Study Guide- Test 3
Study Guide- Test 3 PSYCH 3240
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lucy Stevens on Friday April 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 3240 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 3240 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/15/16
Exam 3 Study Guide Chapters 8-11 4-15-16 Emotion and the Nervous System *Movement of mind (soul) (“feeling” ex: happiness) èBody’s responses (smiling, higher heart rate) *Smiling controlled by the somatic nervous system *Higher heart rate controlled by the autonomic nervous system (Sympathetic) *Relationship between emotional experience and body’s response is unclear/controversial. • James-Lang Theory of Emotion (late 1800s): o Perception of specific patterns of physiological arousalè specific emotional response o The change in your body comes first (heart rate increasing, sweating) • Cannon’s criticism (1920): autonomic nervous system responds the same way in different emotionsè perception of physiological responses cannot account for variety of emotional experiences that we feel o Because of this, the James-Lang theory was basically abandoned • Schachter and Singer’s (1962) Cognitive Theory: o Identification of emotions relies on cognitive assessment of the external stimulus situation- physiological arousal contributes only to the sensation of the intensity of that emotion. § “Epinephrine” experiments *Both Cognitive assessment of external stimulus physiological feedback play a role in emotion. Emotion and the Nervous System Limbic System 1. Hypothalamus: electrical stimulation in animals produces threatening or defensive behaviors (cats hissing, bared teeth and claws); electrical stimulation in humans evokes feelings of rage, fear, and pleasure 2. Septal Nuclei: electrical stimulation in humans evokes feelings of pleasure (particularly sexual) 3. Amygdala: involved in perception of facial expressions and emotion (particularly fear); damage to amygdala removes fear and aggression in animals; direct stimulation produces fear and aggression; anti-anxiety medications have some of their effect in the amygdala a. Plays a major role in fear and anxiety b. Fear= emotional reaction to a specific immediate threat c. Anxiety= apprehension about a future, and often uncertain, event 4. Circulate Gyrus: hub where many different brain networks converge a. Anterior Cingulate Cortex: combines emotional, attentional, and bodily information to bring about conscious emotional experience. Emotion and Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) *Lot of connections with limbic system (LS) *Use of emotional information from LS for making decisions -Damage to PFC: *Blunts emotional responding *Impairs ability to anticipate consequences of behavior (long-term consequences in particular) Emotion and Hemispheric Asymmetry • Left and right cerebral hemispheres can differ in: o Anatomical structure- structural asymmetry (ex: Broca’s area larger in left hemisphere than right) o Function performed- functional asymmetry (ex: left hemisphere more involved in linguistic functions than the right hemisphere) • Right hemispheres more involved in emotional expression o Chimerical Faces: people are asked to rank § Find left chimerical faces to be more expressive; explained because the left side of the brain is more expressive than the right side of the brain. o Studies show that the right side of the mouth opens sooner, which indicates that the left side of the brain controls speech *Stress: o Condition in the environment that makes unusual demands on the organism o Internal condition: body’s response to a stressful situation *Stress as an adaptive response o Stressful situation è activation of the sympathetic branch of PNSè helps the organism cope with stress o Stressful situationèactivation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal cortex axis o Group of structures that increase activation and energy levels *HPA Axis: o Hypothalamus o Anterior Pituitary o ACTH (through blood): Adrenal Cortico Tropic Hormone § hormone that targets the adrenal cortex o Adrenal Cortex: § Epinephrine and Norepinephrine which increases heart rate and increases glucose availability § Cortisol: Converts proteins to glucose, increases fat availability, and increases metabolism (energy) *Stress as an adaptive response o Short term stress è increases immune system activity o Immune System: cells and cell products that protect the body against foreign substances (bacteria, viruses, tumor cells) *Major