Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide SS 1010
Utah State University
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cody Eliason on Wednesday February 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SS 1010 at University of Utah taught by Dr. Frank in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see SS 1010 in Sociology at University of Utah.
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Date Created: 02/11/15
Physics 102 Midterm 1 Study Guide Chloe Smithson Midterm 1 Study Guide Chapter 11 The Atomic Hypothesis Matter is composed of atoms This idea goes back to the Greeks in the 5th Century BC in which people theorized that things could only be broken apart so many times to a smallest piece called an atom This idea went out of popularity with Aristotle s teachings of 4 elements making up the universe Earth air water and fire In the 1800s John Dalton reintroduced the atomic theory and in 1827 Robert Brown noticed grains of pollen suspended in water would continuously move due to the constant movement of invisible atoms Albert Einstein proved this theory in 1905 Characteristics of Atoms Atoms are very small There are a lot of atoms 1023 atoms to be exact Atoms are ageless Atoms are in perpetual motion In the atmosphere they can move up to 10 times the speed of sound Atomic Imagery Though it is impossible to see atoms with the naked eye we can see individual atoms using an electron beam in an electron microscope An electron beam is a stream of particles with wave properties We can use these to see atoms since atoms are larger than the electron beam wavelength In the 1980s the scan tunneling microscope was developed This uses a small tip scanning over something at an incredibly small distance point by point to develop a topographic image which displays the wave nature of matter Models are made to visualize what we cannot see in an atom and helps us predict things about what we cannot see Atomic Structure An atom is made up of a dense nucleus orbited by electrically charged particles called electrons The nucleus is built up by things called nucleons packed extremely densely Neutrons are neutral nucleons Protons are positive nucleons The positive protons in the nucleus attract electrons in a constant state of orbit around the nucleus This attraction causes atoms with more electrons to become smaller in diameter Total mass of an atom is called atomic mass and consists of total masses of protons neutrons and electrons measured in AMU atomic mass units 1 AMU is equal to 112 the mass of one carbon molecule or 1661 E27 kg Physics 102 Midterm 1 Study Guide Chloe Smithson The Elements 0 An element is a substance made up of only one type of atom 0 Hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant element in the universe and helium is second lightest and second most abundant 0 Over 115 elements have been identified 0 90 Elements are natural while the others are man made Periodic Table of Elements 0 The periodic table is a chart listing atoms by their atomic number and their arrangements of electrons 0 Atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus From left to right on the periodic table each element increases by 1 proton 0 Electrical arrangement determines properties of an element and is determined by the number of shells of electrons 0 Elements can have up to 7 shells c From top to bottom on the periodic table each element increases by 1 outer shell lons 0 An ion is atom with an unbalanced electrical charge A negative ion is caused by a surplus of electrons o A positive ion is caused by a deficit of electrons Isotopes o Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons 0 These have identical behavior 0 Isotopes are identified by mass number Compounds and Mixtures 0 Compound when atoms of different elements bond to one another 0 Mixture a substance mixed together without bonding Molecules o The smallest particles of a substance that contain 2 or more covalently bonded atoms 0 Energy is required to break these bonds Antimatter o Composed of atoms with negative nuclei and positive electrons called positrons o If antimatter were to touch matter both would be annihilated Dark Matter 0 Matter we can t see that affects what we can see c 23 of the universe is dark matter Chapter 12 Crystal Structure 0 Crystals are regular orderly arrays of atoms Physics 102 Midterm 1 Study Guide Chloe Smithson This was confirmed in the early 20th century by XRay imagery where an Xray beam was directed at a crystal and diffracted into patterns Those patterns show the neat patterns of atoms on lattices William Henry Bragg and his son developed a math formula to show how Xrays scatter from the atomic layers in a crystal Amorphous solids don t have a crystalline structure and are characterized by random distributions of atoms and molecules Density Measures how compact an amount of matter is Mass per unit volume densitymassvolume measured in metric units like gcm3 Since density is a property the amount of matter is irrelevant to density Weight density is density expressed in terms of weight Weight densityweightvolume measured in Nm3 Elasticity Elasticity is determined by how much an object changes when it is deformed as well as its ability to return to its original