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Filled out study guide and chapter summaries BIO 160
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Avi Fox on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 160 at University of Miami taught by Dana Krempels in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 264 views. For similar materials see EVOLUTION & BIODIVRSITY in Biology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/10/15
Bio 160 test 1 review Lecture 1 Biodiversity the variety of living species on earth and their differences Taxonomist biologist who names and classifies living things Systematist biologist who studies the evolutionary relationships between living organisms Type material collection of specimens of a single species that was cited in the original published description of that new species Holotype individual member of a species on whose physical description the entire species is based Paratype the unlucky conspecifics in the type collection Conspecifics members of the same species Nuclear genome genome in a eukaryotic nucleus usually 2 non identical copies Organelle genome genome in a mitochondria and chloroplast Species Biological definition population or series of population within free gene ow occurs under natural conditions Organisms that reproduce naturally and produce fertile viable offspring Inbreeding mating between closely related individuals causes loss in genetic diversity it increases the risk of harmful genes to continue to pass on Outbreeding choosing not related individuals more often Causes hemophilia sickle cell anemia Tay Sachs cystic brosis The smaller the size of a wild population the more genetically uniform it will be and the more likely there will be inbreeding As a species becomes rare its more likely to undergo inbreeding and express harmful genetic conditions Demonstrated by artificial selection But unfortunately deleterious harmful genes get expressed also Anthropocentric View nonhuman species are important only in their benefit to humans Biocentric View Nonhuman species are important to save their own intrinsic value Ecocentric View biodiversity and ecosystems should be preserved not just individual species or populations because it is the whole working system that maintains diversity Indicator species a plant or animal species that by its presence abundance lack of abundance or chemical composition demonstrates some distinctive aspect of the character or quality of an environment Northern spotted owl it can tell you about the vole population and the mushroom population Keystone species species upon which many other species in an ecosystem rely for their survival Coyote controls population growth When coyotes were taken out bird population plummeted because their predators were allowed to grow Native species one that occurs in the area where it evolved Endemic species only found in one place in the world Hawaiian islands Australia Exotic species a species that was introduced artificially to an area Invasive exotic species exotic species that aggressively displace the native species and have a huge population growth Allelopathic produce toxic compounds that deter growth of competing plants Hypothesis is a quottentative proposition which is subject to verification through subsequent investigation Theory s an hypothesis that has stood the test of time It is a wellsubstantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world Law described by a sequence of events in nature that has been observed to occur without variationunder the same conditions Inductive reasoning bottom up reasoning Go from specific to general observation Deductive reasoning go from general to specific observation Lecture 2 Universe 1020 billion years old Solar system 45 billion years Life 4 billion years Proto hominids 44 million years ago Earliest Homo Sapiens 400000 years ago Homo sapiens sapiens 200000 years Aristotle Scala naturae ladder of increasing complexity Norse creation mythology primal ice and fire in the great void created everything Natural theology up till the 1700 s biology was studied under the notion that science should be dedicated to finding out gods plan Origin of life Spontaneous generation that life started spontaneously from inanimate objects Francesco Redi placed rotting meat in covered and uncovered jars and noted that maggots only in the uncovered jar With mesh covering the maggots appeared on the top Anton Van Leewenhoek invented the microscope showing a microscopic world teeming with life Brought back the idea of spontaneous generation on the smaller scale Georges Buffon curator of the royal garden Proposed that everything arose due to natural processes and that life itself had emerged from the earth John needham tested spontaneous generation with a boiled broth But let it cool and then it grew Lazaro Spallanzai Louis Pasteur using a swan necked ask he showed that boiled broth that was protected from airborne microbes wouldn t grow life Miller urey Stanley miller and urey duplicated the conditions of primordial earth The experiment yielded many of the organic building blocks of life including amino acids sugars and nucleotide bases Most important feature was the lack of Oxygen Oxygen was scarce in early earth if it was there the organic molecules would have fried as the were formed Abiogenesis life must have originated from nonliVing matter Alive Be able to reproduce adaptable metabolism cells anatomy homeostasis Individuals adapt populations evolve Organic Evolution Jean Baptiste Lamarck thought organisms