midterm 1 objectives
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Date Created: 02/11/15
Slide 1 terminology and overview 1 Differentiate between the Central and Peripheral Nervous System CNS brain stem and spinal cord 0 Peripheral Axons that enter or leave the brain and spinal cord form nerves that are part of the peripheral nervous system 0 12 pairs of cranial nerves arise from brainstem o 31 pairs of spinal nerves from spinal cord 0 Ganglia neurons located outside the CNS in periphery 2 Differentiate between ganglia and nuclei Ganglia collections of neurons outside CNS in periphery o Nuclei neurons within the CNS 0 Stain stains myelin black light areas are nuclei 3 Recognize sections of the brain taken in coronal horizontal or sagittal planes H magma iTFt HS39nEEREE I FLAME mammpu 5mm PLANE 4 Distinguish dorsal ventral rostral and caudal above and below the diencephalic exure 1 1 i339 lFILEHlLllHE lE39 l39irElEH AT quotEllHE LE H39ElL F THE IElEEiEER L E FE lI39EiE 7 D SnLEPCIETEHIEIFE graham lav lit E lil CAUEIJEL 5 Identify the major subdivision of the brainstem medulla pons midbrain diencephalon and cerebellum 6 Identify the key landmarks that distinguish medulla pons and midbrain SLIIIH39IEIEHE l lF THE HEMP TEILEHEEFHAL FEEFEEIEIFEAIH mf l u39 m il l Halal ileum Elma Ganglia EIEHCEF I39IL L H T alamms Hff t lEa iij MIDHAJH HENRI Eliiii F39 i lEEli FiEIEE part quot hmlmiam Etcma 5L REBELGEquot il lE LEEH H l H IIEEII 19 i39ii39 lilLil39l HILILLA EiII39IEIEI E WIv t ii Eff Eqpl E ism 7 Identify the major subdivisions of the cerebral cortex Bumps hillocks tubercles coicui gyri peduncles brachium eminence generally indicate the location of underlying nuclei or ber tracts Grooves ssures sulci divide brain into different regions or represent a midline division of the brain Cut off nerves are central portions of cranial nerves that emerge from the medulla pons midbrain and diencephalon Two prominent ssures 0 Central sulcus dorsal to ventral beginning at about the midpoint of the cerebral cortex 0 Lateral sulcus rostral to caudal These deep sulci divide the cortex into frontal parietal temporal and occipital lobes Slide 1 histology and ultrastructure 1 De ne the cellular components of the nervous system neurons and neuroglia HE lFEI IE the Fun imal Unit tine Hrwnius all System 1 A EWDHITEE l39illewni EEMEEE llrltly Enamel Eemamem ififac iu 5H ermzl FINES Splines i r 1 y 5 aquot iHillch gin inf IE1 from Elanmm 931 quot 39 39Hquot initial Semisint segment at 31mm jiust lh i nm Emit myElli r 39139 wmph r 39 Terminals Eil39ldini all amen Which usually pliuidea inrtn t HLLEIEH mu ple branchesh a t l liE IEElBI EE between niiumnga E BE EFIEFIE F l jl39 Em rxeita mry for imhliEJiti r Eynapee 39 r 1 was Neurons cells of the nervous system Transmit impulses from one part of the body to another Neuroglia support insulate and protect the neuron A Astrocyt B Oligodendrocyte Cl Microgliall cell Myelinatilng olligodendrocyte NEUROSCIENCE 56 Figure 15 Part 1 2012 Sinauer Associates Inc 2 De ne the structure and function of a synapse Synapse a structure that permits a neuron or nerve cell to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another ce are connected within the nervous system or how areas of the brain funcUon Eelluler And Meleeuler Appreehes Far Sturdy Eernneetieltjr hind Meleeular Identity it Herve Eells Enterereelie Trerlspert mLAmim acids lrlijieet rdieeetiee amine eeie l trite regirerr rel rueurrenjs take it the rut trhspert it he their lt terrniihels where it earn he yieueliimei Here reerlnterhlrsrs irijeetjed irate the eye he llllselirrg is sin in the lhreiin in en en relleteell 39te visual system etregreri Trhsert Heriseredishi W 39 q rnieihesieheres Irrjieet treeer irrte sree ref sen terminals Tenminiells telre it up and tmrrsgeert it te their eetils elf erigtn were it eerr be eisurliiee lHere rherlrer were ihjeteel spinal severe and memerile tr thi eerehrel that erejiieted te that re re leileeleelt entihedies tel speei ie pretetrnstrreeretrensmiitters eerl lee used te telnrtiliy peeiuetierrs rreiureahs Her enrtitleelyr tea gmteeleiern Ielihrllirl preteiiht ws urseid te thel e seei e pepuletiien ef rreurens irr the ereilellurri Eerretire Frehes eh lee iuserll ten idlehtji r spreetfie p il l m eril heurierrsr Here e seetth ref thi eerehe ilerrr tees Ilselid with melee fer e seei e Reine tht is ehlyr expressed ih erre three elf heurerr in the eereleelllereii 0 Physiological recording Stimulate in one area and record in another Here skin is touched and recording is made from primary sensory cortex to determine if the region in which the recording electrode is placed receives input from the stimulated part of the forearm 0 Physiological techniques for studying connectivity between nerve cells 0 Reporter gene that codes for