CDO 335 COMPLETE Exam 5 Study Guide!
CDO 335 COMPLETE Exam 5 Study Guide! CDO 335
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jenna Carlesimo on Friday April 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CDO 335 at Central Michigan University taught by Lori Bissell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology of Speech and Hearing in Language at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 04/15/16
CDO 335 Anatomy & Physiology of Speech & Hearing Exam 5 Review Chapter 2: Respiratory Systems Be sure to review the following information: 1. Know the sections of the vertebral column by name and number of each type of vertebra. a. 7 Cervical (neck) Vertebrae (C1C7): b. 12 Thoracic (chest) Vertebrae (T1T12) c. 5 Lumbar Vertebrae (L1L5) d. 5 Sacral Vertebrae….fuse to form 1 Sacrum e. 34 Coccygeal Vertebrae become 1 Coccyx f. 3233 segments of bone* 2. Be able to identify all the landmarks of a typical vertebra. a. Body i. Corpus/ rounded projection b. Pedicles i. Projections off of the body c. Laminae i. Found off the pedicles d. Spinous process i. Downward projection on posterior end ii. Palpable—”able to feel” e. Transverse processes i. Lateral projections off the side f. Vertebral foraman i. Posterior to corpus hole through which spinal cord will pass g . Articular facets (off pedicle) i. Superior (always articulate with superior vertebrae) ii. Inferior h . Costal facets (articulates with ribs) i. Transverse ii. Inferior iii. Superior 3. Know the variations of both C1 and C2. a. C1 atlas (has no spinous process, body/corpus) b. C2 axis (has Dens / Odontoid process) i. Purpose of the Dens is to allow ROTATION, and articulation with C1 4. Be familiar with the bones, and where applicable, the landmarks that make up both the pectoral and pelvic girdle (clavicle, scapula, illium, ischium, pubic symphysis). a. The Girdles: Upper extremities attached to vertebral column by pectoral girdle…Lower extremities attached through pelvic girdle… i. Scapula 1. Acromion process – attaches to clavicle 2. Coracoid process – other process off scapula ii. Clavicle 1. Collarbone iii. Pelvic 1. Ilium a. Largest, upper bone 2. Ischium a. Lowest part 3. Pubis a. Comes together at the pubis symphysis* 5. Know the landmarks of the ribs and the total number and types of ribs that we have. a. True 7 (14 total) i. Connect directly to the sternum via costal cartilage b. False 3 (6 total) i. Connect to the sternum via rib 7 c. Floating 2 (4 total) i. Do not connect to the sternum d. LANDMARKS i . Head 1. Attaches with the spinal column (costal) ii . Neck 1. Extends from the head iii . Angle 1. Point at which rib curves iv . Shaft/body/corpus 1. Major portion of rib v . Costal Cartilage 1. Attaches the ribs to the sternum 6. Know the parts of the sternum. a . Manubrium i. Where clavicles articulate ii. R1 attaches b. Body i. Attaches via costal cartilage to R2 through R7 c . Xiphoid Process/Ensiform i. Landmark for CPR 7. Know the function of ALL muscles. a. Muscles of Respiration b . Diaphragm i. Quiet Inhalation c . External Intercostal i. Raises Ribs>> Quiet Inhalation d . Internal Intercostal i. Raises ribs >> Quiet inhalation ii. Mainly Lowers ribs >> Exhalation e . Transverse Thoracic i. Lowers Ribs>> Exhalation f . Levatores Costarum i. Raises ribs>> Forced Inhalation g . Serratus Posterior Superior i. Raises ribs>> Forced Inhalation h . Serratus Posterior Inferior i. Lowers Ribs>> Exhalation i. Muscles of the neck and torso j . Sternocleidomastoid i. Head rotation ii. When head fixed, raises ribs >> Forced Inhalation k . Scalenes i. Raises ribs 1 and 2>> Forced Inhalation l . Latissimus Dorsi i. Raises Lower Ribs>> Forced Inhalation ii. Compresses thorax >> Exhalation m . Pectoralis Major i. Raises ribs>> Forced Inhalation n . Pectoralis Minor i. Raises upper ribs>> Forced Inhalation o . Subclavius i. Raises rib 1 >> Forced Inhalation p. *Muscles of the Abdomen q . External Obliques i. Compresses Viscera>> Exhalation r . Internal Obliques i. Compresses Viscera >> Exhalation s . Transverse Abdominis i. Compresses Viscera>> Exhalation t . Rectus Abdominis i. Compresses Viscera>> Exhalation 8. Diaphragm and the sternocleidomastoid muscle: be sure to know origin, course, insertion, function and innervation for both of these muscles. a . Diaphragm i. Origin 1. Xiphoid process of the sternum ii. Course 1. Superiorly and medially iii. Insertion 1. Central tendon (aponuerosis—flat tendon) iv. Innervation 1. Phrenic nerve from cervical plexus of spinal nerves (C3, C4, C5) v. Function 1. Quiet inhibition 2. Contraction increases size of thorax b . Sternocleidomastoid i. Origin: 1. Anterior surface of the sternum 2. Superior surface of the medial end of clavicle ii. Course: 1. Up and back iii. Insertion 1. Mastoid process of the temporal bone iv. Innervation 1. XI accessory nerve v. Function 1. Head rotation 2. When head fixed, raises ribs >> Forced Inhalation 9. Be able to recall the 3 foramen located on the diaphragm. i . Foramen 1. 3 of them through which structures pass a . Aortic hiatus i. Descending abdominal aorta passes through here b . Vena Cava / Phrenic i. Deoxygenated blood from lower extremities to heart c . Esophageal i. Esophagus passes here 10. You should be able to recognize all muscles visually as you will be required to identify them on various diagrams** Look at Diagrams from class** 11. Know the definitions for all lung capacities ad lung volumes that were discussed in class and know the percentages associated with each of them. a. Tidal volume i. What we inhale and exhale (10% of total lung capacity TLC) b. Inspiratory reserve volume i. volume of air inhaled after inspiration (taking a deep breath) (40% of TLC) c. Expiratory reserve volume i. exhaling as much as you can forcibly after passive exhalation (30% of TLC) d. Residual volume i. volume of air remaining in lungs after maximum exhalation (20% TLC) ii. Will always remainSo your lung does not clasp! e. Lung Capacities i. Combination of volumes measured in milliliters (mL) or cc (cubic centimeters ) 1 . 4 capacities a. vital capacity 80% (TV + ERV + IRV) b. inspiratory capacity 50% (IRV + TV) c. functional residual capacity 50% (RV + ERV) d. Total lung capacity (IR + FRC) f.
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