could change from generation to generation They changed because they needed things Giraffes evolved from shortnecked antelope and necks stretched to reach higher leaves due to need Use and disuse parts you didn t use would atrophy and become vestigialappendix cecum and used one would become larger stronger and more important Traits acquired during lifetime could be passed on to its offspring was a driVing force of evolution Lamarck not completely wrong Epigenetic inheritance repackaging genes you have and changing phenotype when exposed to environmental factors George Cuvier an anatomists father of paleontology Noticed that the organisms in each layer were different Catastrophism A staunch creationist and insisted the signs of change were confirmation of catastrophes They wiped out life locally and new life migrated to the devastated location Mootoo Kimura first to suggest that genetic drift plays a huge role in changing populations and huge part of evolution is completely random chance Neutral theory most of the genetic variation in populations is the result of mutation and genetic drift not selection If a population has many different variations of a gene odds are tat each of these variations is equally good The variations are neutral Genetic drift plays a good role It does NOT suggest That organisms are not adapted to their environments That all morphological variation is neutral That ALL genetic variation is neutral That natural selection is unimportant in shaping genomes The Darwinian Revolution James Hutton Scottish geologist proposed Gradualism large changes in the earth s surface could be caused by slow constant processes such as erosion father of geology Charles Lyell these processes had been going on steadily and constantly which can explain the appearance of the earth Uniformitarianism Darwin used this for natural selection 4 basic tenets for the theory of evolution by means of Natural selection 1 Overproduction organisms are capable of producing huge numbers of offspring 2 Heritable variability Those offspring are variable in appearance and function some of them are heritable 3 Competition resources are limited and those varied offspring must compete 4 Differential reproduction survival and reproduction of the varied offspring isn t random Those who inherited characteristics better suited to leave more offspring Tautology circular definitionphrase Survival doesn t imply fitness fitness doesn t imply long term survival Adaptive increases the likelihood the individual will leave offspring Maladaptive deleterious decreases the likelihood that the individual will leave offspring Neutral doesn t affect the likelihood Evolutionary fitness is determined by the environment Evidence for evolution and Homology Physical evidence in 1 Observable examples of the evolutionary process 2 Fossils 3 Distribution in space and time 4 Homologies Homologycharacteristic shared by two species that is similar because of common ancestry Shared characters studying both extant and extinct species and comparing their physical and chemical characteristic to tell learn about evolution Primitive characters plesiomorphy something that hasn t changed very much from the ancestral form All vertebrates have a bony tail posterior to the anus Different vertebrates have evolved differently shaped tails Only the presence of a tail is primitive Derived characters apomorphy relatively modified from its original ancestral form The modified shapes of tail or the loss of the external tail May be atavistic reminder human with tail Symplesiomorphy shared primitive character across taxa Synapomorphy shared derived character across taxa The more recent 2 species diverged the more synapomorphies Analogous structures serve the same function in 2 species but aren t derived from a common ancestral structure but from convergent evolution Wing of a butter y and wing of a bat Convergent Evolution Process in which two distinct lineages evolve a similar characteristic independently of one another This often occurs because both lineages face similar environmental challenges and selective pressure Protostomes blastopores become the mouth Bilaterally symmetrical Deuterostomes blastopores become the anus with a secondary opening becoming the mouth Humans atworms evodevo the study of evolution of development Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny Ernst von Haeckel bent the data He suggested that as we developed we went through less complex animals leading up But the truth is all related species develop together and then begin to branch off More complex adults forms are the result of change in embryo such as changes in timing of character development reduction or loss of embryonic characters greater complexity added as development proceeds Ontogeny the process of embryo development Phylogeny species evolutionary history Timing is everything Differences in ontogeny among taxa are not trivial such changes re ect the evolutionary relationship of those taxa and the modified development that resulted in one species becoming 2 Claws of the baby Hoatzin Heterochrony changes in the timing of ontogenetic events between related species Can be caused by small genetic changes that may not even be alteration in DNA sequence but in the timing of particular genes being expressed Isometric growth all body parts grow at the approximately the same rate and the adult proportions are about the same as the juvenile Allometric growth different cell linesbody parts grow at different rates resulting in a human adult with proportions