visualizable substance eg GFP is inserted in a genome and is under the control of a cell typespeci c promoter DNA sequence that turns gene quotonquot Reporter is only activated in speci c cell types that express the gene Here DRG cells are activated and the distribution of their processes in the periphery and in the CNS are apparent o fMRI MRI MRI and fMRI differ from each other in a way that an MRI views the anatomical structure while an fMRI views the metabolic funcUon 4 De ne the glial cells that produce myelin around axons in the central and peripheral nervous system 0 Schwann cell myelinates axons in the periphery Each Schwann cell forms a single wrap on one axon Oligodendrocyte myelinates axons within the CNS Each oligodendrocyte may wrap more than one axon Slide 2spinal cord gLss anatomy somatic vs autonomic nervous system A Be able to identify structures related to the spinal cord including Intervertebral Foramen Site where nerves going out to muscles or carrying sensory information into the spinal cord emerge 1 Coverings Dura mater arachnoid pia mater these 3 are meninges Meninges series of 3 membranes surrounding the spinal cord Subarachnoid space between the arachnoid and pia mater Contains cerebral spinal uid CSF 2 Describe specializations arising from pia mater a Filum Terminale em 0 Extension of pia mater that I i extends beyond the distal end of the spinal cord the conus medullaris h 39 b Denticulate Ligament 15 0 Found at all levels of the PMME spinal 39 7 BEHIEULATIE MIGAMEHET FI39A HATER cord projections of pia mater surface of 7 L31 7 Fquot 939 3 E Gaudal Lungituidlinal View nf animal card the dura mater 3 Cauda Equina Nerve Roots that emerge at m if v M below L2 extend beyond the medullaris to reach their exit laments distal to end of the called the CAUDA EQUINA 4 Conus Medullaris The spinal cord occupies the El i u i I l i lfy 39l canal extending from the base of the skull to the level of Emei a laraftml lul second lumbar vertebrae where WEN m to form the CONUS MEDULLARIS 5 Dorsal root vs ventral root roots allow information from the quot1 film 5 Cam aquina enter the spinal cord sensory root and for motor commands to gum Em to leave the spinal cord motor o SMJET Eti ai root A Dorsal root ganglion contain the cell bodies of sensory afferent nerves B Explain why a lumbar puncture is carried out at the level of the second lumbar vertebrae L2 0 Most peoples spinal cords end at Ll but there is still CSF at L2 C Describe the anatomical and functional organization of the autonomic vs the somatic nervous system 1 De ne the components of the somatic nervous system o The somatic system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that is responsible for carrying motor and sensory information both to and from the central nervous system This system is made up of nerves that connect to the skin sensory organs and all skeletal muscles The system is responsible for nearly all voluntary muscle movements as well as for processing sensory information that arrives via external stimuli including hearing touch and sight 2 Differentiate the two division of the autonomic nervous system Sympathetic and parasympathetic Portion of the nervous system that supplies motor and sensory innervation to structures that are not under voluntary control Sympathetic Prepares the body for an emergency Parasympathetic Conserves amp restores energy maintains homeostasis Somatic Motor neurons in spinal cord project directly to skeletal muscles they innervate ANS Motor neurons in spinal cord project to a synapse on another neuron located in a ganglion in the periphery then innervates target 3 De ne preganglionic and postganglionic neurons in the autonomic nervous system 0 The ANS sympathetic and parasympathetic requires 2 neurons to effect a response in a target organ 0 1st neuron preganglionic is always located within the cns ie either brain or spinal cord 2ncl neuron postganglionic is always in a ganglia not a drg located somewhere in the periphery 4 Contrast the location of preganglionic and postganglionic neurons for the sympathetic vs the parasympathetic portions of the ANS H FAWVM F TlHEI39IE ETETE M TA EEET a t J FIDEiTGEHGLIDHIE IBM CH5 GLQQHIQ LIQHIG HEELJERIDH r H FERI EHEEJLL Dim G NEELf 5 De ne the location of ganglia related to the autonomic nervous system Sympathetic chainparavertebral ganglia o Bilateral located adjacent to vertebral column 0 Extend from base of skull to coccyx o Ganglia are attached to adjacent spinal nerve by white and grey rami communicante o The axons of ALL preganglionic sympathetic neurons leave the spinal cord via the ventral root at their level of origin Parasympathetic ganglia o In most areas postganglionic parasympathetic neurons are located in walls of organ being innervated Neurons located in ganglia that