British Literature Final Exam
British Literature Final Exam engl 2130
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Geiger on Friday April 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to engl 2130 at Clemson University taught by Christopher Benson in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see British Literature in Foreign Language at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/15/16
BRIT LIT EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Sartor Resaurtus: Who wrote it? Thomas Carlyle What is it about? Professor T has a list of complaints and his editor is reporting the Professors claims. The editor is very skeptical of the Professors claims, and at times he makes his comments humorous by mocking the Professor. How can I identify it? Words without quotations are the Professor, and words in quotation are the editor. Other info? Experimental narrative, conversational, spontaneous, two-voice narrative The Cry of the Children Who wrote it? Elizabeth Barrett Browning What is it about? Young children were forced to grow up and work dangerous and lengthy jobs in the factories. How can I identify it? “Do you hear the weeping, O my brothers, ere the sorrow comes with years?” Other info? Didactic poem, rhetorical, political My Last Duchess Who wrote it? Robert Browning What is it about? A duke is speaking about the hatred for his previous wife whom he has just killed and his desire for a new wife who is better than the last duchess. How can I identify it? “Too easily impressed; she liked whate’er she looked on, and her looks went everywhere” Other info? Dramatic monologue, speaks in euphemism Porphyria’s Lover Who wrote it? Robert Browning What is it about? The speaker kills his love Porphyria by strangling her with her hair How can I identify it? “and all her hair in one long yellow string I wound three times her little throat around, and strangled her.” Other info? Rhyme scheme: ABABB, CDCDD, EFEFF, dramatic monologue, iambic tetrameter Ulysses Who wrote it? Alfred, Lord Tennyson What is it about? Ulysses craves adventure and brags about his achievements. He doesn’t want to do official work and lead a boring life. How can I identify it? “I cannot rest from travel; I will drink life to the lees.” Other info? Dramatic monologue, epic hero, blank verse using iambic pentameter Charge of the Light Brigade Who wrote it? Alfred, Lord Tennyson What is it about? Noble soldiers/men going into battle How can I identify it? Look for the rhyming pattern, “half a league, half a league, half a league onward”, “cannon to the right of them, cannon to the left of them, cannon in front of them.” Other info? Dactyl: stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables Crossing the Bar Who wrote it? Alfred, Lord Tennyson What is it about? Someone is getting ready to die; crossing from life to death How can I identify it? “Twilight and evening bell, and after that the dark! And may there be no sadness of farewell, when I embark.” “I hope to see my Pilot face to face when I have crossed the bar” Other info? Metaphor for someone going out to sea but it is talking about him dying. Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister Who wrote it? Robert Browning What is it about? Someone has strong hatred for Brother Lawrence and mocks him constantly, and is always trying to find fault in him. How can I identify it? “G-r-r-r—there go, my heart’s abhorrence! Water your damned flowerpots, do! If hate killed men, Brother Lawrence, God’s blood, would mine not kill you!” Other info? Dramatic monologue, soliloquy The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Who wrote it? Robert Louis Stevenson What is it about? Dr. Jekyll turns into Mr. Hyde in order to fulfill his deviant behaviors How can I identify it? Look for a story-like passage about two different characters/characteristics where one is evil and does evil things Other info? Mystery, third person limited, comment on Victorian society In an Artist’s Studio Who wrote it? Christina Rossetti What is it about? A woman has been waiting on this artist for a long time. This man is painting a picture of a woman and she does not think the painting does the woman justice. How can I identify it? “one face looks out from all his canvases, one selfsame figure sits or walks or leans…” Dead Before Death Who wrote it? Christina Rossetti What is it about? The speaker hasn’t lived his life fully and now that he is in old age he is realizing that there is not enough time for him to do everything he wanted to do. How can I identify it? “…But it is over as a tale once told. All fallen the blossom that no fruitage bore, all lost the present and the future time, all lost, all lost…” After Death Who wrote it? Christina Rossetti What is it about? The speaker is dead and is angry at someone in her life. Possibly a poem about