different than newborns Somatic cell body cells package that carries germline cells Germline cell one that has potential to undergo meiosis to become a haploid gamete Population genetics and Microevolution Deme subset of a population in a local actively interbreeding population that shares a distinct gene pool Mostly isolated from one another Isolation of a deme from other conspecific demes can result in the generation of subspeciesmicro or even reproductive isolation macrospeciation Gene pool all the genes at all loci in every member of an interbreeding population Polymorphism more than one form of a particular trait within a population If these multiple phenotypes are heritable and result from different alleles at a particular locus or interacting loci then they are subject to the forces of evolution 4 basic tenets for the theory of evolution by means of Natural selection 1 Overproduction organisms are capable of producing huge numbers of offspring 2 Heritable variability Those offspring are variable in appearance and function some of them are heritable 3 Competition resources are limited and those varied offspring must compete 4 Differential reproduction survival and reproduction of the varied offspring isn t random Those who inherited characteristics better suited to leave more offspring Microevolution population that undergoes genetic respect to other populations of the same species but haven t become reproductively isolated Still same species Macroevolution speciation and adaptive radiation Physiological adaptation a short term change in physiology morphology metabolism made by an individual organism in response to environmental changes Seasonally changing fur color and density Physiological adaptations are the products of evolutionary adaptation Evolutionary adaptation Process a population evolves to become better suited to its environment Charactertrait that has resulted from the evolutionary process Such as the fusiform shape of a dolphin that is better suited for aquatic existence than that of land dwelling relatives Or specialized teeth of a particular mammal best suited to its diet 5 conditions of the hardy Weinberg 5 conditions must be met 1 No mutations The populations must be very large Random mating must occur No entering or leaving individuals No genotype has a reproductive advantage over another no natural selection 9593 Point mutation can have big consequences Mutations at the chromosome there could be a deletion duplication of segments or genes inversions rearrangement and translocations swapped pieces of chromosomes Euploidy the normal amount of homologous pairs Aneuploidy to few or to many of a homologous pair Trisomy 21 Down syndrome Monosomy only one of the homologous pair Trisomy three homologs are present Nullisomy the entire pair is deleted Mutations at the chromosome set Level Haploid cell with one set of nuclear chromosomes sperm and eggs Diploid Have 2 sets Polyploid cell with more than 2 sets Autopolyploidy a plant has a problem in meiosis and creates a new species Comes from the same species Allopolyploidy one possible way is 2 species come together with two different amount of chromosomes but they are close enough that they can create a hybrid A problem in meiosis occurs and it doesn t split This then goes back with another normal gamete Creating a viable new species Comes from 2 different species Hybrid organisms produces by genetically dissimilar parents This can result in speciation Polyploid individuals are usually larger than the parents If a polypoid organism can selffertilize it can give rise to speciation Heterozygosity proportions of genes present in the heterozygous condition Average heterozygosity the average percent of loci that are heterozygous in a population Biology Textbook Chapter summaries and key terms Ch22 Descent with Modi cation Evolution quotDescent with modi cationquot change in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generation Pattern shown through observations Process the mechanisms that allow the observed changes Aristotle Scala Naturae species are xed and organisms had certain qualities that could be ordered on a ladder of increasing complexity Carolus Linnaeus created binomial format for naming species Didn t name them by evolutionary kinship Fossils remains or traces of organisms from the past Strata superimposed layers of rock created when new layers of sediments cover older layers Paleontology study of fossils Georges Cuvier started paleontology Observed older stratum contained dissimilar fossils from living organisms Noticed species appeared and disappeared from one layer to the next Catastrophism events in the past happened suddenly and were caused by mechanisms different from those happening now Hutton and Charles Lyell Uniformitarianism mechanisms of change are constant over time The same geologic processes are operating the same today as millions of years ago Charles Lyell earth must be older than a few millennium Hutton marine fossils formed when eroded sediment were driven to the sea and buried them jeanBaptiste de Lamarck rst to propose the mechanisms by which things change However was incorrect Use and disuse structures used a lot become larger and stronger and those not used deteriorated within an individual s lifetime Inheritance of acquired characteristics organisms can pass on these modi cations Species had an innate drive to become more complex Darwin Adaptations inherited characteristics of organisms that enhance survival and tness in speci ed environments Natural selection individuals with