Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PY 372 William Hart-Social Psychology
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tara Martin on Wednesday February 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PY 372 William Hart-Social Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 177 views.
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Date Created: 02/11/15
Social Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide Random sampling connection to external validity 0 Drawing from a population such that each individual in the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample 0 External validity the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to the population of interest Random assignment connection to internal validity 0 Process of assigning participants to the experimental conditions levels of the IV such that each participant has the same chance of being in a given condition 0 This minimizes individual differences and equalizes preexisting differences Psychology vs common sense 0 Social psychology is Lewin s equation behavior is a function of the person and the environment 0 Social psych focuses on the environment 0 Common sense tells you everything is true problems 0 We typically accepts ideas as true if they seem true a Not stated with specific conditions hard to disprove o Hindsight bias the tendency to exaggerate AFTER learning an outcome ones ability to have foreseen how something turned out o Stated ambiguously horoscopes and psychics 0 The difference between social psychology and common sense is that we use the scientific method to test ideas Understand the definitions for the terms we used in connection to research methods 0 Theory an integrated set of statements that describes predicts or explains behavior 0 Hypothesis specific testable and disconfirmable statement about the behavior we want to study OR the theory we want to test 0 Construct the conceptual representation of behaviors the phenomenon around which research is based 0 Venting frustration and feeling well 0 Operationalization defines a construct in terms of the way it is measured or manipulated makes the construct concrete 0 Writing an angry letter to the boss and experiencing positive mood 0 Construct validity the extent to which the measured variables in research successfully represent the constructs of theoretical interest 0 Is writing an angry letter venting o Is experiencing a positive mood feeling well 0 Control a group in a study that does not receive the experimental manipulation o This group allows for comparison with the experimental condition 0 Demand characteristics cues in the experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected 0 Dependent variable the variable that is measured in an experiment and is expected to change as a result of the experimental manipulation 0 Independent variable the experimental factor OR the variable that is manipulated in the experiments by the researchers 0 Also called the condition group Goals of science be able to distinguish examples of research designated to describe predict and understand as well as the methods that may be used in service of these goals e g naturalistic observation 0 Description used to describe characteristics in a population 0 Selfreport ex a survey 0 Observational methods ex naturalistic observation 0 Physiological methods ex skin conductance 0 Predict correlational work is used to predict relationships 0 Understand experiments help us to determine cause and effect which help us understand relationships What can we learn from a correlation 0 The strength of a relationship if there is one 0 The valence of a relationship 0 Negative as one variable increases in value the other decreases in value 0 Positive as one variable increases in value the other increases in value 0 Does NOT assert cause Benefits and disadvantages of experimental correlational and descriptive research Experimental Correlational Descriptive Advantages If done well you CAN Efficient You can study Helps us generate conclude m and things you cannot hypotheses and inform manipulate and should not policy decisions manipulate Disadvantages External validity CANNOT assert CANNOT make causal demand characteristics CAUSALITY conclusions ethical concerns deception Often not like the real world Fundamental attribution error and the actorobserver bias 0 Fundamental attribution error tendency for observers to underestimate situational in uences and overestimate dispositional internal in uences upon others behavior 0 Actorobserver bias tendency to explain others behavior as due to dispositions and our own behavior as due to the situation 0 We often fail to take another s perspective we fail to recognize their situation and therefore don t account for their situation Availability heuristic 0 Used to evaluate the frequency or likelihood of an event on the basis of how quickly examples are readily available in your memory 0 Ex tabloid viewing and overanticipation of sexual infidelity Hindsight bias 0 The I knew it all along phenomenon 0 The tendency to exaggerate AFTER learning an outcome one s ability to have foreseen how something turned out 0 Ex sporting events outcomes Confirmation bias 0 Tendency to search for information that confirms our preconceptions and neglect info that disconfirms them 0 EX watching different news channels 0 Ex testing a number sequence to prove you re right not disprove your thought Base rate fallacy tendency to ignore baserate information usually presented as a statistic 0 The tendency to ignore statistical information in favor of dramatic or vivid case histories 0 Ex believing our friends over statistical evidence Optimistic bias 0 Unrealistic optimism even though 505 of marriages fail I know mine will be enduring joy 0 The tendency to have an overly optimistic outlook on life Representativeness heuristic 0 Used to estimate the extent to which a person or thing