Soc 110; Ryan Alvarez Midterm Study Guide
Soc 110; Ryan Alvarez Midterm Study Guide soc 110
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Charissa Loo on Friday April 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to soc 110 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Ryan Alaniz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Sociology Midterm Exam review ● Functionalist theory: ○ A theory perspective based on the notion that social events can be best explained in terms of the functions they perform that is the contributions they make to the continuity of a society. ○ originally pioneered by Comte as well as Durkheim ○ key features of functionalist view ■ functionalist use the organic analogy to describe the nature of society ■ slow evolutionary change ■ social ills such as crime can infect parts of the organism ■ society function by value consensus: Agreement for benefit of whole ○ Core concepts ■ things only exist because society needs them ■ society is stable and orderly ■ majority of member share a set of values/beliefs ■ functions and dysfunctions ■ institutions develop to help society survive ● education, government, religion, family ○ Critiques of functionalism ■ It is conservative; no change, non normative ■ Parts may not be immediately identifiable/useful ■ diff to explain social disability and disorder ■ order not change (opposed to marxism) ● Conflict Theory (marxism) ○ The ruling class (bourgeois) own the means of production and the working class (proletariat) work for the owners without owning or controlling the means of production ○ Change occurs because of conflict ■ real change necessitates a revolution ○ Groups in society are engaged in continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources ○ Every culture holds within it the mean of its own destruction ○ The ideological and repressive state apparatus are used to control people ○ Conflicts of Marxism ■ Overemphasis tensions and divisions ■ underemphasis stability and order ■ implies that the dominant groups freely impose will ■ over simplifies relationships ■ ignores benefits of social change (industrialization) ○ Emphasis on ■ conflict ■ class divisions ■ power ■ ideology; used to justify actions of the powerful ● Symbolic Interactionist Theory ○ A theoretical approach in sociology developedGeorge Herbert Mead that emphasizes the role of symbols and language as core elements of all human interaction ○ Social interaction theories see people as making their own choices ○ Soc constructed by people’s meanings and interpretation ○ People or groups divided on norm values and interpretations of events and this becomes society ○ Labelling is important to the interactionist approaches ○ Symbolic interactionist perspectives: ■ Society is the sum of interactions of ind and group ■ Society’s things to fulfill cultural and historical meaning ■ explores people's day to day interactions and their behavior in a group ■ explores the part thsymbols play in giving meaning to human condition ● tree/ I self consciousness ● go on a first date ○ Critiques of symbolic interactionist theory ■ by immersing themselves in the social world researchers skew data ■ cannot account for social structure and processes that are bigger than ind interacting in them ● Social Stratification ○ inequalities among individuals and groups that are determined not so much by individual personality or small scale social situations but, more broadly, by attributes such as gender, age, religious affiliation, and military rank. ○ structuring of inequalities between groups in society, in terms of their access to material or symbolic rewards. While all societies involve some forms of stratification, only w the development of statebased systems did wide differences in wealth and power arise. Class division is most distinctive form of social stratification ○ wealth, social class, satisfaction in US (lifestyles, cultural capital, medical care, social networks for job opportunities, education, quality of life), poverty, ● Socialization ○ The social processes through which children develop an awareness of social norms and values and achieve a distinct sense of self. Although socialization processes are particularly significant in infancy and childhood they continue to some degree throughout life. No individuals are immune from the reactions of others around them, which influence and modify their behavior at all phases of their life course. ○ Agents of socialization ■ Family ● most important ● social position in indiv ● impact good/bad self image ● race, ethnicity religion and class ■ Peer groups ● similar age ● how to form social relationships ● taboo topics like sex ● “anticipatory socialization” → acting/talking like them ■ School ● teach cultural values ● teach status hierarchies ● gender roles ■ work ● often defines life (schedule, time, finance) ● defines selfconcept ● learn skills and perspectives of the world ● anticipatory socialization ■ media ● impersonal communications directed to a vast audience ● leads to homogenization ● tend to perpetuate stereotypes ● Social Construct ○ An idea or practice that a group of people agree exist. It is maintained over time by people taking its existence for granted. Everything we think is natural is MAN MADE ● Suicide (types) ○ Altruistic: ■ police officers ■ heroism ○ Egoistic ■ life is meaningless, depressed, estranged ■ famous indiv I am diff, no one understands me ■ low integration into society ■ “doesn't matter if I die” ○ Anomic ■ Recently unemployed, millionaire, stars ■ inability to deal with massive change ■ normlessness ○ Fatalistic ■ Slaves, prisoners, overworked employees ■ oppressive situation: can't change, no hope individualism ● Anomie ○ Emile Durkheim ○ a feeling of aimlessness or despair provoked by modern social life ○ “state in which the ties attaching the indiv to the group are disrupted due to dramatic changes in economic circumstances ○ an anomic person may be prone to society ● Research Methods ○ Ethnography ■ First hand study of people ■ possible facets ● participant observation ○ social phenomena are studied in their natural setting by a “participant observer”, as they happen, and are left relatively undisturbed ○ typically involves the in depth observation of one of few social “groups” or “settings” by researchers ● interviews ● fieldwork ● extended stays ■ strengths of ethnography ● Usually generates richer and indepth info ● provide broader understanding of social processes ■ limitations ● can be used to study only relatively small groups or communities ● mihg tony apply to groups or communities studied, not easy to generalize on the basis of single field work study ○ Surveys ■ questions are administered to population studied ■ breadth, not depth ■ pop for statistical analysis ■ Generalized info across larger groups up to nation states ■ Strengths ● large numbers ● precise comparisons to be made among the answer of respondents ■ limitations ● material gathered may be superficial; if question is highly standardized, important differences among respondents viewpoints may be glossed over ● Responses may be what people profess to believe rather than what they actually believe ○ Experiments ■ people are randomly assigned to two groups ● experimental group receives special attention ● control group does not receive this attention ■ strengths ● influence specific variables can be controlled by investigator ● are usually easier for subsequent researchers to repeat ■ limitations ● many aspects of social life cannot be brought into the lab ● responses to those studied may be affected by the experimental situation ○ Interviewing ■ Hawthorne effect: people answer differently when they know they are being studied; change behavior ■ “a social interaction that results in a transfer of info from the interviewer or researcher” ■ deep insight ■ one of the most popular ■ depth not breadth ● Socioeconomic class ○ socioeconomic variation among a population that provides differential life changes ■ economic income based ■ social the social aspects concomitant with income levels ■ life changes ability to obtain economic goals ○ a contentious issue in theory and practice ● Social classes ○ low, lower middle, upper middle, high income (GNI per capita) ● Intersectionality ○ the study of intersections between forms or systems of oppression, domination or discrimination. ● Achieved or. Ascribed Status ○ Coined by Ralph Linton: Achieved status is based on merit (EARNED position) ■ Reflects personal skills, talents, abilities, and efforts ○ Ascribed status, on the other hand, is the opposite, as it is an assigned social status from birth (involuntary) ■ Inherited/assigned (i.e. religion) ■ determined by the dominant groups (minorities have a disadvantage) ● Prestige, Property, Power ○ property ■ income/wealth, distribution of resources ■ consisting of rights and duties of one person or group against another persons and groups with respect to some scarce good ■ backed by state and enforced by legal institution ■ high correlation with prestige and power ○ Power ■ influence, ability to control others, events, or resources (weber), ■ class conflict (marx) ■ ○ Prestige (status) ■ value society places on you based on various indications ● Poverty and Race and Gender ○ Poverty must higher among most minority groups, even though more than 2/3rds