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Exam 2 Outline UPDATED

by: HIST289V

Exam 2 Outline UPDATED HIST289V



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UPDATED VERSION of the Exam 2 Outline
What Does it Mean to be an American?
Dr. Howard Smead
Study Guide
history, American History
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by HIST289V on Friday April 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST289V at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Dr. Howard Smead in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see What Does it Mean to be an American? in History at University of Maryland - College Park.


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Date Created: 04/15/16
 The Reconstruction Era  Presidential Reconstruction 1865-1867  Congressional Reconstruction 1867-1877  Three Elements of Reconstruction  Economic  Political  Racial  Freedmen  Aren’t slaves anymore, but aren’t necessarily citizens  Legally they are citizens, however they generally aren’t accepted as such  This problem was rooted in the purpose of the Civil War  South had just finished fighting for 4 years to protect the idea of white supremacy  White Supremacy: “The Organic Law of the Land”  White Supremacy Factors  Scientific racism  Phrenology  Crainometry  Intelligence = IQ tests  These tests were often extremely biased  Eugenics  Social Darwinism: “Survival of the fittest”  Laissez-faire: economics and government: allows natural order of things  Self-reliance  “Rugged individualism”  Honor  Localism  Tradition and violence flourish  New Creed of the South  Progress through uniformity  Savage Ideal  Conformity through violence  The mindset to maintain white supremacy by any means necessary  Southern Rape Complex  Sexual threat to white women  Any threat of change that a black made against the social structure was a threat to white women  There was a common stereotype that black men raped white women  This notion was not necessarily backed up by much evidence  Edgefield Policy  Savage ideal in action  Gave white men the responsibility to do whatever is necessary to maintain control in the black population  Racial Violence Lynching  1880’s-1910’s  Killing off black elected officials  Occurred once every two and a half days  Nadir: 1880-1920  Legalized discrimination every southern state by 1910  2,000 African Americans elected and appointed to office in South from 1867 to 1900  Biracial government functioned in South for a time  Blacks and black legislators had helped significantly in setting the country back on the right track, but were rewarded with discrimination  South Carolina had 39 black legislators in 1877, zero in 1900  Result of Jim Crow Laws  Whites dominated Reconstruction in almost every way  Mississippi Plan  Adopted by a state constitutional convention in 1890 in an attempt to keep blacks from voting  Attempt to circumvent 14 and 15 Amendments  Established policies like these to keep blacks from voting:  Residency requirement to vote  Poll tax: $2  Literacy test  Understanding test  Grandfather clause  Segregation  Plessy v. Ferguson 1896  Validated “Equal and separate”/separate but equal clause  Mississippi v. Williams  Validated the Mississippi Plan  3 Great Forces at the turn of the century (beginning of the 20 th century)  Industrialization  America becomes an industrial giant  Agrarian turned into industrial  Urbanization  Highest standard of living in human history  Political, economic and social power shifted from countryside to the city  Immigration  Became truly a multi-cultural, pluralistic, diverse society  Iron Age of American history  Spurred by the Civil War  Post-Civil War  Exports 3x  Population 2x  Standard of living 2x  Railroads were a key factor  Industries based in or near cities, or industrial towns  Led to large corporations and monopolies  Revolution – industrial capitalism rises to absolute power  Industry is developed in Urban Centers  Centrifugal force of industrialization expanded industrialism and the power of businessmen everywhere  The businessman vied with the cowboy as the quintessential American  The businessman overwhelmed the farmer in wealth, political power and social status  Centripetal force brought more people into centers from which power radiated – cities  Created metropolitan areas  Urban America  Industrialization created cities and gave them a new and alien character, fueled by immigration  A small percentage of the population became extremely wealthy  Population went from 6 million to 44 million  Robber Barons  Political machines and corrupt political bosses  Chaos, crime, consumption  Huge foreign-born population  Immigration  The immigration era in America was the greatest voluntary migration in human history  Pre-Civil War Immigration  British, western European, Northern European, African, Hispanic, Asia  New Immigrant stock  Central Europe, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe/Russia, Asia  