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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sophie Smith on Wednesday February 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HB265 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Cha in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 174 views. For similar materials see Sophie Smith in Hospitality at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 02/11/15
Chapter 1 Keep Food Safe De ning foodborne illness outbreak O Foodborne Illness diseases transmitted to people from food 250 diseasescommon O Outbreak when two or more people have the same symptoms after eating the same food 39 Only one needed for Botulism and food poisoning How many people die from foodborne illnesses annually in the USA 0 Killing 300 Roughly 1 in 6 Americans suffer from foodborne illnesses in the USA 48 million foodborne illnesses Four most common foodhandling mistakes how food become unsafe 1 Timetemperature abuse When it has stayed at temperatures that are good for growth of pathogens 41135 degrees a When food is not held at correct temperatures or when its not cooked enough to kill pathogens b Food is not cooled correctly 2 crosscontamination transferred from one surface or food to another a Contaminated ingredients are added to food that is already cooked b Ready to eat food touches contaminated surfaces 3 poor personal hygiene not washing hands sneezing in foodworking while sick 4 poor cleaning and sanitizing pathogens can spread to food if equipment has not been cleaned and sanitized correctly NEEDS TO BE WASHED RINSED AND SANITIZED Wipes stored in sanitizing solution High risk populations have a higher risk of getting a foodborne illness Understand why they are more at risk Preschool aged children don t have strong immune system yet Pregnant and Elderlychanges in organs stomach acid decreases causing more pathogens and also intestinal track stores food for longer periods of time People with compromised immune systems people with cancerchemotherapy HIVAIDS because it weakens the immune system I People with bone marrow transplants have suppressed immune systems Take medication to prevent body from destroying the new organ TCS foods Food requiring time and temperature control for safety food most likely to become unsafe if not handling correctly milk eggs meat fish potatoes rice oils leafy greens melons tofusprouts Bacteria generally grow well in food items that contain protein are m and are neutral to slightly acidic Leafy greens have been increasingly associated with foodborne illnesses for last few years Differences between compensatory and punitive damages amp examples Compensatory lost work and wages and medical bills Punitive for punishing the defendant for willful neglect Examples of PHFTCS foods Dry rice is NOT one of TCS foods but cooked rice and cooked potatoes are TCS foods avoid TDZ Cut melon should be stored at 41F or below Sprouts and sprout seeds should be avoided for highrisk populations Differentiating three hazards and examples biological chemical and physical hazards Biological Pathogens are the greatest threat to food safety These include bacteria viruses parasites and fungi MOST COMMON GREATEST Chemical cleaners sanitizers and polishes Physical A foreign object such as metal shavings staples and bandages So can glass and dirt Chapter 2 The Microworld Characteristics of microorganisms small living organisms that can only be seen through a microscope They re EVERYWHERE Pathogensillness Do all microorganisms cause diseases NO some are harmless like when food looks gross Microorganisms that make you sick provide no sensory clues in presence of food Differences between spoilage microorganisms and pathogens Food Spoilage makes food undesirable but does NOT cause illness The microorganisms that causes food to spoil are NOT the same as the one that causes illnesses Pathogens DISEASE CAUSING microorganisms responsible for most of the foodborne illness outbreaks Once it gets in to your food or surface illness results Symptoms J aundice diarrhea vomiting fever nausea abdominal cramps Can start from 30 min6 weeks note No need for you to review the FDA s Bad Bug Book 292 pages Four types of pathogens Viruses bacteria parasites and fungi Viruses Norovirus and Hep A BOTH HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS Carried by humans and animals requires a living host Viruses CANNOT grow in food but they grow once inside of the intestines Sources contaminated water food or surfaces Transmitted FROM PERSON TO PERSON people to food and from people to food contacted surfaces usually occur through fecal oral routes Common symptoms of a foodborne illness What is jaundice Yellowing of skin and eyes SYMPTOMS Diarrhea vomiting fever nausea abdominal cramps and jaundice Not every person who is sick with a foodborne illness will have all of the same symptoms Three types of foodborne illnesses foodborne infection intoxication and toxin mediated infection In particular how different between foodborne intoxication and toxinmediated infection Food intoxication results from a person eating food