Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide History 1311 Richard Stott
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History 1311 Richard Stott
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jamie Finkelstein on Wednesday February 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to History 1311 Richard Stott at George Washington University taught by Richard Stott in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 341 views. For similar materials see 1310-10 in History at George Washington University.
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History 1311 Midterm Study Guide Professor Stott GWU Term Info Protestant Reformation The Protestant Reformation was a major 16th century European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church Its religious aspects were supplemented by ambitious political rulers who wanted to extend their power and control at the expense of the Church The Reformation ended the unity imposed by medieval Christianity and in the eyes of many historians signaled the beginning of the modern era In 1517 in one of the signal events of western history Martin Luther a German Augustinian monk posted 95 theses on a church door in the university town of Wittenberg The Columbian exchange The Columbian Exchange or Grand Exchange refers to the widespread transfer of animals plants culture human populations communicable diseases technology and ideas between the American and Afro Eurasian hemispheres in the 15th and 16th centuries related to European colonization and trade including AfricanAmerican slave trade after Christopher Columbus39 1492 voyage The Columbian Exchange greatly affected almost every society on earth bringing destructive diseases that depopulated many cultures and also circulating a wide variety of new crops and livestock that in the long term increased rather than diminished the world human population indentured servants Indentured servitude was a labour system whereby young people paid for their passage to the New World by working for an employer for a certain number of years It was widely employed in the 18th century in the British colonies in North America and elsewhere were widely used in the colonies for tobacco growing and thus helped grow the economy signi cantly bacon s rebellion 1676 Bacon39s Rebellion was an armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley About a thousand Virginians of all classes rose up in arms against Berkeley attacking Native Americans chasing Berkeley from Jamestown Virginia and ultimately torching the capital It was the rst rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part Also it hastened the hardening of racial lines dealing with slavery tidewater water brought or affected by tides basically the region by the water part of the South39s landscape in 1740s on the tidewater there was an area of planters tend to be more wealthy showed the demographic divide between the wealthy and the poor biggest social division piedmont part of the South39s landscape in 1740s people below the line tend to be smaller farmers bad country showed the demographic divide between the wealthy and the poor biggest social division puritan covenant john winthrop said that the puritans made a covenant with god they re special covenantagreement covenant between man and god and covenant between old and new testaments covenant between men to live together in a godly manner and obey authority pledge yourself to submit to the rule of government 1600s slave codes Slave codes were laws in each US state which de ned the status of slaves and the rights of masters These codes gave slave owners absolute power over the enslaved rst code 1705 Johnathan Edwards reverend in mid1730s noted preacher and theologian contended that people could attain salvation only through recognition of their own depraved nature and the need to completely surrender to God s will many people converted but it was isolated until 1739 when George White eld helped de ne the Great Awakening George White eld George White eld An English Anglican preacher His visit to America in the 1740s helped de ne the religious revival known as the Great Awakening A brilliant dramatic preacher he spoke to huge crowds from Georgia to Massachusetts and thousand were converted Although a supporter of slavery he made special effort to reach out to slaves and large numbers became Christian By preaching in all the colonies he fostered a sense of interconnected between them However many ministers attacked the Awakening as relying on emotion not reason to win souls the great awakening The Great Awakening called by historians the First Great Awakening was an evangelical and revitalization movement that swept Protestant Europe and British America and especially the American colonies in the 173 OS and 1740s leaving a permanent impact on American Protestantism rst was started by George White eld in 1 73 9 the Great Awakening brought about a climate which made the American Revolution possible they realized they could control their own religion shays rebellion 1786 Daniel Shays got a group of farmers together and refused to pay off they debts and the central government could not stop them because of no army or money or even coercion this rebellion made the government realize that the Articles of Confederation weren t working and thus led to the Constitution the glorious revolution 1688 Bloodless Revolution King James II severely offended his subjects by aunting his Catholicism and replacing high of ce members with catholic ones the events of 1688 89 that resulted in the deposition of James II and the accession of his daughter Mary 11 and her husband William III prince of Orange and stadholder of the Netherlands The Glorious Revolution ultimately established the supremacy of parliament over the British monarchy and completed England s long process of changing itself from a Roman Catholic nation into a Protestant one After this they issued the English Bill of Rights The English constitution lays down limits on the powers of the crown sets out the rights of Parliament and rules for freedom of speech in Parliament the requirement for