of the poor are white ○ latinos and black s earn ⅔ of what whites earn in US, but 3x the poverty rate ■ because they work at the lowest paying jobs and because of racial discrimination ○ Asian americans highest but poverty rate is slightly more than that of whites, reflecting recent influx of relatively poor asian immigrant groups ○ hispanics have somewhat higher incomes than blacks, although their poverty rate is comparable. ○ feminization of pove more poor women. ■ hispanic women ■ African american ■ single mother accept welfare or illegal part time jobs ● Life Chances ○ lifestyles ■ nutritious food ■ safe environment ■ socialization ○ cultural capital ■ slang ■ music ■ clothing tattoos ○ access to medical care ○ social networks for jobs ○ education ○ quality of life: poor die younger ● Income and Wealth ○ income ■ annualized compensation for work/investments ■ most of the upper income group has inherited the wealth ○ wealth ■ “what you own” minus debt ■ house worth(minus mortgage), a car (minus loan), appliances and furniture and any savings (minus credit card balances) ■ may include investment ■ ⅔ of money comes from just sitting there ■ 9/20 inherited their wealth ● 1% of US has 40% of wealth ● Measures of wealth and poverty ○ ⅔ of money comes from just sitting there ○ 9/20 inherited their wealth ■ 1% of US has 40% of wealth ■ top 1% 43% networth ■ Net Worth chart! ○ poverty ■ family of 4; 24,250 ■ children in poverty! ■ min wage ■ absolute poverty ■ relative poverty ■ welfare ● medicaid ● food stamps ● California work opportunity and responsibility to kids ■ subsidized housing and child care ● Statistics about wealth, poverty, and consumption ○ weath ■ ½ the world’s wealth is owned by 1% ■ wealth of the 1% amounts to $110 trill, 65x the total wealth of the bottom ½ of the world’s population ■ Supernumerary: live off backs of poor and it's okay CONSUME ○ poverty ■ more than ½ of population lives on $2.50 a day ■ education ● 72 mill children in the developing word don't go to school in 2005; 57% girls ■ health ● every year there are 350500 mill cases of malaria ■ activity ● ⅘ lives on less than $10 ● 1B can't read or write (1/7 ● 1.1B don't have water ● ○ consumption ■ top 10% consumes 60% of what is produced ● aimed towards that 10% ■ need 6 ½ planets of resources to produce for everyone ■ U.s water footprint 30% of meat consumption ■ most processed foods ■ richest 20% of countries use 17x more resources than the bottom 20% ■ average american born in 2000 will use 400x more resource than average rwandan in her life ● Slavery, Caste, and Class Systems ○ slavery ■ an extreme form of inequality in which some indiv are literally owned by others as property ■ illegal, almost completely disappeared ○ Caste ■ associated with the cultures of indian subcontinent and the hindu belief in rebirth ■ believed that individuals who fail to abide by the rituals and duties of their caste will be reborn in an inferior position in their next life. ■ structure the type of contact that can occur bw member of different ranks ■ social system in which one’s social status is held for life ○ Class systems ■ a class is a largescale grouping of people who share common economic resources that strongly influence the type of lifestyle they are able to lead. ■ differ from slavery and caste in 4 main ways ● 1. class systems are fluid and movement is possible ● 2. positions are partly achieved ● 3. classes are economically based ● 4. class systems are largescale and impersonal ■ 4 chief bases of class are ● ownership of wealth ● occupation ● income ● education ● Wealth and Income changes over time ○ don’t exist ● U.S. beliefs about wealth distributions ○ most americans think of poor as people who are unemployed or on welfare ○ americans regard poor as responsible for their plight and are antagonistic to those who live on “government handouts” ● Welfare State ○ welfare is the state/condition of doing well or being well ○ closely connected to policy ○ welfare state: a system whereby the government undertakes to protect the health and wellbeing of its citizens, especially those in financial or social need, by means of grants, pensions, and other benefits. The foundations for the modern welfare state in the US were laid by the New Deal programs of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. ● Welfare and myths about it ○ Aspects of welfare ■ medicaid/medicare (health insurance) ■ food stamps (CAL fresh; SNAP) ■ california work opportunity and responsibility to kids ■ average $469 a month in 2014 ■ subsidized housing ● based on a sliding scale; a scale of fees, taxes, wages, etc., that varies in accordance with variation of some standard. ■ Subsidized child care ● based on sliding scale ○ who receives welfare? ■ 59% of americans in poverty ■ 65% used government assistance ■ 40% will have used welfare program ■ approx 90% of americans using welfare are single mothers ○ 4 quick myths ■ poor people are NOT trapped in poverty ■ welfare does NOT encourage women to divorce and have children ■ welfare is NOT a strain on the fed budget; only 6% ■ NO welfare queen ● Important differences class make ○ upper class ■ top group giv generously to worthy causes such as fine arts, hospitals and charities ■ contribute large sums of money to favorite politicians and are likely to be first name basis w people of congress ○ middle class ■ ● Types/Forms of Social Mobility ○ social mobilitthe movement of individuals and groups between different class positions as a result of changes in occupation, wealth or income. Mobility can occur in two forms ■ Intergenerational mobil: the social movement across generations; where children are on a scale compared with their parents or grandparents ■ Intragenerational mobil:contrast, refers to how far an indiv moves up or down the socioeconomic scale during his working life ● between structural mobility and exchange mobility ● if everyone had = opportunity a loexchange mobility: a great deal of upward as well as downward mobility, an exchange of positions, such that more talented people in each generation move up the economic hierarchy, while the less talented move down ● not =! most mobility, whether intergenerational or istructural mobilit upward mobility made possible by an expansion of betterpaid occupations at the expense of poorly paid ones. ● Poverty, Wealth and Income in The U.S. ○ poor in us ■ not proper diet ■ neighborhoods with high crime ■ dangerous environmental conditions ■ health conditions>access to medical care ■ homeless ■ cultural capital ● slang and expected base knowledge lower, music, clothing tattoos ■ social networks for job opportunities ■ education ■ quality of life: poor die younger ○ absolute povertystate in in which indiv lacks the resources necessary for subsistence ○ relative povertindiv or groups lack of resources (materials or cultural) when compared with path of other numbers of society ● Supernumerary ○ outside of the capitalist market; don’t produce and don't consume. way to justify mistreating the poor. poor don't matter to the system ○ help only countries in our interest ● Theories of poverty ○ Essentialist ■ Certain groups are inherently (biologically) lazy, dumb, do not follow directions etc ○ Cultural construction (culture of poverty, flaws of character) ■ a cultural milieu characterized by fatalism, resignation and idleness, which is antithetical to achievement, hard work, and self reliance and tends to be passed b/w generations ○ Governmentcreated dependency ■ if govt provides for people they will have no motivation to work for themselves ○ Circumstances ■ lack of access to resources and opportunities ○ Structuralist ■ structural conditions, expansion, contraction of economy, discrimination, social isolation, mass incarnation, education ■ government helps only some and not others ○ liberal classical explanation ■ market distributes resources ■ poverty is necessary to provide a system of incentives to ind efforts ■ it's the fault of the individ (attitudes, beliefs, behaviors) ● culture of poverty ○ Marxist ■ capitalism and capitalist interest promote poverty ■ goal of maximizing profits lead to unemployment and depressed wages ■ poverty is politically and economically advantageous for some ● Effects of Colonialism ○ Powerful nations colonized other countries to procure raw material (such as petroleum, copper and iron) for their factories and to control markets for the manufactured products ○ typically involved european countries establishing colonies in n and s america, africa and asia ○ largely ended after WWII but exploitation did not; ■ transnational corporations cont to reap enormous profits from their branches in low income countries ■ according to dependency theories, these global companies, w support of powerful banks and governments of rich countries, est factories in poor countries, use cheap labor and raw material to maximize production costs without government interference ○ Low prices for labor and raw material prevent poor countries from accumulating profits necessary to industrialize themselves. CAN'T LET POOR INDUSTRIALIZE→ forced to borrow from rich countries → INCREASE ECONOMIC DEPENDENCY ● Consumption ○ Symbols and markers related tconsumption are playing a huge role in daily life ○ individual identities are structured more alifestyle choic(how to dress, eat, care for one's