe play playing wiTh one anoTher buT noT necessarily sharing same goals CooperaTive play engaging in play ThaT incorporaTes cooperaTion reciprocaTion and sharing of a common goal NonparenTal care RecenT shifTs in women working ouTside of The home have increased infanT exposure To NonparenTal care MajoriTy of infanTs and children are exposed To NonparenTal care aT some poinT during The firsT years of life NICHD Early Child Care Research neTwork EsTablished in 1990 To invesTigaTe wheTher and how much early child cares affecTs infanTs and young children39s social emoTional physical and cogniTive developmenT SignificanT number of infanTs abouT 60 of infanTs are in daycare during Their firsT year QualiTy of care more imporTanT influence on infanT moTher relaTionship raTher Than The amounT of Time spenT in daycare Daycare does maTTer buT iT is noT necessarily The amounT of Time spenT in The daycare buT The qualiTy of The daycare FacTors affecTing Child Care qualiTy Caregiver To infanT raTio 13 infanTs 15 kids Group size EducaTion level and Training of caregiver STrucTured age appropriaTe acTiviTies ThaT promoTe learning PosiTive caregiving Socioeconomic STaTus SE5 DeTermined by measures of parenTs educaTion level income andor occupaTional sTaTus SES can have significanT impacT on infanT developmenT ex language developmenT SE5 affecTs caregiving independenT of eThniciTy CulTure and moTor developmenT CulTure can have a significanT influence on Timeframe and order in which infanTs develop basic skills Example moTor skills Cradleboard use in Hopi naTive Americans can delay moTor developmenT Various Techniques in Indian African and Caribbean culTures can faciliTaTe moTor developmenT InfanT developmenT is influenced by many environmenTal facTors Know Differences And SimilariTies And AdvanTages And LimiTaTion Of LongiTudinal CrossSecTional And SequenTial Designs Following The same infanTs over Time observing Them repeaTedly Ex Shyness from infancy To adolescence STrengThs provides daTa on developmenT of individual differences can reveal links beTween early experiences and laTer ouTcomes indicaTes how individuals are alike and differenT in The ways They change over Time LimiTaTions relaTively Timeconsuming and expensive selecTive aTTriTion mighT yield nonrepresenTaTive sample ThaT limiTs generalizabiliTy of conclusions cross generaTional changes may limiT one39s conclusions To The cohorT sTudied Design in which researchers compare groups of individuals of differenT age levels aT approximaTely The same poinT in Time Ex ATTenTion across To sTimuli across infancy TrenghTs demonsTraTes age differences hinTs aT developmenTal Trends is relaTively inexpensive Takes liTTle Time To conducT LimiTaTions age Trends may ref lecT exTraneous differences beTween cohorTs raTher Than Try developmenTal change cohorT effecT provides no daTa on The developmenTal of individuals because each individual is observed aT only one poinT in Time Way of sTudying change over Time ThaT combines boTh feaTures of cross secTional and longiTudinal designs TrenghTs discriminaTes True delveopmenTal Trends from cohorT effecTs indicaTes wheTher developmenTal changes experienced one cohorT are similar To Those experienced by oTher cohorTs less cosle and Timeconsuming Than longiTudinal approach LimiTaTions More cosle and Time consuming Than cross secTional research may sTill leave quesTions abouT wheTher a developmenTal change is generalizable beyond The cohorTs sTudied consisTency over Time in The relaTive ranking of individuals in a group on any parTicular measure consisTency over Time in The group mean NaTuralisTic ObservaTion ObservaTions collecTed in The infanTs naTural seTTings wiThouT inTerfering wiTh The infanT39s acTiviTes STrucTured ObservaTion ObservaTion in which researchers creaTe a siTuaTion so ThaT behaviors They wish To sTudy are more likely To occur sucking raTe and emoTional responses Baby Biography psychological diary of The growTh of a child Case Tudy Close examinaTion of a single individual CorrelaTional MeThod Involves deTermining wheTher Two variables are relaTed To each oTher in a sysTemaTic way and how sTrongly They are relaTed CorrelaTion CoefficienT R ranges beTween 10 and 10 EsTablishing paTTern and causes ModeraTe posiTive correlaTion MosT correlaTion coefficienTs reporTed in psychology are around 3040 We cannoT always design a suiTable experimenT To sTudy our quesTion EThical concerns someTimes prohibiT using experimenTs UndersTanding causal processes is noT The only goal of research LaboraTory ExperimenTs Researchers hold consTanT or equaTe every possible facTor excepT The one They have hypoThesized will influence The behavior They wanT To sTudy Two groups ExperimenTal Group ConTrol Group Groups should be deTermined Through random assignmenT RANDOM is key IndependenT Variable