New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chemistry Study Guide for Exam 3

by: Erika Scholl

Chemistry Study Guide for Exam 3 CHEM 1230-022

Marketplace > University of Toledo > Chemistry > CHEM 1230-022 > Chemistry Study Guide for Exam 3
Erika Scholl
GPA 3.367

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Here is a study guide for Exam 3
General Chemistry 1
Terry Bigiono
Study Guide
Exam 3 chemistry
50 ?




Popular in General Chemistry 1

Popular in Chemistry

This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erika Scholl on Friday April 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1230-022 at University of Toledo taught by Terry Bigiono in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Toledo.


Reviews for Chemistry Study Guide for Exam 3


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/15/16
General Chemistry Midterm Exam 2 Study Guide Conversions Ex) 355 km  10^3m  10^­3s = 355 m                S     1 km       ms              ms Empirical Formula is the smallest ratio of elements. Ex) C2 H3 O2 is empirical        C4 H6 O4 is not empirical. 2 can be divided out of them all. Molecular formula is a multiple of the empirical formula. Ex)      Limiting reactant NH3 + O2         NO + H2O NO is the limiting reactant. Percent Yield Actual yield          * 100% Theoretical Yield What is the percent yield of H2O if 138g is produced from 16g of H2 and excess O2? 2H2 + 02 = 2H2O # g H2O = 16g H2 * 1 mol H2 * 2 mol H2O * 18.02g H20 = 143g H2O                                   2.02g H2    2 mol H2        1 mol H2O % yield = actual * 100%  = 138g H2O *100% = 96.7%               theoretical              143g H2O  Formulas Grams given * 1 mol * 6.022x10^23 molecules = ?molecules                      Molar mass         1 mol                     Of element(s) XMass given * 1 mol of X     *   Ymoles given in formula   *  Grams of Y   = Grams of Y                   Molar mass of X        X moles given in formula       1 mol of Y         Molarity = Moles of solute              M = n           n = v * M      v = n                Volume of solute (L)                v                                       M Molarity = mol          M = mol                     L                      L Electrolytes are compounds that ionize and conduct electricity Strong acids and bases are strong electrolytes Weak electrolytes are:   HF  HCN  C2H4O2 Soluble Elements and compounds  Li  Na  K  Rb  Cs  NH4+  NO3­  ClO4­  C2H3O2­  SO4^2­  except Sr^2+ , Ba2+ , Hg2^2+ , Pb^2+  Cl­  Br­           except Ag+ , Hg2^2+ , Pb^2+  I­ Oxidation: loss of one or more electrons Reduction: gain of one or more electrons Redox: electrons are transferred  H2 S O4     2(+1) + ? + 4(­2) = 0 net charge +1  ?  ­2      S = +6 (charges) Redox: hydrocarbon + 02(g)          CO2(g) + H2O(l)  Titration Net Ionic Equation  Formulas for Wavelength, Energy, and Frequency: Wave length =    Frequency = V Energy = E Planks constant = h h = 6.626x10^ ­34 J*S Speed of light = c c = 3.00x10^8 m/s m = mass = c/v     V=c/        E = h*V = h*c/      = h*c/E    E=mc^2 Atomic Size of Elements  Quantum Numbers Zeff = nuclear charge Zactual = number of inner electrons Zeff = Zactual – electron shielding  Ex) Cl 17 protons – 10 electrons = +7  Cation is always smaller than the atom from which it was formed Anion is always larger Ionization energy = Ei1, Ei2, Ei3…… Ei2 is higher than Ei1… Lowest Ei values: group 1A (Alkali metals) Highest Ei values: group 8A (Nobel gasses) Ei values decrease going down within the groups. Covalent bond = sharing electrons and directional Ionic bonds= anions and cations and all directions Polar covalent = unequal sharing of electrons Resonance structures are multiple Lewis Structures for the same compound. Ex) Formal Charge = [# of valence e­] – 1/2[# of bonding e­] – [# of nonbonding e­] Molecules are not flat, they have 3d shapes: for example H2O       Elements and electron pairs are charge clouds, they want to repel each other and get as  far away from each other as possible. Valence bond theory: quantum mechanical model that introduces the idea of combining  orbitals to male chemical bonds. Sigma Bond: (σ bonds) are the strongest type of covalent chemical bond. They are  formed by head­on overlapping between atomic orbitals. Pi bond: (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of one involved atomic orbital overlap two lobes of the other involved atomic orbital. Ch. 9. System: part of the universe we are studying. Surroundings: rest of the universe. Boundary: surface dividing the system and surroundings. Open systems: can exchange energy and matter. Closed system: matter only can exchange. Isolated system: no exchange. Open = glass of water. Closed = bottle water. Isolated = thermos.   Internal energy depends on:  chemical composition  size of system  temperature and pressure  physical state Work: motion opposing a force    w = F*d = m*g*change of heat (h) Heat: form of energy transferred as a result of a temperature difference between the system and  the surroundings. Energy: capacity to do work. Work done on a system: positive = endothermic. Work done by a system: negative = exothermic. A state function is a property of something (like the change of energy), that only depends on the  current state, not how it got there. Heat and work are NOT state functions! KE = 1/2mv^2 Kinetic energy = ½ mass * volume^2 Work = ­ pressure * change in velocity W= ­P*change in velocity 1  law of thermodynamics  Change in energy = q + w q = heat transferred Enthalpy(h) = energy + pressure*volume H= energy – work q = change in energy + pressure* change in pressure q = deltaE + pressure*deltaP Enthalpy is a state function! ­heat is heat leaving the system = exothermic +heat flows into the system = endothermic Thermodynamic state = 1 atm, 25 degrees C unless specified, 1M concentration is the most  stable. Heat Capacity = (C)  q = C*deltaT     deltaT = q/C    C = q/deltaT Extensive quantities: depend on extent and size of system (volume, C, mass, internal energy) Intensive quantities: does not depend on size and extent (temperature, pressure, density) Specific heat capacity: amount of heat needed to raise temperature of 1g substance by 1 degree C Molar heat capacity(cm): amount of heat needed to raise temperature of 1mol by 1 degree C. Heat of reaction values depend on: Molar quantities Physical state Pressure Temperature A­A + B­B = 2AB PE = bond energy DeltaE = Ep ­ Er           product   reaction Hess’s law: deltaH does not depend on the path taken to synthetize a material. Bond Dissociation energy(D) = enthalpy change for bond breaking down. Spontaneous process proceeds on its own while a non­spontaneous process requires a continuous external influence to drive it. Entropy(S)  has an absolute scale. 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.