inherited traits that helped them with there environments tended to survive and reproduce compared to those without those traits Wallace also proposed change through natural selection is considered cofounder Support for evolution 1 Direct observations 2 Homology similarities due to common ancestry Homologous structures variations of a structural theme that came from a common ancestor Vestigia structures remnants of structures from a common ancestor that has lost function Appendix in humans tiny leg buds on pythons tail bone Convergent evolution independent evolution of similar features in unrelated species 3 Fossil record 4 Biogeography CH 23 evolution of populations Natural selection acts on individuals but populations evolve not individuals Microevolution change in the allele frequencies in a population over generations 1 Natural selection 2 Genetic Drift 3 Gene Flow Genetic variation differences among individuals in the composition of their genes Some isn t heritable Without genetic variation evolution couldn t happen VARIATION WIHTIN A POPULATION Discrete characters quoteither orquot basis Many are determined by a single gene locus with different alleles Such as the ower is either purple or white Quantitative Characters most heritable variation due to the in uence of 2 or more genes on a single phenotypic character Average heterozygosity average of loci that are heterozygous Variability within genes use gel electrophoreses and PCR and restriction fragment analysis to determine average heterozygosis Variability within nucleotides compare the nucleotides of 2 individuals of a species to nd their nucleotide variability VARIATION BETWEEN POPULATIONS Geographic variation the variation in the genetic composition of separate populations of a species due to geographic isolation over time Cline graded change in character along a geographic axis Sources of Genetic Variation 1 Mutations change in the nucleotide sequence For multi cell organisms only mutations in the gametes can be passed on Point mutation change in as little as one base in a gene 2 Gene duplication 3 Any process that creates new alleles Rapid reproduction The faster an organism s generation life the quicker mutations can have an effect Sexual production big increase in variation because it involves 2 sets of mixed chromosomes Population group of individuals in the same location and species interbreeding to make fertile offspring Gene Pool all copies of every type of allele at every locus in a population Fixed gene only one type of allele exists for a locus in the population Gene frequency the percentage of a certain allele in the population HardyWeinberg principle frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population will remain constant if only segregation and recombination of alleles takes place Equation p2 2pq q21 p number of homozygous dominant alleles pq number of heterozygous alleles q number of homozygous recessive alleles 5 conditions that need to be met 1 No Mutations mutations change allele frequencies 2 Must be random mating with choice the possibility of interbreed comes into play and the genotypes will change 3 No natural selection differences in the rate of survival can alter allele frequencies 4 Extremely large population the larger the population the less likely the frequency will uctuate from generation to generation 5 No gene ow alleles cant be allowed to enter or leave the population Most populations cannot t this equation but speci c genes can be Adaptive evolution evolution that results in a better match between the organism and its environment Genetic Drift allele frequencies change from generation to generation due to chance Founders effect few individuals become isolated from the population creating a new one The new population can have an allele frequency much different from the parent population Bottleneck effect a severe drop in a population usually caused by a catastrophe It means that some genes will be overexpressed in the gene pool while others will be eliminated entirely Gene Flow transfer of alleles in or out due to a movement of individuals Relative tness the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation compared to other individuals Directional selection when conditions favor one extreme of a phenotypic range shifts the graph either left or right Usually caused by a change in the environment Disruptive selection when conditions both extremes of a phenotypic range Stabilizing selection goes against both extremes usually maintaining the status quo For example Human babies usually weigh 34 kg the ones that are too big or too small usually die Sexual selection certain traits in individuals causes them to be more likely to mate Sexual Dimorphism differences between the 2 sexes in secondary sexual characteristics Size color behaviors sexual selection one sex competes directly for mates males defending a group of females from other males sexual selection mate choice one sex is choosy in selecting their mates Peacocks feathers Neutral variation differences in DNA that are neither good nor bad Diploidy since it relies on both parents heterozygote protection protects certain alleles that may not be currently favorable but may have an advantage later Balancing selection when natural selection maintains 2 or more forms in a populations Includes heterozygote advantage and frequency dependent selection Heterozygote advantage individuals who are heterozygous ay a locus have a greater tness than both homozygous Frequency dependent selection the tness of a phenotype depends on how