Types of Immune Cells Macrophages: invest invaders; display antigens, which attract T cells T Cells: multiply and attack invaders B Cells: make antibodies, which destroy intruders Natural Killer Cells: attack cells containing viruses, certain kinds of tumor cells *Negative Affects of Stress (Long-Term) o Memory impairment, appetite changes, decreased sex drive and energy, mood disruptions o Decreased B cells, T cells, and Natural Killer cells, which makes illness more susceptible o Increased blood pressureè increased risk of heart attack or stroke o Hyperactivation of sympathetic nervous systemè heart goes into fibrillationè sudden cardiac death o Decreased hippocampal volume and cortical tissue in brain (premature shrinking of neurons and cells) o Probably caused by increased levels of cortisol and can induce memory impairment *Pain and Emotion o Pain is adaptive § Congenital insensitivity to pain leads to repeated injuries and death § Most individuals don’t end up living very long because they do things to hurt themselves. o Level of pain perception influenced in some measure by context and culture § Childbirth; different cultures rate childbirth pain differently o Pain pathway heavily connected with limbic system o Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC)è emotional aspect of pain o Long-lasting pain activates the prefrontal cortex § Planning of responses to painful stimulation (ACC is part of the cingulate gyrus) Ends at Page 240 Chapter 9 Hearing and Language *Basic Concepts o Sensory System: set of components of the PNS and CNS involved in acquiring and processing of specific sensory information (e.g., auditory information) § Sensation: acquisition of sensory information § Perception: interpretation of sensory information (recognizing someone’s face; you don’t “sense” someone’s face) o Receptor: a cell that is suited by its structure and function to respond to a specific form of energy (e.g., sound) § Often is a specialized neuron § Transducer: device that converts energy from one form to another o Stimulus: specific energy form for which the receptor is specialized *Hearing o Most people would say that vision is the most dominant sense of the body. o Stimulus: vibration in a conducting medium (normally air) o Source Sound: alternating pressure changes (compression- decompression) o Pure Tones: single frequency o Frequency: number of compression and decompression waves that occur over time; one compression followed by one decompression is one cycle o Complex Sounds: combination of 2 or more frequencies o Pitch: experience of the frequency of sound o Loudness: experience of the intensity (i.e., physical energy of sound) o Greater amount of air pressure change that the sound is producing, the louder the sound is o Loudness and pitch are not independent in our ear experience because our ear has different levels of sensitivity to different frequencies. Frequency and amplitude are totally independent. o Why do our ears show this preference for higher sensitivity for higher frequency sounds? -It’s an adaptation to the social environment that we live in. Human speech is normally on the high end of frequency range, which is why our ear is more sensitive. *Ear o Subdivided into three parts 1. Outer Ear (Pinna): has bumps to detect the sound and let the brain know where the sound source is located. a. External Auditory Canal: serves as a resonator, so the sound gets amplified as it travels through the canal 2. Middle Ear a. Tympanic Membrane b. Ossicles (tiny little bone) i. Hammer, Anvil, and Stirrup ii. Joint of interconnected bones that transfer the energy to the next part of the ear, but they also amplify because they act as a set of levers iii. Energy is still vibration at this level. 3. Inner Ear: bony structure on the outside that is part of the skull a. Cochlea: basically a cylinder of bone that has been wrapped around onto itself. Inside filled with liquid with a couple of membranes running though i. Basilar Membrane: made of tissue and divides cochlea into two regions: Vestibular Canal and Tympanic Canal ii. Vibrations cause movement in the liquid and membranes in the inner ear iii. Round Window 1. Basilar Membrane of Cochlea: Has cells on top of it. Cells reached by axons. 