Religion among immigrant shifted from protestant to Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Jewish, Buddhist, Confuscian  Motives for migration  Push factors  Land consolidation  Commercial farming  Industrialization  Religious and political persecution  Often applied to Russian Jews  Pull Factors  Higher wages  Higher standard of living  Better Opportunity  More freedom  Often considered to be temporary migration  The Melting Pot  Cities largely foreign-born  Ethnic enclaves developed like Little Italy, Five Points, Chinatown  Meanwhile, the countryside was populated more by native- born  Xenophobia  Fear, dislike of foreigners; often irrational  Nativism  Policy or ideology of protecting native inhabitants, indigenous culture, etc., against immigrants and foreign influence  A natural born citizen  A citizen from birth by place of birth (or by descent); doesn’t need naturalization  Native born  A person born of a citizen of the U.S.; doesn’t need naturalization  Naturalized citizen  A person who has become a US citizen as opposed to being born as a US citizen  Immigration Laws  1790: Naturalization Act  2 year residency required for all immigrants  Foreign-born free and white could become citizens  1795: Naturalization Act  Immigrants required to live in the U.S. for 5 years  “Free white persons”  1868: 14 Amendment  All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the States wherein they reside  1875: Page Act  First federal immigration law  Prohibited the entry of undesirable immigrants  Excludes all Chinese women (considered prostitutes)  Restrictive Immigration Legislation  1882: Immigration Act  Federalized immigration  50 cent Head tax  Banned “idiots, lunatics, convicts and person likely become a public charge.”  1882: Chinese Exclusion Act  1885: Contract Labor Law prohibits long term work contracts  1891: Immigration Act  Excludes communicable diseases, mental disorders  Ellis becomes official depot for first arrivals  Where the majority of immigrants now come into  1894: Immigration Restriction League formed  Prompted by ideas of Social Darwinism  Several anti-immigration bills passed in the senate  1903: Excludes radicals (socialists, communists, anarchists)  1903-1916: 13 separate legislative acts passed  1907: “Gentlemen’s Agreement”  1917: Immigration Act  Triumph of Nativism  1921: Johnson Emergency Quota Act  1910 Census  3% quota requirement on 1910 ethnic population  1924: National Origins Act  A.K.A. Johnson-Reed Immigration Act  Lowers quota to 2%  Based on 1890 census  1929  Quota increases to 150,00 (and then a few times thereafter)  Used the 1920 Census  Immigration Reform Act of 1965  A.K.A. Hart-Cellar Immigration and Nationality Act  “Placed a new emphasis on reuniting families and granting asylum to refugees, while also favoring immigrants with desired skills and ending the longstanding preference for Western Europeans.”  Abolishes most restrictions  Policies abolished:  170K immigrants in each year from Europe, Asia, Africa  No more than 20K from a single country  Preference to those whose immediate relatives are American citizens  Raised quotas slowly – from 297,000 to 850,000 (2000)  Prior to 1965:  9 of 10 immigrants from Europe and Canada  >1/2 from Asia or Latin America  Trends of the immigration era  By 1990, 45% of documented aliens came were from Asia and Middle East  Filipinos, Chinese, Koreans, Vietnamese  Increased Asian population by 100% (3.5 million)  “Boat people”  Result of war in Southeast Asia (Vietnam War)  Vietnamese and Cambodian  Mostly educated  The era made the USA the most ethnically diverse society in the world  A New America  A truly pluralistic, multicultural society  Whether native born Old and New immigrant stock liked it or not  Decline of WASP dominance  White Anglo Saxon Protestant  Demonstrated by the election of 2012  In 2016, GOP candidate needs >70% of white vote to win  Immigrants often vote for Democratic candidates  In addition, 12-15 million undocumented aliens in the U.S.  Nativism  Every wave of immigration has produced nativism  Africans in the 1770s  Germans in the 1780s and 1830s  Irish in the 1840s  Essentially, all of the newest immigrants sparked some sort of nativism  Recent wave has produced this among both white and black middle class  Amnesty Act of 1986  Adopted under Ronald Reagan’s presidency  Implemented in1988  Gave amnesty to the illegal immigrants living in the U.S.  Number of unauthorized immigrants soared  5 million in 1986 (estimated) to 11.1 million today (estimated)  Key Immigration Issues  Path to citizenship – Dream Act  Enforcement of existing laws  Employers hiring illegal immigrants  Human smugglers  Employment opportunities  Social services, including health care (CHIPS)  Denying automatic citizenship to “anchor babies”  Denying access to free public education  Taxes  Walling them out  Stepping up deportation  Stop and Identify laws  In Arizona, police are allowed to stop everyone who “looks illegal”  Critics of immigration  Tom Tancredo – former Congressman from CO  “We are in a clash of civilizations…” (2006)  Samuel Huntington – Harvard professor, author of Who We Are: Challenges to America’s National Identity (2004)  “The American Creed is the unique creation of a dissenting Protestant culture.”  