Industrial Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide
Industrial Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide Psyc 3640
Popular in Industrial Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Friday April 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 3640 at Clemson University taught by Eric S McKibben in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
Reviews for Industrial Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/15/16
Exam 3 Study Guide People Skinner o Reinforcement theory*** o Applied principles of the reinforcement theory to the educational and learning process o Proposed that learning results from the association between behaviors and rewards Kirkpatrick o Created a four level model with which to categorize training criteria Level 1—reaction criteria Measures of trainee impressions of the training program Affective reactions & utility judgments Level 2—learning criteria Measures that assess how much was learned in the training program Immediate knowledge, knowledge retention, & behavior/skill demonstration Level 3—behavioral criteria Measures of how well the behaviors learned in training transfer to the job Transfer Level 4—results criteria Measures of how well training can be related to organizational outcomes such as productivity gains, cost savings, error reductions, or increased customer satisfaction Results o Internal criteria (reaction & learning) Measures that assess trainee reactions to and learning in the training program; generally assessed before trainees leave the training program o External criteria (behavioral & results) Measures that assess whether changes as a result of training occur when trainees are back on the job Theories Reinforcement Theory o Works by increasing or decreasing the likelihood of a behavior happening again Reward increase Punishment decrease o Reinforcement: increases likelihood of a behavior o Punishment: decreases likelihood of a behavior o Learning results from association between behaviors & rewards Positive reinforcement: Add desirable stimulus; increase behavior Negative reinforcement: Remove undesirable stimulus; decrease behavior Positive punishment: Add undesirable stimulus; decrease behavior Negative punishment: Remove desirable stimulus; decrease behavior Social Learning Theory o proposes that there are many ways to learn including: Behavioral modeling (i.e. policeman taking gun out of holster) 1. Observe actual job incumbents demonstrate positive modeling behaviors 2. Rehearse before using role-playing 3. Receive feedback on rehearsal 4. Try behavior on the job o Book definition: cognitive theory that proposes that there are many ways to learn, including observational learning, which occurs when people watch someone perform a task and then rehearse those activities mentally until they have an opportunity for evaluation of individual performance Concepts Types of validity o Validity: Accurateness of inferences made based on test or performance data o Validity designs Criterion-related: does my test predict actual behavior or performance? (i.e. does baseball knowledge predict baseball performance?) correlation between what we can observe and what we can observe related to performance predictive Content-related: am I capturing all of the measured construct (the entire domain)? Construct-related: Do these constructs relate to each other in the theorized way? Construct: concept that exists within our minds that we can’t necessarily see; an entire performance (i.e. music performance = pitch + tone + tempo); i.e. openness to experience, intelligence, knowledge, etc. Selection ratio (what is it how to calculate it) o Index ranging from 0 to 1 that reflects the ratio of available jobs to applicants o To increase validity, we want to lower SR o SR = n/N n = number of available jobs N = number of applicants assessed Errors in selection decisions o False positive Applicant accepted but performed poorly o False negative Applicant rejected but would have performed well o True positive Applicant accepted & performed well o True negative Applicant rejected & would have performed poorly Cut-scores (types and how they are determined) o Specified point in distribution of scores below which candidates are rejected (vertical line in chart) o Raising cut score will result in fewer false positives but more false negatives o Strategy for determining cut score depends on situation (SR plays a role in where to place the cut score) o Where to place cut score also depends on level of performance & knowledge o Types: Criterion-referenced cut score Consider desired level of performance & find test score corresponding to that level Cut score established on intersection of performance level and average line of distribution Norm-referenced cut score Based on some index of test-takers’ scores rather than any notion of job performance i.e. need at least an 85 in industrial psychology to join McKibben’s CI team Utility o Assesses economic return on investment of HR interventions like staffing or training o Utility analysis can address the cost/benefit ratio of one staffing strategy versus another o Includes consideration of the Base Rate, which is the percentage of the current workforce performing successfully If performance is already high, then new staffing system will likely add little to productivity o Utility analysis calculations can be very complex o Positive relationship between performance and money BUT not perfect Statistical vs. clinical decision making o Clinical decision making Uses judgment to combine information & make decision about relative value of different candidates each person making decision uses own judgment can be almost impossible for humans to use a clinical decision making process when using a comprehensive approach o Statistical decision making Combines information according to a mathematical formula Regression equation Fewer errors in this approach Sub-group norming o Develop separate lists for individuals in different demographic groups who are then ranked within their respective group o In general, subgroup norming is not allowed as a staffing strategy Hurdle vs. compensatory