revenge How can I identify it? “He leaned above me, thinking that I slept and could not hear him, but I heard him say: “poor child, poor child”: and as he turned away…” Other info? Use of euphemisms possibly to hide emotions Cobwebs Who wrote it? Christina Rossetti What is it about? Death. Depression and the idea of limbo/heaven How can I identify it? It is a land with neither night nor day, nor heat nor cold, nor any wind, nor rain, nor hills nor valleys; but one even plain…” Other info? Never really has a big turn Heart of Darkness Who wrote it? Joseph Conrad What is it about? The journey of Marlow and Kurtz down the Congo How can I identify it? Look for a story-like passage about an adventure or a steamer Second Coming Who wrote it? William Butler Yeats What is it about? How can I identify it? “Surely some revelation is at hand; surely the Second Coming is at hand. The Second Coming!” Other info? Ends with a rhetorical question Leda and the Swan Who wrote it? William Butler Yeats What is it about? Zeus has taken the form of a swan and impregnates Leda by raping her How can I identify it? “How can those terrified vague fingers push the feathered glory from her loosening thighs?” Other info? Modified Petrarchan sonnet, Francesco Petrarch: two quatrains followed by a split sestet VICTORIAN ERA: “Victorians” are now viewed with negative connotation and the term is interchanged with prudish and hypocritical Victorian Values: Moral responsibility, world leadership, national chauvinism, domestic propriety Victorian Themes: Religious uncertainty and anxiety due to changes in science Early Victorian: Foundation for change Parliamentary Reform: enfranchised middle and lower middle class Mobilization of workers, reformed labor conditions First railroads: communication across classes Mid Victorian: Age of prosperity Massive industrialization Movement of people from rural to urban (sharecrop to factories) Massive emigration out of England and into colonies Scientific advances challenged religious beliefs Thomas Carlyle “The great teacher of the age” Man of letters, novelist, historian, biographer, social critic, pamphleteer Mother: illiterate, Father: stonemason and a farmer, Calvinist family Parents wanted him to be a clergyman but he abandoned Christianity o Became a skeptic toward religion and religious thinking o Carlyle was always searching for something, wanting something, unsatisfied with explanations Sartor Resartus o Experimental Narrative o Conversational, idiosyncratic, spontaneous, wide-ranging in tone and perspective o Two-voiced Narrative: Professor and the anonymous editor Without the editor, this story would be just a rant by the Professor o Thematic Duality: Nay-Yay, Material-Spiritual, Clothing-Body, Religious Institutions-Spirit, Tearing Down (religious institutions)-Building Up (himself), Acceptance- Revolution, Darkness-Light o Professor experiences a huge epiphany/revolution, and then he falls asleep Elizabeth Barrett Browning Born to affluence Grew up in England in a semi rural mansion and estate called Hope End Spoke to Victorian social injustices (ex: problems, slave trade in America, child labor, oppression of women) Self-taught, tutored in classics in Greek, French and Latin o Women could not attend Universities at this time Riding accident, brain aneurism left her physically impaired, lived as invalid, then had a baby in her 40s NOT an overnight success- it took E.B.B many years for her fame to catch on Considered for poet Laureate Aurora Leigh: o Feminist verse narrative, blank verse o Independent woman’s path to education, fame as a writer, expatriation in Italy, love Sonnets from the Portuguese: o First sustained series of English love poems by a woman o Was her most enduring work o Subject: how a woman’s life is transfigured by love o In guise of a translation to avoid autobiographical interpretation She didn’t want people to think she was writing from her own point of view The Cry of the Children: o Children in factories are the voices in quotations o The other speaker is an anonymous adult o Addresses the poem to “my brothers” o Didactic poem: “to lecture” Giving you information o Rhetorical and political Compares young animals that are free in nature to the young children stuck in factories as a way to state how unnatural it is for children to be working so hard o Sense of hopelessness amongst the children Marriage to Robert Browning th o RB became very successful in 20 Century o RB was unsuccessful as a writer/playwright o RB was 6 years younger than EBB o They moved to Florence for the health of EBB Alfred, Lord Tennyson English Victorian poet Poet Laureate Dysfunctional family: o Father: reverend and a raging alcoholic, 12 children in 14 years, tutored his sons in classical and modern languages o Brother 1: insane asylum, Brother 2: addicted to