P101 Exam 2 Full Study Guide
P101 Exam 2 Full Study Guide PSY-P 101
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Zoe Goldhirsh on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY-P 101 at Indiana University taught by Jim Cuellar in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 156 views.
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Date Created: 02/10/15
Psych 101 Exam 2 Study Guide Sensamn and Perception Sensation process of receiving stimulus from external environment collecting data Perception the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information What are two brain processes in perception and what do they do 1 Bottomup processing collecting and perceiving a sensation as a whole 2 Topdown processing giving the senses meaning conceptual cognitive processing interpreting senses into meaningful representations Transduction the conversion of physical energy into coded neural messagessignals Absolute Threshold smallest strength of a stimulus that can be detected example softest sound you can hear Difference Threshold Just Noticeable difference the smallest difference that can be detected example how much lighter can a company make a chocolate bar until you can notice it Weber39s Law Principle of Sensation For each sense the size of a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulus whether or not we can detect a chance depends on the intensity of the original stimulus Example holding a pebble you detect change in weight with 2nCI pebble but if you re holding a heavy rock you won t really detect a change in weight if a pebble is added Sensory Adaptation the decline in sensitivity to a constant stimulus necessary to prevent overstimulation Subliminal Perception Detection of stimuli that are below the threshold of conscious perceptionawareness 39When is subliminal perception effective It can in uence behavior ONLY when the stimulus is relevant to goals held by the observer Cornea Function focuses images Location covers front of the eye Iris Function controls the amount of light entering the eye Location colored part of the eye Pupil Function controls the amount of light entering the eye Location hole in iris smaller pupilcearer image Lens Function focuses the image on the retina it changes shape to focus on far or near targets through accommodation Location behind the pupil Retina Function contains rods and cones which contain sensory receptors lt responds to light by undergoing chemical reaction when stimulated which changes it into neural signals Location back of the eye Rods photo sensory receptor in retina Nightscotopic vision Poor acuity can t see detail In periphery of eye Outside of the fovea They do not see colors There are about 120 million rods in eye more bc less light Cones receptors in retina inside fovea Best acuity special detail About 6 million Color vision Activates with light See bright light Fovea center of retina that contains cones It gives you your point of clearest vision Visual Pathway Cornea pupil lens retina activates rods and cones l signals sent to bipolar cells transmit information to ganglion cells bundled together and form the optic nerve transmits information to brain thalamus visual cortex Bipolar Cells collect information from rods and cones funnels that to the ganglion cells collects rst response coded messages Ganglion Cells combine analyze and encode information from bipolar cells and then sends it to the brain as axons l lHow do rods and cones create a neural signal They convert light into electrical impulses coded messages and are sent to the brain for processing Blind Spot at the optic disc where the ganglion cells leave the retina so there are no rods and cones there Brain lls in blind spot Primary visual pathway responsible for processing information about form color brightness and depth Secondary visual pathway involved in processing information about location of an object Optic Chiasm The point where the left eye s optic nerve and the right eye s optic nerve meet and partly crossover to opposite sides of the brain Three Properties of Light wave experiencing color colorwaveengths of light 1 Hue corresponds to our experience of color 2 Saturation purity of light wave 3 Brightness amplitude of light wave Trichromatic Theory explanation of common forms of coloredblindness Sensation of color results because the cones in the retina are especially sensitive to red light long wavelengths green light medium wavelengths and blue light short wavelengths Opponent Process Theory explains the afterimage and colorblindness Theory says there are four basic colors that are divided into two pairs of colorsensitive neurons redgreen and blueyellow They oppose each other Exampe if red is stimulated green is inhibited cannot be stimulated simultaneously Amplitude loudness the intensity of a wave re ected in the height Decible unit of measurement for loudness Frequency pitch The highnesslowness of sounds measured by the rate of vibration number of sound waves per second Timbre the sensation of quality