regular elections to Parliament and the right to petition the monarch without fear of retribution reestablished the liberty of Protestants to have arms for their defence within the rule of law condemned James II of England centuriesold series of events not a single document magna carta declaration of rights de nes the english government essay 2 americans were proud to be english because they were free and admired the english but then they realized they wanted to be better british liberty enlightenment ideals natural rights Stamp act 1765 passed by the British Parliament on March 22 17 65 The new tax was imposed on all American colonists and required them to pay a tax on every piece of printed paper they used Ship39s papers legal documents licenses newspapers other publications and even playing cards were taxed in uenced sparked the intolerable acts that eventually drove the colonists to independence coercive actsintolerable acts 1774 series of four acts established by the British government The aim of the legislation was to restore order in Massachusetts and punish Bostonians for their Tea Party Boston Port Act Massachusetts Government Act Administration of Justice Act Quartering Act sparked the resistance against British rule militia1776 a military force that is raised from the civil population to supplement a regular army in an emergency white ablebodied free males were required by law to belong to the miliita by the statute law of the colony The early colonists of America considered the militia an important social institution necessary to provide defense and public safety in uenced the Second Amendment A well regulated Militia being necessary to the security of a free State the right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed battle of saratoga 1777 September 19th British General John Burgoyne achieved a small but costly victory over American forces led by Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold he again attacked the Americans at Bemis Heights on October 7th but this time was defeated and forced to retreat He surrendered ten days later 0 Turning point of the Revolutionzconvinces the French to join America s side and secure victory The Battle of Saratoga secured a critical French alliance for the Americans during the American Revolution providing monetary and military support to outlast the British specie type of coin used as currency in colonial times 1836president order Treasury Secretary to issue the Specie Circular which said that only settlers could use paper money to buy land and speculators would have to use coins policy was disastrous significantly reducing publicland sales which in turn reduced the federal government s surplus and its loans to the states major confidence was lost in government bank gold coin that is supposed to give paper money valuequot federalists one side of the colonists that were for the constitution that wanted a strong central government significant because they helped put in place the government that we have today antifederalists one side of the colonists that were against the constitution because it took power away from the states they wanted states to have all the rights signi cant because they helped bring out issues that they found in the constitution that may still exist today found that the government was not absolute federalist party first American political party from the early 1790s to 1816 the era of the First Party System with remnants lasting into the 1820s The Federalists controlled the federal government until 1801 bill of rights 1791 The first ten amendments to the Constitution Gave citizens rights that the Constitution didn39t originally give them such as freedom of speech and freedom of religion significant because it lays out the freedoms of the people and laid the basics for the constitution the jay treaty 1795 a 1795 treaty between the United States and the Great Britain that is credited with averting war resolving issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783 and facilitating ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars which began in 1792 gave the United States valuable time to consolidate and rearm in the event of future con ict democratic republican party name used primarily by modern political scientists for the first quotRepublican Partyquot also known as the quotJeffersonian Republicans founded 1791 effective in building a network of newspapers in major cities to broadcast its statements and editorialize its policies invented some of the campaign and organizational techniques which were later adopted by the Federalists and became standard American practice yeoman farmer In the United States yeomen were identi ed in the 18th and 19th centuries as nonslaveholding small landowning family farmers the J effersonians believed that only yeoman farmers had the virtue necessary for republican government to succeed they are the most free and not in debt to anyone else artisan a skilled craft worker who makes or creates things by hand that may befunctional or strictly decorative for example furniture decorative arts sculptures clothing jewellery household items andtools or even mechanical mechanisms such as the handmade clockwork movement of a watchmaker preindustrial revolution late 18thearly 19th century apprenticemaster An apprenticeship was a legal contract between the apprentice and master craftsman These contracts were often drawn up signed before the courts entered into a deed book and considered binding As part of the contract an apprentice agreed to keep trade secrets obtain his master s permission before leaving the premises and abstain from vices such as frequenting taverns and the theater the apprentice agreed to work for the master without pay for the term of the contract ideal agel4 preindustrial revolution late 18thearly 19th century women could also be apprentice journeyman an individual who has completed an apprenticeship and works for wages The term comes from the French for day man preindustrial revolution late l8thearly 19th century ESSAYS ESSAY 1 Trace the idea that America is not an ordinary nation but has a special role to play in human history from