4 rows of hair cells on top called outer hair cells, and 1 row of inner hair cells 2. Cilia: Hair part of the hair cell: fingerlike projections; 3. Outer Hair Cells: embedded into the tectorial membrane; most numerous; their activity actually seems like they just sit there and do nothing not sending signals to the brain; cells acting more as muscles not receptors; many of these cells contain a contractile protein 4. Inner Hair Cells: only one row of them; also have cilia that don’t make physical contact with the tectorial membrane; send most vibrational signals to the brain 5. Tectoral Membrane (“Roof”): have hair cells **Membranes move when sound comes through, which causes cilia to vibrate and bend, which starts the transduction of vibration into an electrical stimulation. Electrical stimulation moves to the brain 1. Cochlear Nucleus: First part of the brain to receive electrical stimulation from the cochlear; part of the medulla (hindbrain) (both sides of the brain receive information from both ears) 2. Superior Olive: they look like an olive and there are two; part of the auditory pathway; receive information from the two ears; allows location of sounds; part of the medulla (hindbrain) 3. Inferior Colliculus: part of the tectum midbrain and the auditory pathway; information goes through here before it reaches other higher areas; figuring out sound location; find the first neural networks that trigger responses to sound stimulation (like when someone says “POP” really loud and you jump) 4. Medial Geniculate Nucleus of the Thalamus: Major sensory relaying station; 5. Primary Auditory Cortex: first neurons that receive information from the ears; as soon as they become active you become consciously aware of hearing the sound (There are no pain receptors in the brain) *Auditory Cortex is topographically organized, which means that the auditory cortex looks like a map. Adjacent neurons in the cortex receive information from nearby receptors located on the basilar membrane. *Pitch Perception o Experience of the frequency of sound *Pitch Perception: basilar membrane vibrates in synchrony with a sound frequencyè auditory nerve axons fire at the same frequency o Problem: individual neurons can fire at no more than about 1000 Hz, but we can hear up to 16,000+ Hz. o Volley Theory: groups of neurons can follow the frequency of a sound where a single neuron cannot; can even explain all of our voluntary sound perception o Place Theory: sounds with different frequencies induce peaks of maximal vibration in different places on the basilar membrane (basilar membrane location matters); postulates a comparison of what frequency is coming in (high or low) and what place the basilar membrane vibrates • Apex (of basilar membrane) is wide and floppy • Base (of basilar membrane) is narrow and stiff • Low frequency: cause maximum vibrations near the apex • High frequency: cause maximum vibrations near the base • We can think of the basilar membrane as a map of frequencies; as the frequency gets lower and lower it travels towards the apex. • Tonotopic Organization of the Basilar Membrane • Problem with Place Theory: with sounds below 200 Hz the whole basilar membrane vibrates equally- i.e., no peaks of vibration o Primary Auditory Cortex: Contains a tonotopic map of the basilar membrane o There is an orderly system of the tones *Pitch Perception 1. Frequency Theory 2. Place Theory Combine to form the Frequency-Place Theory *Frequency-Place Theory • Synchrony of firing rate of auditory nerve axons with sound frequencyè pitch perception of sounds up to about 200 Hz. • Place of maximal vibration on basilar membraneè pitch perception of sounds greater than 200 Hz. • Able to hear pure tones (made of one frequency), which are not very common in nature; most of our auditory experience is not pure tones Perception of complex sounds: *Fourier (Harmonic) Analysis • Any complex sound can be broken down into pure tones also known as component frequencies • Frequency Fundamentals: • Overtones: • The basilar membrane of the cochlea acts as the Fourier/Harmonic Analysis • Major role is played by the peripheral structure *Cocktail Party Effect • Ability to filter out meaningful auditory signals from a complex background • Possible role played by outer hair cells (found on the basilar membrane) • Outer hair cells actually mute some certain areas of the basilar membrane, which is how the cocktail effect works. *Sound Localization • It is important to be able to hear sounds, but it is equally important to know where that sound is coming from. • Binaural Cues: involve use of both ears; bran locates the source of a sound based on differences between the sound at two ears; three types 1. Phase Difference: a sound arriving from one side of the body is at a different phase of the