The facTor ThaT researchers deliberaTely manipulaTe in an experimenT DependenT Variable The facTor ThaT researchers expecT To change as a funcTion of The independenT variable ReliabiliTy exTenT To which a measuring insTrumenT yields consisTenT resulTs over Time and across observers ValidiTy ExTenT To which a measuring insTrumenT accuraTely ref lecTs whaT is inTended To be measured DisTinguish beTween Face exTernal inTernal and predicTive validiTy exTenT To which a TesT is subjecTively viewed as covering The concepT iT claims To measure exTenT To which a causal conclusion can be made based upon a designed sTudy ie was The experimenT done well and were confounds conTrolled for exTenT To which a causal conclusion can be made across siTuaTions and oTher people ie are The resulTs generalizable exTenT To which measure in one domain predicTs laTer performance in anoTher domain Special Research Issues wiTh InfanTs ConTexT are They acTing The same in The lab as ouTside Thelab STaTe babies could be crying or sleeping angry or drowsy PoinTs of view we don39T know how infanTs Think Performance vs CompeTence Performance whaT do infanTs do under cerTain condiTions in cerTain conTesz CompeTence infanT39s poTenTial abiliTy are They acTually able To perform Researchers need To undue risk To infanT parTicipanTs by Avoiding procedures ThaT could harm The child eiTher physically or psychologically and use procedures ThaT creaTe The leasT amounT of sTress possible ConsenT musT be obTained from The parenT and assenT from The child if possible if child cries for over 30 seconds you have To sTop IncenTives To parTicipaTe in The research projecT musT be fair and appropriaTe CorrecT acTions in lighT of unforeseen consequences WhaT are The various Trisomy disorders and how They deTecTed Trisomy 13 PaTua Syndrome 110000 birThs SympToms inTellecTual disabiliTies clefT palaTe abnormal geniTalia hearT defecTs single umbilical arTery Life expecTancy 81070 survive longer Than a year Trisomy 18 SympToms microcephaly wiTh occipuT hearT defecTs inTesTines proTruding ouT of body feeding Trisomy 21 Down syndrome 1800 birThs SympToms menTal disabiliTies large range in IQ2070 low muscle Tone slanTed eyes f laTTened eyes proTruding Tongue congeniTal hearT disease 4050 Life expecTancy 8895 survive longer Than a year 60 survive To 10 years 10 live To 70 years GeneTic Disorders Screening and diagnosis of Trisomy39s PrenaTal screening UlTrasound 1013 weeks Measure nuchal Translucency 8287 accuraTe Triple Screen TesT 1520 weeks HIV IlliciT drugs Alcohol Smoking Tobacco Bisphenol A BPA risked facTor in developmenT in auTism higher incidenTs of ADHD lower IQ plasTic geTs hoT is The problem because BPA geTs inTo your fooddrink Mercury PrenaTal STress Babies mighT geT addicTed and Then They will have To go Through wiThdrawal which is a loT harder for babies Than adulTs FeTal Alcohol Syndrome righT now They don39T have a dose of how much alcohol can cause This IT can range from 1 glass To 100 Signs of kid having This wider seT aparT eyes flaTTer upper lip Folic Acid SupporTs neural developmenT MaTernal Exercise supporTs healThy circulaTion and decreases birTh complicaTions noThing sTrenuous jusT geT hearT raTe up a couple Times a week can also lead To easier birTh DHA increases cogniTive funcTioning laTer in life for children aT risk Reflexes simple unlearned involunTary sTimulusresponse sequences common To all members of a species InfanTs display several reflexes Reflexes are adapTive and can be used by physicians To asses normal neurological developmenT Used for high risk pregnancies breech birTh oTher complicaTions NaTional Average increased from 21 in 1997 To 33 in 2010 NegaTives prolonged recovery for moThers respiraTory problems for infanT increased risk of injecTion for moTher and infanT decreased moTher and infanT bond InfanTs born lt37 weeks gesTaTion is considered preTerm InfanTs lt5 lbs are considered low birTh weighT PremaTure birTh can lea To healTh risks and psychological risks Changes in NICU have lead To significanT increases in survival raTes if preemies over The lasT 25 years Apgar TesT given aT 1 and 5 minuTes afTer birTh To deTermine wheTher or noT infanT is funcTioning normally Scores less Than or equal To 3 indicaTes criTical condiTion Scores 710 indicaTes healThy baby Senses begin To funcTion before birTh Two general principles MaTuriTy of The sense organ occurs beTween The maTuriTy of ThaT sense39s sysTem in The brain DifferenT senses achieve sTrucTural maTuriTy aT differenT Times Touch earliesT sense To develop in uTero TasTe Newborns can discriminaTe beTween various TasTes and show preferences for differenT flavors of foods ThaT The moTher aTe during The pregnancy Smell Newborns prefer familiar smells usually The moThers
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