is representative of the average person or thing in the category 0 EX things are placed into categories based on their resemblance to typical category members this often works well but sometimes leads us astray False consensus effect 0 Tendency to overestimate the incidence or commonality of one s undesirable traits or unsuccessful behaviors 0 Ex we all get dumped at some times 0 EX walk into a glass door False uniqueness effect 0 Tendency to underestimate the commonality of one s desirable traits or successful behaviors 0 Ex no one has sideburns like mine 0 Ex holding the door for someone want to think you re rare Illusion of transparency 0 The illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others 0 EX we think that people can see inside our heads Spotlight effect 0 The belief that others are paying more attention to our appearance and behavior than they really are 0 Ex seeing ourselves at center stage and thinking people are paying more attention than they are Theories of purpose for Selfesteem 0 Selfaffirmation 0 Terror management theory 0 Sociometer Lewin s equation 0 B f P E 0 Behavior is a function of the person and the environment Rosenthal s study of expectancy effects selffulfilling prophecy 0 Participants sometimes live up to what they believe experimenters expect of them 0 Selffulfilling prophecy a belief that leads to its own fulfillment Teachers expectations can become selffulfilling prophecies 0 Students are acutely sensitive to teachers facial expressions and body movements Dependent variable what is measured in an experiment Independent variable what is manipulated in an experiment Kelley s attribution theory 0 To explain behavior we use three factors 0 Consistency indicates internal factors 0 Distinctiveness indicates external factors 0 Consensus everyone is doing it indicates external factors Demand characteristics 0 Cues in the experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected 0 A disadvantage in experimental methods Regression toward the mean 0 The statistical tendency for extreme scores or extreme behavior to return toward one s average 0 Ex exam scores if you score really high on the first test you are more likely to do worse on the second one and vice versa Illusory correlation 0 Perception of a relationship where none exists or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists 0 Ex if we believe a correlation exists we forget all of the times where it didn t Selfserving biases e g attributing more responsibility to the self for positive behaviors than negative behaviors We are not so kind to others however 0 The tendency to perceive oneself favorably 0 Selfserving attributions a form of selfserving bias the tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself and negative outcomes to other factors 0 One of the most potent of human biases 0 Ex I got an A on my econ test vs my professor gave me a C on that test 0 Unrealistic optimism even though 50 of marriages fail I know mine will be enduring joy 0 False consensus and uniqueness Selfhandicapping 0 Protecting one s selfimage by creating a handy excuse for failure 0 Ex performing poorly at the beginning of a task in order not to create unreachable expectations Selfpresentation 0 Controlling regulating and monitoring information about the self 0 One kind of impression management a Presenting a desired but plausible identity to others 0 Audience may be external imaginary or self Selfmonitoring 0 Being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one s performance to create the desired impression 0 Ex they act like social chameleons they adjust their behavior in response to external situations I They are less likely to act on their own attitudes Selfreference effect 0 Information is easy to recall if you can connect it back to your life Selffulfilling prophecy 0 A belief that leads to its own fulfillment 0 Ex if people believe the bank is about to crash they will all go withdraw their money causing the bank to crash 0 Ex teachers expectations Rena s older brother was brilliant I bet she is too 9 smiling more at Rena teaching her more 9 Rena responds enthusiastically 9 confirming the initial belief Counterfactual thinking 0 Imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened but didn t 0 Ex bronze medalists can easily imagine not medaling exhibit more joy than silver medalists can easily imagine winning gold Belief perseverance 0 Persistence of one s initial conceptions such as when the basis for one s belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives 0 Beliefs can grown their own legs and survive the discrediting of the evidence that inspired them 0 Ex sometimes when shown evidence that discredits our beliefs we still don t believe we are wrong Learned helplessness 0 The sense of hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad events 0 Ex depressed people believe their efforts will have no effect Bracing for the worst 0 We lower our expectations before we get feedback 0 If we expect to do bad on something and then do we don t feel as bad 0 Opposite of optimistic bias Planning fallacy 0 The tendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a task Langer and Rodin s famous nursing home study Upward and downward social comparison 0 Upward someone you aspire to o Motivating if people believe that the standard is attainable o Demotivating if the standard is not viewed as attainable 0 Downward someone who s worse off than you a Boosts our self esteem if people think they will not experience the same misfortune as the standard that will never be me o Hurts self esteem when people think they can experience the same misfortune I fear I am heading down that same road Know the three major selfmotives 0 Selfconsistency need to maintain a stable selfconcept selfverification 0 Selfenhancement need for a positive selfview and to protect against negative feedback 0 Selfappraisal desire for accurate selfknowledge