opium, Brother 3: mental home due to alcoholism o Epilepsy existed all throughout the family Alfred thought he had it and blamed the trances he occasionally experienced on epilepsy Volume of poems crushed by the same review that crushed Keats’ Refused to publish anything for 10 years o Spent this decade leading a nomadic life in Europe Two volumes of poems in 1842 secured his reputation Ulysses: o Dramatic monologue: speech by a character at an important moment, doesn’t have to be addressing anyone o Blank verse, iambic pentameter o Theme: “Seize the day!” o Ulysses is addressing his men, he is disappointed and doesn’t want to live a boring life, brags about his achievements and travels, expresses disappointment in his son for only doing normal and common duties, yearns to go on a new adventure Robert Browning Father: bank clerk, very intelligent, had an extensive library Mother: kind, religious, loved RB very much Playwright for 10 years and all of his plays were failures Born in London suburb Dramatic Monologue The Last Duchess: o Dramatic monologue o The speaker is not actually RB o The Duke has killed his wife in this poem, accepts a generous dowry for his new marriage and is hoping his new duchess will not be like the last o The Duchess has a natural appeal or friendliness o Victorian issue of male/female relationships and gender roles Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister: o Dramatic monologue: inner thoughts, speaker/narrator, very subjective (only aware of the speaker’s P.O.V.), dramatic, monologue o This soliloquy is a complete rant o Speaker is speaking to himself (implied audience) o Mocking Brother Lawrence, Narrator is obsessed and jealous of BL, Narrator is self-righteous, prideful, obsessive, jealous, and bitter Porphyria’s Lover: o Dramatic monologue with rhyming scheme, formal diction, iambic tetrameter o Monologue is a collection of the narrator’s thoughts, he is not speaking to anyone. o Porphyria comes in from a storm and is wet, starts a fire, the man kills Porphyria by strangling her with her hair, he hangs out with her dead body for the rest of the evening Robert Louis Stevenson Scottish author Poor health as a child “Bohemian”: out of the ordinary, someone who marches to their own beat of the drum, against the proper bourgeois Law degree but failed to practice Supported by a small family allowance yet traveled extensively Fell in love with Fanny Osbourne who had a 12 year old son, she was 11 years older than him, her son inspired Treasure Island with his drawings The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde o Mystery, 3 person limited narration, inspired by a nightmare, wife persuaded him to revise the story as an Allegory o Long complex sentences, tough to read, ornate, very Victorian o Characters: Hyde, Enfield, Jekyll, Utterson, Lanyon o Jekyll is a good guy but feels a strong desire for venereal sins (gambling, women, sleeping) so he sometimes changes into Hyde who can kill and steal and has no conscious. o Utterson: proper, extremely Victorian in the way that he keeps everything private and does not want to create trouble or drama o Lanyon: so proper that finding out about Hyde/Jekyll makes him sick and actually kills him, used to be good friends with Jekyll o Enfield: a gossip, likes to explore and is curious o Freud’s Tripartite Theory of Personality: ID: what is inside you that you are born with Ego: non-moral, grows and changes ID, enables the person to get what it wants through reason Superego: moral, conscious, what society imposes (manners, rules) Christina Rossetti Father: Italian expat, health collapsed causing Christina to become a companion to her ailing father Mother: former governess, educated all 4 children at home Siblings: well educated, very smart, some became poets and artists Christina’s health collapsed: unsure of diagnosis Poetry is devotional, considered a lyric master, content is often morbid, feminist interest, more personal than ideology After Death: o Speaker is dead o Poem is like a fantasy o Adolescent girls like to get revenge on guys who dismiss them Dead Before Death: o Someone who didn’t live life fully and realize in old age that they do not have enough time to complete everything they wanted to do Cobwebs: o Many negative words: no and nor o Describes depression and the Catholic idea of limbo In an Artists Studio: o Narrator is observing a painting of a woman o Her picture has changed since she has been painted o Speaker has been waiting for this artist/man for a while o Does not feel like the artist is correctly portraying the girl TH 20 CENTURY: Rapid Growth in agriculture, industrialism and populations Bloodiest century (World Wars, genocides, revolution, famines) Quantum physics challenged Newtonian and physical ideas of nature Continued the advancement of women into politics, art and