Exam 1 Study Guide Spring 2015
Exam 1 Study Guide Spring 2015 BIOL240
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jenny McCabe on Wednesday February 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL240 at Kansas taught by Dr. Gonzalez in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 177 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Human Anatomy in Biology at Kansas.
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Date Created: 02/11/15
Exam 5Study GuidePart 1 Circulatory and Lymphatic systems 1 Special Senses a Taste tongue What are the types of papillae taste buds and cranial nerves that are involved in carrying taste information Types of papillae cicumvallate fungiform foliate Taste buds are contained in papillae mostly on tongue others in pharynx cheeks etc Types of taste sweet sour salty bitter umami Gustatory taste pathway via Facial nerve VII anterior 23rds of tongue Glossopharyngeal nerve IX posterior 13rd of tongue and pharynx Vagus nerve X epiglottis and pharynx Smell What type of tissue is involved with smell What is the location for smell What are the neurons of the olfactory epithelium Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Olfaction epithelium in roof of nasal cavity Bipolar neurons Vision What are the bones that make up the eye socket What are the extrinsic eye muscles and their innervation What are the accessory structures and layers of the eyeball What are the types of photoreceptors and their function 7 bones frontal sphenoid zygomatic ethmoid maxilla lacrimal palatine Extrinsic eye muscles Superior rectus rectus straight Medial rectus Lateral rectus Inferior rectus Superior oblique Inferior oblique Oculomotor III innervates most eye muscles Trochlear IV superior oblique Abducens VI lateral rectus Accessory structures eyebrow eyelashes eyelids conjunctiva mucous membrane lacrimal parts Layers Outer Fibrous dense connective tissue 0 Sclera white of the eye 0 Cornea Middle Vascular O Choroid posterior darkly pigmented O Ciliary body smooth muscles control lens shape 0 Iris smooth muscles control pupil diameter Inner Sensory O Retina and optic nerve Photoreceptors Rods black and white night vision course Cones color day vision fine d Ears What are the basic structures of the external middle and inner ears and their corresponding functions External ear Auricle Guard hairs Sebaceous glands External auditory meatus External auditory canal Tympanic membrane Function collect sound waves Middle ear Function amplifies sound waves by turning them into mechanical vibrations 20x Ossicles stapes incus malleus Tympanic cavity Tensor tympani muscle Auditory tube Inner ear Function translates mechanical vibrations into nerve impulses hearing translates head posture and movement that relate to the sense of balance Semicircular ducts equilibrium Oval window Vestibular nerve Vestibule equilibrium Cochlear nerve Cochlea hearing Round window 2 Circulatory System a What are the functions and components of the circulatory system 2 components cardiovascular system blood heart blood vessels lymphatic system lymph nodes and lymph vessels Functions transportation C02 02 nutrients metabolic wastes hormones regulation of body temp and pH levels protection immune system WBC prevents blood loss by forming blood clots b What is blood What type of tissue is What is composed of What are its main features Fluid connective tissue Composed of liquid matrix plasma cells and cell fragments formed elements erythrocytes platelets WBC 78 of body weight 4x thicker than water 1 C warmer than body temp pH 735745 What are leukocytes What are their functions and general features What is diapedesis Leukocytes WB Cs Contain nucleus and organelles most found in body tissue and not in the bloodstream important in body defense enter blood vessels by diapedesis squeezing through capillary walls What are red blood cells What are the main features and adaptations to carry oxygen What is hemoglobin Erythrocytes Lack nucleus or organelles very small compared to WBC biconcave design allows for gas transport greater surface area organize in single row in capillaries Rouleaux contain hemoglobin Hemoglobin redpigmented protein in charge of gas exchange consists of 4 subunits each with a nonprotein group with iron in the center which is where C02 and 02 bond Heart Where is the heart located Be familiar with the types of circulations pulmonary amp systemic Heart is in the mediastinum behind lying on the diaphragm Systemic circulation blood vessels that transport blood to and from all body tissues Pulmonary circulation blood vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs What is pericardium What are its layers Pericardium