containing toxins Toxins may be produced by pathogens found on the food or result from a chemical contamination OR may be part of a natural plant Symptoms occur Quickly within hours Toxinmediated Infection results from a person eating food containing Pathogens which produce illness causing toxins Foodbome Infection person eating foodcontaining pathogens Symptoms do not occur imminently Virus Characteristics Cannot grow in food but once eaten they grow inside a person s intestines not destroyed by normal cooking temperatures Hepatitis A Norovirus commonly associated with readytoeat food such as salad and shellfish Highly contagious diseases Hep A show slow symptoms may not Show for weeks Norovirus people come contagious within hours Treatment for hepatitis A and Norovirus No treatment or medicines Norovirus is the most common foodbomedisease outbreaks in the US approximately 50 Best way to control the spread of viruses when handling ready to eat food washing hands before handling the food Carriers People who are carriers are able to carry pathogens in their systems and infect others yet they never become ill themselves refer to Chapter 4 too FAT TOM Representing What Represent conditions that favor the growth of most foodborne pathogens F food microorganisms grow on moist and protein meat eggs protein dairy Aacidity 7546 is best for growth Ttime need a long time to grow 4 hours or more Ttemperature refrigeration may only slow growth Ooxygen most food require oxygen Some don t like botulism Cooked ride oils and baked potatoes Mmoisture require high moisture water activity of 85 or higher Pathogens typically do not grow in alkaline food or highly acidic food foodborne bacteria grow best at pH of 46 to 7 5 grow in neutral or slightly acidic Some bacteria Temperature danger zone 41 F to 135 F Bacteria Under favorable conditions they can reproduce very rapidly Four stages of bacterial growth especially difference between lag and log phase 0 Lag phase An adjustment period Their is stable as they prepare for growth need to prolong the lag phase Log phase Food will rapidly become unsafe during the log phase Bacteria can double their population every twenty mins Spores a different form of bacterial cells that can survive some cooking and freezing temperature Best prevention method Can be controlled best by monitoring time and temperature Staphylococcus can be found in human particularly in the hair nose throat and infected cuts 0 2050 of population have it Different characteristics between salmonellosis and salmonella typhi frequency and mortality rate Salmonellosis farm animals carry it 0 Eating a small amount could make you sick 0 40000 cases in the US annually but 400 deaths annually Salmonella Typhi lives only in humans More serious and life threatening 10 mortality rate Symptoms high fever Ecoli has been associated with both meat ground beef and contaminated produce kidney failure for severe cases Symptoms Diarrhea eventually becomes bloody abdominal cramps kidney failure Campylobateriosis poultry at processing plant O 100 deaths per year 0 Prevent cross contamination with meat Both vibrio p and clostridium botulinum causing botulism can grow well without oxygen Botulism a spore forming bacteria Does not need oxygen usually in canned food 510 fatal rate Vibro P found in waters where shellfish are harvested Requires NO oxygen 0 Found in Raw or partially cooked oysters seafood sushi CDC s top five pathogens for causing all illnesses based on frequencies Shigella spp Salmonella Typhi Enterhemorrhagic and shia toxin producing Ecoli Hep A Norovirus Parasites Can not grow in food Require for a host and they are living organisms just like virus Best prevention method they can be killed by proper cooking and freezing Uncommon in the USA but more common in rural and developing areas Anisakiasis disease through uncooked fish giardiasis and cyclosporiasis weight loss is one of common symptoms Foodborne mold Responsible for food spoilage Grow under almost any condition but grow well in acidic foods with low water activity Biological toxins the most preventive measures taken against biological toxins in seafood purchasing seafood items from approvedreliable suppliers Ciguatera Toxin Ciguatera toxin accumulates in the tissue of large predatory tropical reef fish Types of fish Common symptoms 0 Grouper barracounda jacks and snapper 0 Symptoms Tingling in fingers lips or toes Joint and muscle pain temporary blindness symptoms may last months or years Scombroid Toxin Under timetemperature abuse conditions bacteria associated with the fish produce the toxin histamine Cooking or freezing does not destroy histamine Types of sh 0 Tuna bonito mackerel mahi mahi Other biological contaminants Plant toxins some plants are naturally toxic including rhubarb leaves apricot kernels and water hemlock While others are toxins when raw but safe when cooked such as red kidney beans and fava beans Mushroom toxins 100 species are posiionius In more than 95 of mushroom poisoning cases poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter
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