science Karl Marx: German philosopher, historian, journalist, founding father of communist idealism. “History is the ongoing conflict between social classes for economic control” Frederick Nietzche: German philosopher, philologist, questioned moralism and objectivity, questioned rationalism, criticized practice and belief in Christian Judaic doctrines, asserted atheism and nihilism (belief that nothing can be determined to be of value) Sigmund Freud: Australian physician, founder of psychoanalysis, power of the unconscious, effect of repressed ideas on the unconscious, theory of psycho-sexual development (nothing is ever NOT about sex) Sir James Frazer: Scottish, published an anthropological work of comparative religion, defined myths, religious beliefs, and primitive control Themes of Modernism in Literature: Fragmentation of social institutions Breaking with traditional institutions (political, religious, social) Randomness of experience Uncertainty, loss of social stability Alienation and isolation Age of anxiety Valuing self’s perceptions over society’s rules Experimental Techniques of Modernism: Psychological themes, focus on interiority Stream of consciousness Individual and inner being over social being Subjectivity Untrustworthy or unreliable narrators/multiple narrators Feminist perspectives challenged anthropocentric perspectives Use of taboo subjects, especially sexual content Surrealism Joseph Conrad: Born in Polish Ukraine, learned English in his 20s Served as captain of a steamer on the Congo for a Belgian trading company Reoccurring themes: o Nautical settings, good versus evil, man versus nature, isolation, colonialism Heart of Darkness: o PART 1: Very dark and mysterious Marlow compared to Buddha as being very wise Marlow finds women knitting black wool when he gets to Brussels Doctor wants to measure his head before they leave o PART 2: Manager and uncle are having a conversation about Kurtz and Marlow secretly overhears Marlow is a racist o PART 3: Elements of Epic Hero’s Quest: A challenge Crossing the threshold Many trials Aided by supernatural, mystical beings Introduction into strange, supernatural world Descent into hell Resurrection and transformation Return to home Restitution The Russian: speaks with over-the-top gratification about Kurtz which preserves Kurtz’ mysteriousness Heads of the rebels against Kurtz on the stakes facing his house Ceremonial crawling before Kurtz African Queen: foil to all women POST COLONIAL: The world as it exists during and after the period of European imperial domination PCL (Post Colonial Literature) suggests that former colonies share certain qualities and experiences that can be captured in a body of literature (ex: colonization and de-colonization, political effects of colonialism and decolonized countries, social and cultural affects on native cultures) Themes and Questions: Changing social and cultural identity: o What is the new cultural identity of the colonized nation, the people, the individual? Adaption to change: o How does a society or individual adapt to difficult changes enforced by colonizers Imperial power and exploitation: o What moral questions do colonization and de-colonization raise? o How do historical forces justify colonization? Language issues: o What language is the primary language of the colonized culture? o In which language should its writers produce their literature Imperial Language William Butler Yeats: Irish poet and playwright Father: lawyer, then became a painter As a playwright: o Important early in his career o Member of the Irish Revival of playwrights o Founded the Irish National Theater (Abbey Theater) in Dublin As a poet: o Won the 1923 Nobel Prize o Automatic writing: free write o Gyre: a great wheel or a widening spiral cone shape Political Leanings: o Strong advocate for an independent Ireland o Appointed Senator of Free State of Ireland in the 1920s after Ireland won independence from England Second Coming: o Vocabulary: Falconer: someone who trains a falcon, usually practiced by the rich because they have the leisure time to do something like that Convictions: strong beliefs, good thoughts, that you cannot rid of Ceremony of innocence: baptism Spiritus Mundi: collective unconscious or memory that humans preserve in our unconscious Sphinx: lion head, human body (Greek mythology) o “Things fall apart” is an illusion to the native societies falling apart when the British is invading them to take over o “Blood dimmed tide is loosed”: tides are something that you cannot control, it is coming no matter what; an illusion of battle, men dying, their blood is spreading throughout the water o “Revelation” revealing to Revelations (book in the Bible) o “The Second Coming” illusion to Jesus coming again o Ends with a rhetorical question
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