of sound related to the wave form shape of sound wave example being able to tell the difference between and violin and a trumpet Pathway of sound Collected in outer ear and travels through the ear canal it s ampli ed in the middle ear and then transduced into neural messages in the inner ear and sent to the brain Pinna visible part of the outer ear Function pinpointing location of sound and catching sound waves and funnel into ear canal Ear Canal where sound waves travel to get to eardrum Eardrum vibrates when hit by sound waves The vibration is then transferred to the middle ear Hammer Anvil and Stirrup Three tiny bones in the middle ear Each bone sets the next one into action Function doubles ampli cation of sound relayed to cochlea Cochlea Fluid lled structure within the year that contains basilar membrane and hair cells Basilar Membrane stimulates hairreceptor cells for hea ng Hair Cells converts sound waves into neural impulses and sends it to the brain Frequency Theory Basilar membrane vibrates at the same frequency rate as the sound wave low pitch this theory DOESNOT explain high pitch OlfactionSmell GustationTaste H How do we smell The olfactory receptors are stimulated by airborne molecules converted into neural messages that pass along axons make up olfactory nerve which then directly connects to the olfactory bulb in the brain the brain interprets pattern of message and identi es odor Flavor combination of taste and smell Pheromones chemical signals released by an animal that communicate information and affect the behavior of other animals of the same species used to mark territories and as warning signals I39lHuman Pheromones quotHuman chemosignalsquot Found in sweat arm pit hair blood and semen example why women who spend a lot of time together have synced menstrual cycle Taste Receptors Located in taste buds l taste bud 50 receptors Anything you eat or drink is dissolved by saliva which allows the chemicals to activate the taste buds DHow do taste buds work Taste buds are in the mouth tongue and throat and when they are activated special receptor cells send neural messages to the thalamus in the brain From the thalamus it is sent to several difference regions in the cortex 5 Primary Tastes and their survival functions 1 Sweet energy source 2 Sour triggers potential toxin 3 Salty sodium 4 Bitter triggers potential poison 5 Unami savoryprotein Pacinian Corpuscles Receptors located beneath the skin that detect pressure warmth and cold If pressure is constant it either reduces the number of signals sent to the brain or stops responding Without that you would forget you are wearing underwear Nocireceptors pain receptor that noti es pain to the brain and it is transmitted through substance P Free Nerve Endings small sensory bers in the skin muscles and organs I39IWhat are the MOST sensitive areas for pain The back of the knee neck region and bend of the elbow What are the LEAST sensitive areas to pain Tip of the nose sole of the foot and ball of the thumb Gatecontrol Theory Pain is a product of both psychological and physiological factors that cause signal gates to openrelay patterns of intense stimulation what your brain perceives as pain Proprioceptors sensory receptors located in the muscles and joints that provide information about body position and movement Adelta Fibers fast pain system sharp and short lived Skin Thalamus l Sensory Cortex Cdelta Fibers Slow pain system that is unmylenated throbbing burning Skin Hypothalamus Thalamus Limbic System emotional response Substance P Neurotransmitter that processes pain signals Kinesthetic Sense sense of location and position of body parts relative to one another they use proprioceptors Vestibular Sense sense of bland equilibrium by responding to changes in gravity motion and position source semicircular canals and vestibular sacs in the ear Gestalt view of perception Emphasized that we perceive whole objects or gures rather than isolated bits and pieces Gestalt Principles Proximity perceiving objects that are close to one another as a single unit Similarity perceiving objects that are similar as a single unit Closure brain lls in gaps to make assumptions on what you see Good continuation grouping elements that follow the same direction as one unit DWhy do you lose your taste when your nose is stuffed up To savor taste we need to be able to breath the aroma through the nose as well as tasting with the taste buds Figureground relationship organization of a scene into its gure and the background Depth perception Cue stimulus characteristics that in uence our perceptions Monocular cue depth cues that appear in the image in either the right or left eye Binocular cue involves comparing the left and right eye images You experience 3D because of depth cues What does lasik eye surgery do It reshapes the cornea Perceptual Illusions underscore the idea that we actively construct our perceptual representations according to psychological principles GOOD LUCK g H
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