is tissue covering the heart Visceral aka epicardium attached to outer surface of the heart Parietal layer above visceral attached to fibrous pericardium Fibrous pericardium outermost holds heart in place Layers of heart wall from out to in epicardium visceral layer of serous pericardium myocardium muscle endocardium lines chambers simple squamous epithelium Gross anatomy of the heart What are the different chambers and valves What is the type of blood oxygenated or deoxygenated that is found within the chambers at a given time For example you should know that the right atrium collects oxygenpoor blood from the superior and inferior vena cavae and coronary sinus You should know how the blood ows across the heart and the valves Right atrium receives 02 poor blood from systemic circuit from superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus Right ventricle receives blood from right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary circuit via the pulmonary trunk internal walls trabeculae carneae papillary muscles chordae tendineae Left atrium receives 02 rich blood from lungs through pulmonary veins Left ventricle pumps blood through systemic circuit via aorta internal walls trabeculae carneae papillary muscles chordae tendineae What is the cardiac skeleton What are its functions Composed of dense connective tissue Surrounds all 4 valves anchor valve cusps prevent overdilation of valve openings main point of insertion for cardiac muscle blocks direct spread of electrical impulses What are the sounds of the heart Lubdup Lub the atrioventricular valves closing Dup the semilunar valves closing k What are foramen ovale and fossa ovalis ductus arteriosus amp ligamentum arteriosum Foramen ovale hole between right and left atria in fetuses Fossa ovalis foramen ovale after it closes Ductus arteriousus shunts blood to aorta in fetuses Ligamentum arteriosum what the ductus arteriousus becomes after birth 1 What is diastole amp systole Diastole filling relaxation Systole contraction Independent of extrinsic nerve impulses autorhythmicity specialized cardiac muscle cells that carry impulses throughout the heart signaling the chambers to contract in proper sequence signals are only transmitted via AV node cardiac skeleton prevents ventricular contraction ventricular contraction begins at the apex 11 What are the sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of the heart Sympathetic increase rate and force of contractions cervical and thoracic chain ganglia Parasympathetic branches of Vagus nerve slows heart rate 0 What are the anatomical and functional differences between arteries and veins You should know the main features that distinguish the different types of arteries veins and capillaries Arteries carry blood away from the heart usually carry oxygenated blood thick tunica media thin tunica intima and tunica externa small lumen elastic conducting arteries largest arteries near the heart includes aorta and its major branches high elastin content largest lumen largest tunic media muscular distributing arteries medium in size includes most named arteries tunica media is thick relative to lumen unique feature internal and external elastic laminae arterioles smallest arteries diameter controlled by local factors in the tissues e g stretching and sympathetic nervous system Capillaries smallest blood vessels with sitespecific functions continuous capillaries endothelial cells very close most commonfound in most organs skeletal muscles lungs skin CNS fenestrated capillaries wide intercellular pores found in kidneys glomerulus endocrine glands joints intestines sinusoid capillaries gaps between cells that appear as cavities also with large pores exchange of large molecules proteins and cells found in bone marrow liver and spleen Veins conduct blood from capillaries to the heart carry blood to the heart usually carry deoxygenated blood broad lumen and valves thin tunica intima and tunica media thicker tunica extema than arteries less elastin in walls walls are thinner than those of comparable arteries valves abundant in limbs absent in those of thoracic and abdominal cavities p What is endothelium What type of tissue is found here Lines lumen of blood lymphatic vessels heart and chambers Simple squamous epithelium q What are capillary beds What are they found Network of capillaries running through tissues by closing or opening sphincters capillary beds control amount of blood supplying a tissue Absent in cartilage cornea lens r What structure fails in varicose veins Valves of the veins s What are vascular anastomoses Places where blood vessels interconnect v Why is the dural sinus and hepatic portal system interesting