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Arkansas Tech University - For 4703 - Class Notes - Week 10

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Arkansas Tech University - For 4703 - Class Notes - Week 10

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background image Chapter 13: Learning-Strategy Training, Cooperative Learning, and 
Multiple Intelligences 
    The three divisions of this chapter deal with:  (a) Identifying the traits that characterize a successful learner and  
(b) Helping the student learn how to study, when to study, and under what 
conditions to study. 
  This material is not specifically geared toward second-language acquisition; instead, it is 
applicable to studying in general, for any subject. 
o  These details are well worth considering as you attempt to help and encourage  each individual student to become a successful language learner.    o  However, the material on “Multiple Intelligences” is sheer crap.      As we’ll see when we get to that section, there is only one form of  intelligence:  intelligence.      Calling the ability to stack cups rapidly “intelligence” is like calling 
a corndog a Porterhouse steak:  you can call it that if you wish, 
but that doesn’t make it one.  
    Learning-Strategy Training:   o  The characteristics of successful learners are worth noting:      They are willing and accurate guessers, who have a strong desire to  communicate and will attempt to do so even at the risk of appearing 
foolish.  They attend to both the meaning and the form of their message.  
They also practice and monitor their own speech as well as the speech of 
others. (p. 159) 
  Let’s consider these traits individually.      First, successful learners –not just in language but in any  field –are risk takers:      That is, they are willing to form and test a  hypothesis about the subject matter –in our case, 
speaking the target language.   
  In order to do so, they will endeavor to 
speak the target language in order to 
communicate with a native speaker or with 
another person who shares the target 
language.  
(1)  Again because such learners are risk 
takers, they are highly motivated to 
communicate, despite any concerns 
they might have about sounding foolish 
by making mistakes in vocabulary, 
background image grammar, or idiom:  they inherently 
emphasize that if they wait until they 
can speak the TL perfectly, they will 
miss many opportunities to 
communicate.   
o  If they make mistakes, they will  either self-correct or accept the 
correction of a native speaker 
  Second, successful learners pay attention to the two  basic components of what they’re trying to say –i. e., 
the meaning of the words (semantic content) and the 
form in which they express it (structure of the 
language).  
o   No one questions the importance of semantic  content:     The words in a sentence must add up to  the speaker’s intended meaning.    Structurally, languages tend to 
fall into one of two basic types: 
o  Synthetic, in which the  meaning of the words in 
a sentence is expressed 
by their inflections, and 
o  Analytical, in which the  positions of the words in 
a sentence determine 
their meaning.   
  Old English  (Anglo-Saxon) is a 
Synthetic 
language, with 
essentially the 
same inflections 
as modern 
German; 
however, over the 
course of its long 
evolutionary 
history, English 
has become 
primarily an 
background image Analytical 
language, 
although it retains 
certain 
inflections.  
    Obviously, in Synthetic languages, form is of paramount importance, 
whereas  
  In Analytical languages, structure holds the key to meaning.  o  Successful language learners grok the importance of both  semantic content and structure in the TL.    Finally, successful language learners practice the TL –in the language lab, at home, in 
conversations with their pets, before a mirror, into a recorder, in the shower. ..The list 
goes on... 
o  Having a conversation partner who is fluent in the TL helps, but the absence of  one will not stop a determined L2 learner.  o    He/She will listen to the TL as he/she speaks it, as others (especially native- speakers) speak it, and –an excellent technique –as native-speaking actors or 
newscasters speak it in motion pictures or television programs.   
  As we’ve discussed before, demonstrating conversational competence  constitutes more than merely having a large vocabulary and being able to 
speak the TL grammatically:   
  It includes speaking in the characteristic rhythms, perhaps 
employing some of the (socially acceptable) body language used 
in the TL culture 
  And knowing a goodly number of idiomatic expressions and how 
to use them correctly.   
o  Watching films–particularly with the English subtitles  turned on -can assist the L2 learner in acquiring these 
characteristics of the TL.   
o  But whether he/she is watching a film or conversing with a  native speaker of the TL, a successful language learner is 
listening carefully and storing away information for the 
next conversation.  
  The Experience under “Learning-Strategy Training” includes the teacher’s reading of the 
students “learning journals” –what he calls “Language Logs.”  
o   Consider requiring the students to keep a Language Log to be an excellent  practice:      Asking them to collect one new word or expression per week (or per day  or per month, at your preference) makes them more aware of the 
language being spoken around them.   

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School: Arkansas Tech University
Department: Foreign Language
Course: Teaching English as a Second Language
Professor: Stanley Lombardo
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: english, ESL, and TESL
Name: ENGL 4703: Chapter 13 Strategy Training, Cooperative Learning, and Multiple Intelligences
Description: These notes cover Chapter 13 of Techniques & Principles in Language Learning 3rd Edition
Uploaded: 04/15/2016
7 Pages 14 Views 11 Unlocks
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