Four qualities of automaticity 0 Thinking and behavior can be discussed in terms of how automatic or controlled it is o Uncontrollability inability to stop or alter process that has already been started 0 Unintentionality no control over whether process is started I You don t intend to do it 0 Lack of awareness you don t know it s happening 0 Efficiency you don t have to think consciously to do it 0 Most behaviors are a blend of automatic and controlled components Operationalization 0 Defines a construct in terms of the way it is measured or manipulated ex makes the construct concrete 0 Specific testable disconfirmable 0 Ex writing an angry letter to the boss and experiencing positive mood Theory of reasoned action Fishbein amp Ajzen I Attitudes don t predict behavior When will an attitude predict behavior and conversely when will a behavior cause an attitude 0 Measure true attitudes 0 Mirror study if we look in a mirror we are less likely to do something we don t think is right 0 Active experience if we are actively experiencing something we are more likely to act on it 0 Ex kids on cots at school How can researchers measure attitudes more effectively 0 By making thing anonymous 0 Ex fake liedetector Cognitive dissonance Festinger 0 People have a need to avoid inconsistency in their thoughts feelings and behaviors dissonance in unsettling I Dissonance is a tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions 0 In order to relieve the tension we have to either change our attitude or our behavior 0 Ex a smoker I Smoking in unhealthy I I want to be healthy I I smoke Selfperception theory Bem 0 People interpret their attitudes from their own behavior I Just as we infer other people s attitudes by perceiving their behavior 0 Ex pro s losing their love for the game because they don t know why they do it anymore Selfaffirmation theory 0 People want to feel good about themselves 0 The need to assert selfadequacy 0 Inconsistency feels foolish restoring selfimage eliminates need to change attitude I We seek consistency we don t want to feel like a fool Lowball technique 0 Tendency to comply with a large unexpected request after having committed to an earlier request 0 Ex buying a car from a salesman Footinthedoor technique I Tendency for people who have complied with a small request to be more willing to comply with a larger request later 0 Ex the uglysign study Doorintheface technique 0 After a person turns down a large request people are more likely to comply when the requester offers a more reasonable request 0 Ex blood donor study I When asked to donate for a long term commitment first they were more likely to agree to donate tomorrow ABC s of attitudes 0 Affect feelings 0 Behavior 0 Cognition thoughts Asch s conformity research 0 One person being tested in a room with other subjects who are actually part of the experiment 0 Asked to match lines that are the same length 0 The subjects in on the experiment give the obviously wrong answer 0 This caused 37 of participants to conform to what their peers were saying even though they knew it was wrong 0 63 did NOT conform showing that most people tell the truth even when others do not Sherif s work on establishing group norms 0 A person is asked how far a light moves when it disappears from a screen in a dark room 0 The next day 3 people are put into the room with the same experiment is shown 0 A group norm will emerge regardless of what the people thought on the first day 0 The norm was false The light didn t move at all a Autokinetic phenomenon the apparent movement of a stationary point of light in the dark When will people conform 0 Group size greater group size usually produces more conformity 0 Unanimity with even one dissenter conformity decreases substantially 0 Cohesion members of tightknit groups conform more 0 Status if group members are high status there is more conformity 0 Ex a kid and an NBA player 0 Public response people conform more when they must respond publicly 0 Public commitment making a public commitment to your own position decreases conformity to an alternative position Reactance 0 A motive to protect or restore one s sense of freedom 0 Reactance arises when someone threatens our freedom of action 0 Labels of objectionable material on media have the opposite effect of making this material more attractive to kids for whom it was forbidden Rrated movies 0 Ex I want to do it because you told me I can t do it or binge drinking when you re 21 Distinguish between conformity compliance and obedience 0 Conformity a change in behavior or beliefs to agree with others 0 Compliance yielding to a request for certain behaviors or agreement to a particular point of view while privately disagreeing 0 Someone is asking for a change 0 Obedience a change in behavior or beliefs as a result of the commands of others in authority 0 You have no say in the matter Understand the Milgram studies on obedience 0 40 men participated at teachers 0 60 went all the way to 450 volts 0 What characteristics of the authority figure led to obedience 0 Power when the experimenter was replaced by an assistant only 20 obeyed o Immediacy when the experimenter called in by phone only 20 obeyed 0 Number more in uential when there s more people giving the command Zimbardo s simulated prison experiment what did this famous study suggest about human behavior 0 College men volunteered to play the roles of guards and prisoners 0 Were assigned randomly 0 The guards and prisoners got caught up in the role a The guards began to disparage the prisoners and some devised cruel and degrading routines o The prisoners broke down rebelled or became apathetic 0 Supposed to be a two week study had to be stopped after 6 days 0 Behavior is a product of both the individual person and the situation a The prison study seems to have attracted volunteers who were prone to aggressiveness
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