the Puritans to the early American republic Readings Cronon John Winthrop City Upon a Hill Cronon the settlers believed things that weren t there bountiful harvests and relationships with the Native Americans but we adapted John Winthrop the Puritan community of New England should serve as a model community for the rest of the world we are at the top of the hill 1 Beliefs Many Puritans believed God had made a covenant with their people and had chosen them to provide a model for the other nations of the Earth 2 Values liberty equality constitutionalism and the wellbeing of ordinary people came out of the Revolutionary era So too did our idea that we Americans are a special people with a special destiny to lead the world toward liberty and democracy 3 Government Jefferson envisioned America becoming the world39s great Empire of Liberty that is the model for democracy and republicanism He identified his nation as a beacon to the world ESSAY 11 Benjamin Franklin when asked by the English Parliament about the temper of America toward GreatBritain before the year 1763 answered that it was the best in the world They had not only a respect but an affection for Great Britain In light of this friendly attitude why did Americans go to war with England only 12 years later Readings Jack Greene Preconditions of the American Revolution Common Sense Common Sense attack on British rule the British system is too complex and rife with contradictions and the monarchy is granted far too much power The British system pretends to offer a reasonable system of checks and balances but in fact it does not why the current time is a good time to break free of Britain size we could potentially build a huge army bigger than Britain s the colonies feel united when they re small but when they grow they will not feel as united if the Americans revolt now they can use the vast expanses of uncharted land to the West in order to pay down some of the debt they will incur as a colony of Britain America lacks respectability on the international scene They are seen simply as rebels and cannot form substantial alliances with other nations In order to prosper in the long term the colonies need to be independent by declaring independence America will be able to ask for the help of other countries in its struggle for freedom Jack Greene Preconditions of the American Revolution local government was powerful and wanted autonomy seven years war aftermath was psychological less need for protection strong belief in trade and english liberty 1 Preconditions 2 Royal Proclamation of 1763 at the end of the French and Indian War the British issued a proclamation mainly intended to conciliate the Indians by checking the encroachment of settlers on their lands This royal proclamation which closed down colonial expansion westward was the first measure to affect all thirteen colonies 3 The Stamp Act of 1765 It created an excise tax on newspapers customs documents licenses college diplomas and most legal documents It was put into place in order to reduce their debt from the French and Indian war 4 Intolerable Acts of 1774 The Boston Port Act closing the port of Boston The Massachusetts Government Act putting the government of Massachusetts almost entirely under direct British control The Administration of Justice Act allowing royal officials to be tried in Britain if the king felt it necessary for fair justice The Quartering Act ordering the colonies to provide lodging for British soldier The Quebec Act expanding British territory in Canada and guaranteeing the free practice of Roman Catholicism ESSAY III Explain how divisions in Washington s cabinet led to the formation of the Federalist and Republican Party The Republicans and the DemocraticRepublicans are different names for the same party Readings Thomas Bender Agrarianism and Industrialism and Jack Rakove The State Builder Washington s cabinet Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton Secretary of War Henry Knox and Attorney General Edmund Randolph Washington39s administration had split into two rival factions one headed by Jefferson which would later become the DemocraticRepublican Party and the Federalist faction headed by Hamilton They disagreed on virtually all aspects of domestic and foreign policy and much of Washington39s time was spent in solving disputes between them IssueIEssay Point Who Should Govern Structure of Government Economics General Jeffersondemocratic republican Had deep faith in the common people especially farmers Distrusted special privilege Wished to lower voting quali cations Favored a weak central government strong state governments Preferred a more democratic government Wanted to reduce the number of federal employees Favored a strict interpretation of the Constitution Believed that individual liberties must be protected by laws Thought that agriculture should be the backbone of the nation Did not support giving government aid to trade nance and manufacturing Opposed the establishment of a national bank Wanted to eliminate internal taxes Wanted to pay off the national debt Made up of artisans shopkeepers frontier settlers and small farmers Was strongest in the South in the Southwest and on the frontier Hamilton federalist Believed that the common people often acted foolishly Thought that the rich educated and wellborn were the people who should rule Wanted to raise voting quali cations Favored a strong central government Thought that the American government should be modeled on the British system Wanted to increase the number of federal employees Supported a loose interpretation of the Constitution Thought that individual liberties such as freedom of speech should be sometimes restricted Wanted a balanced economy of agriculture trade nance and manufacturing Favored giving government aid to trade nance and manufacturing Established a national bank Wanted to maintain internal taxes Wanted to use the national debt to establish credit C onsisted of bankers manufacturers merchants professional people and wealthy farmers Had the most support in New England and along the Atlantic coast
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