body, leisure less about traditional class indicators such as employment) ○ Pierre Bourdieu ■ saw classes according to their levecultural and economic capital ■ individuals increasingly distinguished themselves not according to economico or occupational but on basis of cultural tastes and leisure pursuits ■ rapid expansion of service economy and the entertainment and leisure industry → consumption! ○ class differences are overridden ○ yet class differences can becomintensifi through lifestyle and “taste” ● Race to the Bottom ○ government deregulation of the business environment or taxes in order to attract or retain economic activity in their jurisdictions, resulting in lower wages, worse working conditions anenvironmental protection. An outcome of globalizati and free trad, the phenomenon may occur when competition increases between geographic areas over a particular sector of trade and production. ○ The incentive to deregulate comes from the consumer who wishes to pay a competitive rate for items or services, rather than one set by the government often at the behest of businesses or unions. ● Theories of Global Inequality (Modernization theory, Modern World Systems theory, Neoliberalism) ○ 4 types of theories ■ Market oriented theories: ● assume that the best economic consequences will result if individual are free from gov constraint, make own economic decisions. Market economy ● Any country can make it our way be like U.S. ● W.W. Rostow modernization theory: lowincome societies can develop economically only if they adapt modern economic institutions, technologies, and cultural values that emphasize savings and productive investment ○ cultural values and social institutions no work ethic and large families contribute to economic backwardness ○ culture support value system→ acceptance of place, cultural failings ○ Rostow: airplane journey ■ traditional stage: low rates of savings, no work ethic, fatalistic value system. airplane not off ground ■ economic growth: invest money for future, wealthy countries help ■ technological maturity: help from other countries airplane goes down runway and become airborne, improving technology new industries, adopting and learning from wealthier countries ■ High mass consumption: high standard of living ○ neoliberal:freemarket forces, minimizing gvmt restrictions on bus, provide only route to economic growth ■ global free trade, end to restrictions on trade, challenge min wage and other labor laws and environmental restrictions ■ dependency theories ● argue that poverty of low income countries stems from their exploitation by wealthy countries and the multinational corporations based in those wealthy countries. global capitalism locked their countries into spiral of exploitation and poverty. live on backs of poor ● colonialism ● dependent development reliance on wealthy countries to grow ■ world system theory ● argues world capitalist economic system of countries engaging in diplomatic and economic relations with one another must be understood as a single unit. ● pioneered by immanuel wallerstein. ● interconnections among countries based on the expansion of capitalist world economy ● made up of core, semiperiphery and periphery countries ● World 4 overlapping elements ○ a world market for goods and labor ○ division of pop into economic classes, particularly capitalists and workers ○ international system of formal and informal political relations among the most powerful countries, whose competition helps shape world economy ○ division of the world into 3 unequal economic zones, wealthier zones exploiting the poorer ones ■ core: most advanced industrial countriperiphery: marginal role in world economy and dependent on the core producing and semiperiphery; supply sources of labor and raw material for the core ■ global commodity chains theory ● worldwide networks of labor and production processes yielding a finished product ● all pivotal production activities that form a tightly interlocked “”chain” extending from raw material to the final consumer ● manufacturing is Globalized ● Barbie! ● Critiques of these theories ○ market oriented theorierecommend the adoption of modern capitalist institutions to promote economic development ■ further argue that counties can develop economically only if they open their border to trade and cite evidence to support this argument ■ but market oriented theories overlook economic ties bw poor/wealthy ■ blame low income countries for their poverty not acknowledging outside factors ■ ignore the ways government can work with private sectors to spur economic development ■ fail to explain why some countries take off economically while some remain grounded ○ Dependency theories emphasize how wealthy nations have exploited poor ones ■ cannot explain the occasional success stories of brazil, arg, mexico china and east asia ■ how low income countries have economically risen despite presence of multinational corporations ○ Worldsystem theory analyzes the world economy as a whole, looking at the complex global web of political and economic relationships that influence development and inequality in poor/rich nations ■ diff of modeling a complex and interdependent world economy ■ emphasizes economic and political forces at expense of cultural one's → religious beliefs reshaping middle east ■ place too much emphasis on role of nationstates in a world economy increasingly shaped by transnational corporations that operate independently of national border ○ The theory ofglobal commodity chain focuses on global bus and their activities rather than relationships bw the countries ■ does provide imp insights into how different countries and regions are affected by ways ■ emphasizes the importance of bus decisions over other factors such as ● roles of workers ● government shaping a country's economy ● Types of Discrimination ○ “the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice ○ Types of discrimination ■ Individual ● “the behavior of indiv members of 1 race/ethnic gender group that is intended to have a differential and/or harmful effect on the members of another race/ethnic/gender group.” ■ Institutio → Denny's ● “the policies of the dominant race/ethnic/gender institutions and the behavior of indiv who control these institutions and the implement policies that are intended to have a differential and/or harmful effect on minority race/ethnic/gender groups” ■ Structural ● race mutual policies → legacies for university, balanced budget cut social services hurt poor, bank loans ● thepolicie of the dominant race/ethnic/gender/institutions and the behavior of individuals who implement policies control and these institutions that are race/gendeneutral in int but which have iff &/or harmrace/ethnic gender groups ■ Total discrimination ● Historical structures that maintain stratified system and current discrimination efforts that deny opportunities ○ groups favoring certain ● Race ○ “A group of people who perceive themselves and are perceived by others as possessing distinctive heredity traits” ○ a system of stratification based on physical traits ○ varies by geographic location and time ○ consequences ■ family and friends chose by race ■ stratification; trying to change, makeup, health care opportunities, various institutions (civil rights KKK) racial gerrymandering ■ organization of people maintains status quo ○ Double consciousness DUBOIS ● Ethnicity ○ “a group of people who perceive themselves and are perceived by others as sharing cultural traits such ● Henry Louis Gates Jr ○ Obama’s statement on his friend ■ discriminated through racial profiling because of “breaking in his own house” and “disorderly conduct towards the police officer” (arrested) ● W.E.B. DuBois ○ Coined double consciousness: “African AND American” ○ Talent of 10th (top 10% of most intelligent to motivate minority into improving their way of life) ○ Believed people looked at themselves through the views of others ● Modes of ethnic integration ○ Assimilation ■ New groups takes norms of the dominant group ○ Melting Pot ■ ethnic differences combined to create new patterns in society ○ Pluralism ■ ethnic groups retain identities but with equal rights ○ Multiculturalism ■ ethnic groups exist separately and share equally in economic and political life ● Racial and ethnic inequality ○ Racialization ■ Race is used to classify individuals: contributes to inequality ○ Minority Groups ■ Physical and cultural differences: contributes to inequality ● Colorblindness ○ Racial ideology that believes the best way to end discrimination is by treating individuals as equally as possible, without regards to race, culture, or ethnicity ○ Denies minority’s negative racial experiences, rejects cultural heritage, and invalidates unique perspectives. ■ RACE DOES MATTER ● Halloween ○ “ritual of rebellion” ○ Dominated: temporarily assume role of the powerful ○ Dominant: reaffirm dominance through existing racial stereotypes ○ Holiday justifies racism ○ “MY CULTURE IS NOT A COSTUME” ● Impacts of Race ○ double consciousness (DuBois) ○ “House Negro vs. Field Negro” (Malcolm X) ■ House: tried to be like the white man ○ Double Alms (double standards) ○ White Privilege ○ Liberal Individualism ● Major sociological theorists ● The two main issues discussed in each Contexts or Polylearn reading
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