decision making o Hurdle system of combining scores Non-compensatory strategy: individual has no opportunity to compensate at later stage for low score in earlier stage Allows us to eliminate individuals easily i.e. if you don’t have at least 3 years of experience, you will be cut immediately Establishes series of cut scores Constructed from multiple hurdles so candidates who don’t exceed each of the minimum dimension scores are excluded from further consideration Often set up sequentially More expensive hurdles placed later Used to narrow a large applicant pool o Compensatory approach Multiple regression analysis Results in equation for combining test scores into a composite based on correlations of each test score with performance score Cross-validation Regression equation developed on first sample is tested on second sample to determine if it still fits well Score banding o Individuals with similar test scores can be grouped together in a category or score band o Selection within band can be made based on other considerations o Score Banding is controversial o Score Banding uses the Standard error of measurement (SEM) for the test SEM provides a measure of the amount of error in a test score distribution Function of reliability of test & variability of test scores o Fixed band system Candidates in lower bands not considered until higher bands have been exhausted o Sliding band system Permits band to be moved down a score point when highest score in a band is exhausted Disparate treatment o Type of discrimination in which the plaintiff attempts to show that the employer actually treated the plaintiff differently from majority applicants or employees; intentional discrimination Disparate (adverse) impact o Type of discrimination that acknowledges the employer may not have intended to discriminate against a plaintiff, but an employer practice did have an adverse impact on the group to which the plaintiff belongs Learning outcomes (types and examples) o Cognitive outcomes Additional knowledge o Skill-based outcomes Procedural knowledge increases this o Affective outcomes Affect—feeling When learning has occurred, we may feel more confident, competent, motivated, etc. Confidence motivation Training needs analysis (levels and procedures) o 3-step process Organizational analysis Where training is needed; who needs to learn what needs to be done Task analysis Person analysis o Required to develop systematic understanding of where training is needed (organizational), what needs to be trained (task), & who will be trained (person) Trainee readiness o Some are ready for additional training while others aren’t o i.e. those who take a year off before attending college Goal orientation o disposition toward developing or demonstrating ability in achievement situations o a motivation variable useful for recruitment, climate and culture, performance appraisal, and selection Operant conditioning (reinforcement theory) o Works by increasing or decreasing the likelihood of a behavior happening again Reward increase Punishment decrease o Reinforcement: increases likelihood of a behavior o Punishment: decreases likelihood of a behavior o Learning results from association between behaviors & rewards Positive reinforcement: increase particular behavior by adding something desirable after behavior occurs (i.e. do well at job get a raise) Add desirable stimulus; increase behavior Negative reinforcement: removing an undesirable stimulus as the result of a behavior (i.e. taking a pill to help a headache headache goes away) Remove undesirable stimulus; decrease behavior Positive punishment: adding an undesirable stimulus in order to decrease a behavior (i.e. spanking a child in order to decrease a particular behavior) Add undesirable stimulus; decrease behavior Negative punishment: removing a desirable stimulus in order to decrease a punishment (i.e. putting a child in time out in order to decrease a particular behavior) Remove desirable stimulus; decrease behavior o Behavior modification Simple recognition & feedback can be effective in increasing performance Recognizing that stimuli are important in the outcomes of a behavior; therefore, we can modify people’s behaviors by changing stimulus Self-efficacy o Belief in one’s capability to perform o Perceived capability of performance o i.e. we have a self-efficacy for shooting a basketball or lifting weights o tend to perform better when you have a higher self-efficacy (self- confidence) o believing that you can do something can significantly impact your performance Active practice o Actively participating in training/work tasks o Book definition: involves actively participating in training or work task rather than passively observing someone else performing the task Whole vs. part learning o Whole learning When entire task is practiced at once More effective when complex task has relatively high organization o Part learning When subtasks are practiced separately & later combined More effective when complex task has low organization e.g., surgeons & pilots Massed vs. distributed practice o Massed practice Individuals practice task continuously & without rest (e.g., cramming for test) o Distributed practice Rest intervals between practice sessions Generally results in more efficient learning & retention than massed practice Apprenticeship training o On-site training method o Formal program used to teach a skilled trade Horizontal vs. vertical transfer o Horizontal—transfer across different settings or contexts at the same level of the organization o Vertical—transfer across different levels of the organization; concerned with the link between individual training outcomes and outcomes ta higher levels of the organization such as teams Quid pro quo o type of sexual harassment that involves direct requests for sexual favors, for example, when sexual compliance is mandatory for promotions or retaining one’s job Coaching o Practical, goal-focused form of personal, one-on-one learning for busy professionals o Practical, flexible, targeted form of individualized learning for managers/executives
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'