wave at each ear (works for low- frequency sounds) a. Dog Head Cocking: response to auditory stimulation; behavioral way of being better able to perceive the sound 2. Intensity Difference Cue 3. Difference in Time of Arrival Cue Chapter 10-Vision Vision • Stimulus: visible light (form of electromagnetic energy)è its just a fraction of the electromagnetic spectrum The Eye • Retina: the neural tissue and photoreceptors located on the inner surface of the posterior portion of the eye; very large and intricate neural network; scientists think of it as part of the nervous system that sort of came away to be able to capture stimulus quickly o Three layers 1. Photoreceptor Layer: cones and rods 2. Bipolar Layer: bipolar, horizontal, and amacrine cells 3. Ganglion Cell Layer: ganglion cells o Receptors: cones and rods; specialized cells that receive photons and transform that type of energy into a completely different signal o Horizontal Cells: neurons that connect the retina in the horizontal direction; on the photoreceptor side of the middle layer of the retina o Bipolar Cells: neurons that connect the retina in the vertical direction o Amacrine Cells: similar to horizontal cells; tend to connect synaptically bipolar cells and other neurons in the horizontal connection; on the ganglion side of the middle layer of the retina o Ganglion Cells: axons of these cells come out of the cell body and cluster together to form a very large cable that is visible and is called the optic nerve; quarter of an inch thick o Fovea: center of the retina; labeled at 0° o Blind Spot: area of the retina where there are no rods or cones; no stimulus can be detected if one falls in this area; all of the axons coming out of the ganglion have no choice but to leave the eye at the back; the vertebrate retina is backwards which causes the blind spot; a better idea would to have the photoreceptors facing the source of the stimulus *Long strand of protein that is joined with the vitamin derivative called retinal. ON single photon flying along can change the chemical connection between the vitamin and protein. Photons are changed into an electrochemical signal. *When sodium channels are open: the neuron is now activated and excited and membrane is depolarized causing the release of inhibitory neurotransmitter and inhibits activity of the bipolar and ganglion cells, which is why you see nothing. *When light is present, photons arrive and start knocking off retinal vitamins from the protein, which is the first step of reactions that results in the closing of the sodium channels. When the NA+ channels are closed, the neuron is inhibited and becomes hyperpolarized which releases less of the inhibitory neurotransmitter and the signal travels to the ganglion cells as the firing rate increases. • Rods: are in charge of our night vision; provide no experiences in differences in color, only in difference sin brightness; contain photo-pigment Rhodopsin, which is very sensitive to light; they work best in dim light; NOT found in the fovea • Cones; much fewer cones than rods; contain photo-pigment Iodopsin, which is much less sensitive to light and requires a lot of light; our day light vision; come in three different kinds of iodopsin allowing us to provide information on different wavelengths coming into the eye; RED (long wavelengths), BLUE (middle wavelengths), and GREEN (short wavelengths) • Cones and rods are wired differently to the retina • Receptive Field: area of the retina with a patch of receptors from which a ganglion cell receives input Outside of the fovea, the rods are everywhere. The fovea is basically the cone system. The rest of the retina is the rod center. • Cornea: membrane that is in the front of the eye; thickness and curvature is the most important lenses of the eye; accounts for the eye’s ability to go to the retina • Lens: important for our ability to maintain an object on focus; for near- vision; series of transparent, onion-layer layers; shape can be changed by contraction of the ciliary muscles *Cones are found tightly packed into the fovea. *Receptive Field: area of the retina from which a ganglion cell receives input; typically very small; affects the activity of the neuron *Ganglion cells in the fovea have much smaller receptive fields than in the rest of the eye. *Fovea has the highest visual acuity. *Highest Visual Acuity- ability to distinguish the details of a visual scene *Visual Field: part of the environment that is registered in the retina; anything that you can see and