Durals sinuses endotheliumlined channels of the dura matter that drain the veins of the brain come together as sigmoid sinus which becomes internal jugular vein Hepatic portal system 2 capillary beds between arterial supply and final venous drainage Route artery I capillaries of gut picks up digested nutrients from stomach and intestines I hepatic portal vein connects the two capillary beds I liver s capillaries process and store nutrients I hepatic vein I inferior vena cava w Fetal circulation What organs are bypassed What organ is in charge of nutrient and gas exchange circulation Bypass lungs and liver Nutrient and gas exchange occurs at the placenta 3 Lymphatic System a What are the functions of the lymphatic system Where is the lymph uid drained to Functions Transport excess of interstitial uid Serves as route by which absorbed fat from the intestine is transported to blood lacteals Provides immunological defenses Returns leaked proteins to blood to help maintain osmotic pressure in blood vessels Lymph uid drained to the heart b What is edema The uid retention and tissues swelling that results if the system is blocked c What is lymph uid Formed as a filtrate of plasma through blood capillaries similar to plasma except with low protein concentration lymph ows under very low pressure d What are lymph capillaries Where are they found Where are they absent from Closedended tubes with highly permeable endothelium oneway minivalves allowing excess uid to enter but not leave Found near blood capillaries Absent from bones bone marrow teeth and CNS e What are lacteals Network of blood and lymph capillaries lipids enter the lacteals before reaching blood f Which are the lymphoid organs You should know their location and main function Thymus bilobed organ in neck produces hormones that help T lymphocyte maturation Spleen removal of bloodborne antigens removal and destruction of aged or defective blood cells stores platelets synthesize antibodies Tonsils simplest lymphoid tissue swellings of mucosa that form a circle Lymph nodes beanshaped organs along lymphatic collecting vessels that contain phagocytic cells Small intestine contains lacteals g What are lymphocytes and what are the types of lymphocytes Lymphocytes the primary cells of the lymphoid system that respond to invading organisms abnormal body cells foreign proteins Types T cells thymusdependent B cells bone marrow derived NK cells natural killer mior Arteries Associated with Assorted Re2i0ns m Heart has aorta inferiorsuperior vena cava Pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins Aortic Arch has three arteries branching from it 1 Brachiocephalic trunk artery 2 Left common carotid artery 3 Left subclavian artery Brachiocephalic trunk has 2 branches that come off of it 1 Right common carotid artery 2 Right subclavian artery Heart has ascending aorta and descending aorta inferiorsuperior vena cava Pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins From descending aortaljabdominal aortaljsplits off into right and left common iliac arteries Upper NeckHead region Subclavian 3 branches Vertebral arteries thyrocervical trunk and costocervical trunk Common Carotid branch Internal carotid and external carotid Circle of Willis brain region Basillar artery and internal carotid artery Upper Limb region Right subclavian artery Axillary artery Brachial artery Radial artery ulnar artery Thorax region Internal thoracic artery Anterior and posterior interocostals Arteries to the Abdomen Three main branches supply intestinal tract 1 Celiac Trunk Artery 2 Superior Mesenteric Artery 3 Inferior Mesenteric Artery 1Celiac trunk Cystic artery hepatic artery right gastric artery gastroduodenal artery right gastric artery splenic artery common hepatic artery left gastric artery splenic artery 2Superior Mesenteric Artery Middle colic artery right colic artery illeocolic artery jejunal branch arteries illeal branch arteries 31nferior Mesenteric Artery left colic artery sigmoid artery superior rectal artery Abdomingl Aorta Branches into common iliac artery from there it branches into internal and external iliac arteries Extemal iliaclermoral a eryljpopliteal artery Maior Veins Associated with Assorted Regions Head region Sigmoid sinus internal jugular vein internal jugular vein Hepatic Portal Svstem Hepatic Portal Vein Superior mesenteric vein Splenic vein Inferior mesenteric vein Thorax Azyos Vein Upper Limb Cephalic vein Basilic Vein Median cubital vein Lower Limb Common iliac vein Internal and external iliac vein External iliac vein becomes femoral vein after crossing inguinal ligament Great Saphenous vein Small Saphenous vein
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