common its in the population Evolution cant make perfect organisms 1 It can only act on existing variations 2 It is limited to historical constraints 3 Adaptations are compromises 4 Chance natural selection and environment all interact Ch24 The Origin of Species Speciation the development of a new species as one species splits into 2 or more new ones It s the main cause of the great diversity of life and their many similarities Microevolution changes in allele frequencies in a population Mutations natural selection genetic drift Macroevolution broad pattern of evolution above the species level Speciation adaptive radiation Biological species concept a species is a population that can interbreed to form viable fertile offspring Formation of new species relies on reproductive isolation biological barriers that stop members of other species from mating and creating fertile offspring Blocks gene ow and stops the creation of hyb ds Prezygotic barriers reproductive barriers that happen before the zygote is formed by Stopping members of other species from mating Preventing an attempted mating from completing or Blocking fertilization if it does happen Habitat isolation if the 2 species occupy different habitats they will rarely come into contact and mate EX One lives on land and one in the water Temporal isolation mate at different times of the day or year Behavioral isolation have different mating rituals stops mate recognition Mechanical isolation attempt mating but morphological problems stop them Gametic isolation sperm of one species ma not survive or be able to reach the egg Postzygotic barriers barriers that stop it after the zygote is formed Reduced hybrid viability genes of different species may impede development Reduced hybrid fertility if they form they are usually sterile bc different number of chromosomes from both parents stop gametes from forming Hybrid breakdown even when the rst generation is fertile the next generation is not due to too many recessive alleles Limitations to the biological species concept Cant test reproductive isolation of fossils Not applied to asexual reproduction Many times there distinct species that still have gene ow Grolar bear Emphasizes separateness and not the unity of life Morphological species concept use an organism s morphology to determine species Disadvantage there is disagreement as to which structures de nes a species Ecological species concept how the organisms interact with both the biotic and abiotic factors of their environment This accommodates asexual and sexual species and shows how 2 species may differ in food or drywet conditions Phylogenetic species concept a species is the smallest group that shares a common ancestor forming ones branch on the tree of life Speciation depends on gene ow Allopatric speciation speciation happens because gene ow is stopped when a population is divided into geographically isolated subpopulations When lakes water recedes creating 2 smaller lakes the species that inhabited it may develop into 2 species over time Examples 30 species of shrimp that can be broken into 15 sibling pairs each on either the paci c or Atlantic side The separation isn39t the cause it39s the biological barriers that do Sympatric speciation occurs in the same geographic region and is much less common due to polyploidy habitat differentiation and sexual selection Polyploidy a mutation in meiosis that causes an extra set of chromosomes More commonly seen in plants Autopolyploid extra set that came from the same species Allopolyploid 2 different species interbreed produce hybrids hybrids then mate asexually and generations later can create a fertile polyploidy that will no longer mate with parent population Habitat differentiation a new habitat resource becomes available to a subset of the population natural selection favors those that use the new resource This resource can cause pre and post zygotic barriers Sexual selection females can have mating preferences for those males with certain coloration but not others Causes a reproductive barrier stopping gene ow between 2 species 243 Hybrid zone when 2 species with incomplete reproductive barriers come in contact a hybrid zone can form These 2 species come together mate and produce offspring of mixed ancestry if the hybrid zone is narrow you ll see a species dependent allele go from 100 at its farthest edge and slowly go down as it approaches the hybrid zone In the middle of the hybrid zone reach 50 and then quickly go down to about 0 as it reaches the other species habitat This is due to many factors such as the hybrids high risk of embryonic mortality Over time 3 things can happen 1 Reinforcement of barriers hybrids stop forming 2 Fusion of species the barriers weaken causing the hybrids to share their gene pools more regularly Eventually the 2 species fuse to a single species 3 Stability hybrids continue to form 244 rates of speciation Speciation can occur relatively slowly or quickly Patterns in the fossil record have shown Punctuated equilibrium species follow a period of stasis punctuated by a sudden change and then doesn t change again Gradual pattern the species gradually changes with many intermediate forms until it forms 2 species Speciation rates Once divergence begins it happens very rapidly Between 4000 40 million years Avg 65 million years rarely less tan 500000 years Genetics of speciation Reproductive barriers can be caused by a single gene mutation at a single locus can contribute to reproductive isolation
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