anytime • Nasal Side • Temporal Side • Stimulus from left non-overlapping part of the visual field, the image will follow on the nasal side of the left eye and the temporal side of the right eye. • Stimulus from the right non-overlapping part of the visual field, the image will follow on the nasal side of the right eye and the temporal side of the right eye. Optic Chiasm: no complete mixing of the optic fibers; about half of the axons of the optic nerve pass over each other; part of the CNS Lateral Geniculate Nuclei (LGN): part of the thalamus that relays info to V1 Primary Visual Cortex (V1): part of the occipital lobe; contains first cortical neurons that follow stimulation of the retina Retinal Cortical Pathway: responsible for our conscious experience of seeing anything; not the only visual pathway in our brain Retinal Tectal Pathway: this other pathway; past the chiasm are fibers that go into the midbrain (Tectum) instead of to the thalamus; can experience blind sight; Binocular Field *Retinal Disparity: discrepancy in the location of an object’s image on the two retinas as a function of the objects distanceè detected by the visual cortex that helps with depth perception Color Vision: colors don’t actually exist; there is nothing absolute about color perception; provides a selective advantage Theories of Color Vision • Trichromatic Theory (von Helmholtz and Young) o All colors are the result of the processing of three “pure” colors: red, green, blue, each one detected by a specific receptor o Problem: yellow also appears to observe as “pure” color o Most people come up with 4 colors that they feel are “pure” to them, but there is no cone for yellow • Opponent Process Theory (Hering) o Explains color vision in terms of opposing processes in two specific receptors o Red goes with green and blue goes with yellow o Receptor for red and green: photochemical § Showing different lights have different effects o Receptor for yellow and blue: photochemical § If you shine yellow it should break down § If you shine blue light, that will build up the photochemical o Explains complementary colors and negative color aftereffect. Chapter 10 (Continued) 4-12-16 Ganglion cells are specific: one specific for red and green and one for blue and yellow; this brings us the experience of four primary colors and the Combined Theory of Color **Red light: causes an inhibitory effect onto the R-G ganglion cell (mainly the red cones) and signals to the brain that there must be red shinning on the eye. **Green light: excites the green cone, and higher rate of firing goes to the brain and translates the color. Red Light- inhibited Green Light- activated **Blue light: activates the blue cone and causes an excitatory effect onto the Y-B Ganglion cell and sends signals to brain and gives rise to color “blue.” **Yellow light: activates some of the red and green cone together because these wavelengths are much similar than that of the blue cones. Sends impulses to the R-G ganglion cell, and the impulses are canceled out because one is excitatory and one is inhibitory. Red nor green are “seen” and ganglion still fires at resting state. This has an effect on the R-B Ganglion cell by inhibiting it, which causes yellow. Inhibit R-G Ganglion Cellè RED Excite R-G Ganglion Cellè GREEN Excite Y-B Ganglion Cellè BLUE Inhibit R-G and Excite R-G, which inhibits Y-Bè YELLOW Receptive Fields of Color-Opponent Ganglion Cells • Look like concentric circles, which allows for further and richer color perception between different wavelengths. • More efficient discrimination of number of wavelengths • Enhanced information on color contrast in objects Form Perception: Perception of Edges • Sensory system enhances perception of borders o Mach band illusion • Lateral inhibition o Ganglion cells inhibit and are inhibited by neighboring cells o Stimulating photoreceptor #12 will excite it with green rays and inhibit #11 and #13 with red bands. o At edges, ganglion cells get differential amounts of inhibition darker edge and brighter edgeè makes edge stand out perceptually o Sensory system enhances perception of edges (Mach Illusion) • “On-center” and “Off-center” Ganglion cells o Antagonistic arrangement of receptive fields o Act as edge detectors o On-Center: light produces “on” response in the center and “off” response on the outside o Off-Center: light produces “off” response in the center and “on” response on the outside • Hubel and Wiesel o Simple cells in visual cortexè respond to edges at a specific orientation and