state materials that don t return to their original state are inelastic Hooke s Law states that the stretch of a spring is directly proportional to the applied force which means stretchchange in force The elastic limit is the distance at which an elastic material will no longer return to it s original state Tension and Compression Tension is when something is pulled on Tension causes things to get longer and thinner Compression is when something is pushed in Compression causes things to get shorter and wider The neutral layer of something under tension andor compression is the layer not under stress due to these things Scaling The study of how the volume and shape of any object affect the relationships among it s strength weight and surface area Strength relates to the cross sectional area and is measured in square units Weight has to do with volume and is measured in cubic units Volume and weight increase much faster than cross sectional area and strength Total surface area is proportional to the square of an object s linear size Total volume is proportional to the cube of the object s linear size Chapter 13 Pressure Pressure is the force applied on something divided by the area over which the force is appHed Physics 102 Midterm 1 Study Guide Chloe Smithson o Pressureforcelarea 0 Pressure may be measured in any unit of force divided by any unit of area The most common is the Nm2 which is more commonly called the Pascal Pa Science often uses kilopascals kPa Pressure in a liquid 0 The pressure of a liquid depends on the density of the liquid and the depth 0 liquid pressureweight densitydepth 0 liquid pressure is exerted equally in all directions 0 liquid pressing up against something gives a perpendicular net force upon the surface Buoyancy o The apparent loss of weight of objects in a liquid 0 the buoyant force is the upward force of a liquid on a submerged object Archimedes Principle 0 This principle states that an immersed object is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced o This applies to liquids and gases 0 At any depth an object can only displace a volume of fluid equal to its volume Sink or Float o lfthe object is more dense than the liquid it will sink o If the object is less dense than the fluid it will float o lfthe object is equal in density to the liquid it will float Flotation o The principle of flotation states that a floating object displaces a weight of fluid equal to its own weight Pascal s Principle 0 Discovered in the 1800s by Blaise Pascal this principle states that a pressure change at any point in an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to all points in the fluid 0 This applies to both liquids and gases 0 The application of Pascal s principle is seen in hydraulic presses Surface Tension o This is the tendency of the surface of liquids to contract 0 This is caused by molecular attractions downward and side to side 0 The amount of surface tension depends on the type of liquid what is mixed with the liquid and the temperature Capillarity c When liquid rises in a thin hollow tube 0 Capillarity is due to adhesion and the curve of the liquid in the tube is due to cohesion o Adhesion is the attraction between unlike substances like a liquid and a tube Physics 102 Midterm 1 Study Guide Chloe Smithson o Cohesion is the attraction between like substances Chapter 14 The atmosphere 0 The thickness of the atmosphere is due to the kinetic energy of the molecules within and gravity 0 99 of the atmosphere is below 30km Atmospheric Pressure 0 The atmosphere exerts pressure the same way that liquids exert pressure 0 In a column of air going through the atmosphere with a 1 m2 cross section there is a mass of about 10000 kg 0 Atmospheric pressure isn t uniform as it varies in altitude as well as location and time Barometer o Invented by Evangelista Torricelli to measure air pressure the barometer consists of a mercury filled glass tube immersed in a dish of mercury o The barometer balances when the weight of the liquid in the tube exerts the same pressure as the surrounding atmosphere 0 Water could be used to create a barometer but it would be far too large for regular use 0 An aneroid barometer is a small portable barometer that uses a metal box partially exhausted of air with a flexible lid that bends in response to air pressure Boyle s Law 0 The relationship between pressure and volume shows an inverse proportionality o P1V o PVconstant O P1V1P2V2 0 These imply that when pressure increases volume decreases and vice versa Buoyancy of Air 0 Archimedes Principle applies the same way in air as it does in water 0 An object surrounded by air is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of air displaced 0 Unlike water the atmosphere has no surface and the atmosphere becomes less dense with height Bernoulli s Principle 0 The motion of fluid follows imaginary streamlines 0 Where speed of a fluid increases the internal pressure in the fluid decreases Plasma o The fourth phase of matter consisting of electrified gas that makes up much of the universe including stars Physics 102 Midterm 1 Study Guide Chloe Smithson o In our daily lives we see plasma in neon signs fluorescent lights and plasma screen TVs
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