Both agree U.S. is a nation of immigrants; however they believe they are challenging the American identity  Factors challenging American Identity (according to Huntington)  Globalization: economic, cultural  In a world that is becoming even more globalized, how does a country continue to keep its identity?  End of Cold War reduced importance of national identity  Politicizing of issue by politicians  Attempts of sub-national leaders to enhance personal and group status  Bending the Constitution “not necessarily in the ways the framers intended.” (14 Amendment)  National sympathy and guilt of academic elites for past U.S. actions  Changing views of race and ethnicity fostered by Civil Rights Revolution and reflected in Immigration Act of 1965  The Turner Thesis, the West, and American Violence  The Turner Thesis  “The frontier is the line of most rapid Americanization.”  Stated that coarseness and strength combined with acuteness and acquisitiveness, practical inventive turn of mind, and masterful grasp of material could all be attributed to the influence of the West  The epitome of the U.S.  In his eyes, the West has had a democratizing influence on the United States  Turner - The Frontier was the chief influence in shaping these aspects of American life:  Social Equality  Growth of political democracy  Nationalism  Faith in the future  Economic independence  Safety valve for factory workers  Invention  Individualism  Code of the West  Honesty, Humility, courage, loyalty and hard work  Honor: a man was only as good as his word  A man is loyal to his friends and those he rides with  “No Duty to Retreat”: imperative of self-redress  The Rugged Individualist  Mike Fink, Davey Crockett, Natty Bumpo, Ronald Reagan, George W., The Marlboro Man have all taken on the persona of this rugged individualist  “Duty to Retreat”  A command to avoid physical conflict between individuals  Intended to produce civility  Adopted in England  Not in America  “A man is not born to run away”  Right to kill in self-defense is a modern concept  “One of the most important transformations in American social history”  Criminals as heroes  Speaks to America’s fascination with criminality  Social bandit – Heroic criminals  An individual in both Western Europe and America whose crimes are viewed with approval by much society  Jesse James  America’s classic social bandit  Got a great amount of coverage in the press and was seen in a glorified light as a result  Al Capone  Mass murderer, serial killer  Glorified by society and the press  American Creed  Freedom, equality, democracy  “Violent self-assertion” can very well be added to that  No “Duty to Retreat”  American Violence  Riots  Lynching (5000 deaths since CW)  Vigilantism  Indian wars (1000 killed since CW)  Industrial (most numerous and violent labor strikes)  Civil War (620,000 death toll)  America comes to believe violence as an “entirely proper last resort to satisfy a legitimate grievance or rectify a glaring injustice.”  Localism  Slavery/race  Required violence to enforce  Ethnicity  Ethnic violence was a result of the slavery era as well as nativism  Tabula Rasa  Violence could be developed by anyone  Industrialization  Labor riots/strikes incited more violence  Modern Advertising  “Propaganda” becomes “public relations”  Coca-Cola was the first to start advertising  Prior to 1920’s, ads were dry and dull  Designed to make people aware of new products  Emphasized functionality  Tools like manipulation started to be used  Growth of advertising  Albert Lasker  “Father of Modern Advertising”  Described advertising as “salesmanship in print”  Marketed orange juice  Edward Bernays  Used psychological manipulation to engineer consent  Found most success in tobacco products  Lucky Strike  Marketed cigarettes as “torches of freedom”  Played to the “empowering” feeling that women were feeling at the time  “Tapping hidden desires and urges”  Companies also started using athletes and celebrities to promote their cause  Wheaties  Advertising in modern times:  Emphasis in individualism  John F. Kennedy’s campaign was advertised like a product  Critics of Modern Advertising  Sparks a Consumer culture  Causes false needs (“Hidden desire and urges”)  Imposes conformity  Debased taste to the lowest common denominator – what sells  Implicit rejection of high arts and civilization  Materialism  Secularization  Loss of values and standards  Emphasis on individualism  The New Woman  Wore dresses that were a radical shift from their parents  Led to the nickname “flappers”  Represented the people “flaunting the new times”  Received with much backlash by the media  Changed the ground rules for college  Women college attendance began to rapidly increase  Notable names to know  Margaret Sanger  Founded Planned Parenthood  Alice Paul  Civil Rights Activist  Florence Kelly  The significance: women were actually doing constructive and productive things in society  Wardrobe and clothing norms began to be greatly challenged  Previously, showing space in between women’s legs was greatly frowned upon in society  Sparked a Purity Crusade  Anthony Comstock  Narrow-minded bigot or champion of morality  Comstock Law  Blue Law  Birth Control use became more abundant  Mostly condoms  Number of women in the work force doubled in the 1920’s  Came with urbanization  The Great Migration  Rural to urban population shift  Mainly African-Americans  1910 – 1920  Continued well into the 1960s  51% of blacks were outside South by 1950  5 million total by 1960  Sought a “richer and fuller life”  Segregated neighborhoods  Two popular destinations for blacks: Harlem, Chicago  The Harlem Renaissance  Cultural explosion that affects all of America  A product of a “richer and fuller life”  Produces a new awareness of the black population  Similar to the New Woman, Alain Locke, the “Dean of the Harlem Renaissance,” coined the term “The New Negro”  The Great Depression eventually undermines much of the growth that takes place during this time  What the New Woman and the Harlem Renaissance represent  Modernism  A challenge to old standards and lifestyle  Crisis of Faith/Crisis over faith  Religion and History in America  Religion has been an important factor in shaping American society, culture, political system  Periods of religious reform have changed the course of our history  Religious divisions in the 19 and 20 centuries have played major formative roles  America is the most religious nation in the industrialized world  93% of adults believe in God  38% attend church weekly  7% nonbelievers  Religion is essential to the American form of government, way of life and identity  This religious involvement has declined in recent times  Peaked in the 1970s  33% of Millennial Generation unaffiliated  13% of Baby Boomers are unaffiliated  Overview of Christianity in the Past  Puritanism in New England  The Great Awakening  The Great Revival (2 nd Great Awakening)  Darwinism vs. “Biblical Science”  The Scopes Trial  National Association of Evangelicals  The New Right (Moral majority, Christian coalition)  Culture Wars  Key Periods of religious upheaval  Founding  Great Awakening (1730-40)  American Revolution was a product of the Great Awakening  Ideas of the puritans  Great Revival (1815-40)  Also known as the Second Great Awakening  People had begun to realize how American society had a lot to do with sins, questionable lifestyles  Led to a cleansing period  Sparked the movement to abolish slavery  Christian Fundamental (1900)  Interpretation of the bible came into question  Led to a culture clash  4 Great Awakening (1980-90)  Led to a culture war  Peaked with the impeachment of Bill Clinton  Clash of Cultures  Traditionalism  Reaction to changing circumstances  Upholding “tradition”  Tried and true ways  Concrete, long-exisiting standards  Change not always good  Veneration of institutions  Past sets the pattern  Modernism  Reaction to changing circumstances  New conditions require new standards  Change is positive  Standards are important  But old standards are not always good  Looks to the future  Traditions change over time  Always comes with great controversy  Divine right of kings, natural subjugation of human beings to their superiors, slavery, inerrancy of the bible  Modernism  Goes against religious moral and spiritual foundations  Goes against AMERICAN moral and spiritual foundations  Evangelicals generally don’t want their children to be lured into immorality and unbelief  Threats to traditional values  Prayer in schools  Engel v. Vitale (1960)  Sex Education in Schools/pornography  Feminism  50% of marriages end in divorce  Destruction of the nuclear family  Abortion  Roe V. Wade  Catholics, Protestants, Jews unite  Gay Rights  Events that fueled the modernist movement  Enlightenment  Science and scientific method  Unending tide of scientific theories and discoveries  Darwin  Einstein  John Dewey/Progressivism  Higher Criticism applied to the Bible  Conflicts against Christian mythos  Charles Darwin  Rise of atheism  “Higher criticism”  Anglican clergymen published Essays and Reviews subjecting the Bible to scientifically empirical methods  Empiricism vs. Revealed Truth  Discovered mistakes in the Bible  Historical accuracy unverifiable, at best  Conflicting accounts in the Gospels  Huge questions about “biblical science”  Traditional Religion Response  The Fundamentals (1910-15)  Christian Fundamentalism  Evangelical Protestantism  Pentecostalism


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