place on the retina o Complex Cellsè respond to edges moving across retina • Ganglion cells detect edges • Edges and borders are sudden changes in luminosity • Ability to detect changes in luminosity is so fundamental that the brain has given these jobs to the retina. Brain puts together raw data from retina and interprets. *Receptive Field- area of the retina from which a neuron receives input *When vertical bar of light falls on the On-Center ganglion cells, all four-ganglion cells will fire faster than resting state, and then the simple cell will also fire faster. IF one of the on-center cell isn’t in the light bar, then it doesn’t fire faster and takes away from the simple cell firing at its fastest speed. Spatial Frequency Theory • Some neurons perform Fourier Analysis of the luminosity variations of a scene • Neurons in visual cortex do not detect only edges • Visual world is combination of high and low spatial frequencies o Need neurons sensitive to both Visual Pathways • Parvocellular System o P Ganglion cells project to ventral stream (“what” system) that travels through inferior temporal lobe (from areas V1, V2, and V4 of visual cortex) o Color vision (V4) and detailed object recognition (inferior temporal lobe) • Mangnocellular System o M Ganglion cells projects to dorsal stream (“where” system) that travels to posterior parietal lobe (from areas V1, V2, and V65) o Brightness contrast, orientation, movement, depth and location of objects. • Both systems then travel to the prefrontal cortex (for planning). Disorders of Visual Perception • Object Agnosia: impairment in ability to recognize an object by sight o Prosopagnosia: inability to recognize familiar faces o Due to inferior temporal lobe damage (fusiform face aphasia specialized for face recognition) • Color Agnosia: impairment in color perception due to brain damage o V1 is for wavelength discrimination: V4 is for more complex color perception (color constancy) • Movement Agnosia: inability to perceive movement o Damage to V5 (medial temporal gyrus) • Neglect: ignores visual, touch ad auditory stimulation on opposite side of damaged posterior parietal lob (mostly right hemisphere) o Patients ignore anything that is on the left side. Chapter 11- Body Senses and Movement 3-14-16 • Proprioception: sense of the position and movement of our limbs and body o Involve sensors for tension in muscles and angles of limb joints o Helps maintin posture, mive limbs and reach/grasp objects • Skin Senses: Type of Receptors o Touch, warmth, cold and pain o Two major types of receptor: § Free nerve endings-sense of warmth, cold and pain § Encapsulated Receptors (complex structures enclosed in membranes that gives sense of touch) o Merkel’s Discs Meissner’s Corpuscle § Ability to feel and how rough a relatively smooth structure feels § Responds to movement (when you move hand a cross a surface you can feel the textural properties of it) § Located in surface areas of skin o Ruffini Ending and Pacininan Corpuscle: § Not involved in fine textural details § Mostly stretch receptors that detect skin stretching; as you grasp an object with you hand, you end up stretching the skin, which is detected by these receptors § This helps us determine the shape of the object § Located In deeper areas of skin o Free Nerve Ending § Detect warmth, cold and pain § Different protein channels for specific sensations: • 2 receptors for warmth, 1 receptor for cold • 2 receptors for painful heat o Dermatome: a segment of the body served by a specific nerve (cranial or spinal) • Vesibular Sense: maintains balance and provides information on head position and movement o Semicircular canals of inner ear repsonsive to rotational movement o Utricle and Saccule: monitor head positon in relation to gravity and detecting vertical and horizontal acceleration § When head is tilted or moved the gelatinous mass with otoliths shifts bending cilia of the receptorsè (depolarization/hyperpolarization) § Respond to acceleration • Utricleè horizontal acceleration • Sacculeè vertical acceleration § Similar in anatomy § Cylinder make of bone § Hair cells which are embedded into a medium on top of which are otoliths (tiny rocks inside the ear) Resources Garrett, Bob. Brain & Behavior: An Introduction to Biological Psychology. Vol. 3. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, 2010. Print. Cantalupo, Ph.D., Claudio. "PSYCH 3240." Psych 3240 Lecture. 120 Brackett Hall, Clemson. 22 Mar. 2016. Lecture.
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