are in or near the target structure 0 Preganglionic parasympathetic neurons are located in brainstem cranial and sacral part of spinal cord between 52 and 54 Slide 3 functional organization of the spinal cord A Describe the functional organization of the spinal cord iegrern ef the Seieel Gem Ehewing Dietihet Regine Item E at u n39 intInga A i f u iul39f lijf 39u39 re MTquot n a CF 7 I l 33 it F i H iILPHU UL17EE in i 5 a e Lila a VEP i liiaii i39 lli39iid39r 7 53913 j 7 as ul ll a l y lw shElli ia tim3reet Ilnmmrgg r 7 39 L it ii a 39 l L i 397 Bette H4 397 i j r h r l i Eir ahii LLLL t Hr l gee Eentr el area that hes tlie herll shape butterfly Grey Matte r C heete f ereuletihe f heu reinquot5 email Ellie Nieleel ihte tiereel here eelsll eehtrel here three are ntl the grey retter that is lighter in elir white rhtter Ei li it if Ins and ll i121 Grey matter eidiee white rtquotletter ill39ll39liz regiene r elem he aireel white elumh lieteir39el Whitl eelrui ml ln m tr ll white elem rm 1 De ne the difference between the central and peripheral nervous system De ne the difference between components found in the grey matter and white matter in the spinal cord Nissl stains speci cally label cell bodies 0 Fiber stains identify myelinated axons 0 Grey matter area in which neurons have a high density 0 White matter area in which myelinated axons are most prevalent Identify the functional role of neurons in the dorsal vs the ventral horn of the spinal cord Dorsal half of the spinal cord processes sensory information input 0 Neurons located in the dorsal part of the spinal cord have axons that remain within the spinal cord itself sensory neurons 0 Sensory axons do not leave the spinal cord and get sensory information from the periphery from ganglia neurons outside CNS that gather together 0 Neurons within the dorsal root ganglion have a soma with no dendrites From soma a single process that divides into two branches One process goes out to the periphery where they detect sensory information such as touch pressure pain and temperature on the skin This information is relayed centrally via the second process which is called the central process The central process conveys sensory information into the spinal cord This information may contact neurons located within the dorsal part of the gray matter or continue on to the brainstem before synapsing The function of these neurons is to relay this information to other regions of the spinal cord and brain 0 Ventral half of the spinal cord gives rise to axons that innervate skeletal and smooth muscle motor axons 4 Relate the dorsal root ganglion to the organization of the spinal cord Dorsal Root ganglia are the small swellings located bilaterally at the level of each intervertebral foramen The peripheral processes collect laterally The central processes can be seen entering the spinal cord on its dorsal aspect 5 Identify the tracts found in the white matter and their relative distribution in the dorsal lateral or ventral funiculi DIEPEI Darepal HIErn funiculiya a LatMEI rd Ew l u T JAE 2 quot APEETEH39ER Mil A x A rquot 393 u 39iui39iarr iral if In rmgdi uia ggiai Hsnrrn 7 h 7quot EELEM Ealumn le Ventrall nk an LEEriaa rugi nlame EEELFEEL39AET gtu 7 7 Digital 1331 739 Br f E EIEH gamiuj Ellarse H1 Frquot Ef er mathsi an r dlr s all half TF gpfsinal mndl areal tulu f g i y gy whim matmr 39E i t haahnna s 2 anagram e Ema wr l maritime 1H39L39Eil ltr i EH cur rta Ezra mailtear 15m H ntral harry Inf Eg i39r lall D l REEntr l fu ituui whim meangr In ated Earmaran 2 mntral hams wail nafi nnal 115 Enluajzljglalg gagj gwi aiwn i Emmaart z ll 3111le i i ti al Human L t llil i 1271 39QE Qlii l il Eym la ntic am pamssyuimpaaethati li l lu mars Earm5 f sun i l Betwea n 39T39 aria 33 Latanal E i j f EE I WQ39E i ir l naga rgal h r anti vimquotIt ai has Fn Blew35 with infEl 39lirt i Dorsal funiculus ascending axons sensory 0 Cell bodies of origin for these axons are in dorsal root ganglion 0 Function general sensation from periohery 0 Two tracts upper limbupper trunk and lower limblower trunk Ventral funiculus 0 Contains mainly descending axons from brainstem to spinal cord motor tracts Lateral funiculus o Extends from lateral aspect dorsal horn to ventrolateral aspect dorsal horn 0 Contains multiple tracts Ascending sensory axon tracts pain temp cerebellar Descending motor axon tracts from brain cortex midbrain Anterior white commissure 6 Differentiate tract fasciculus nuculus Tract a bundle of axons that connect two CNS regions eg coricospinal tract axons from cortex projecting to the spinal cord 0 Ascending tract projects from spinal cord to brain 0 Descending tract projects from brain to spinal cord Fasciculus a bundle of anatomically de ned bers that subserve a common function aka tract Funiculus an area containing multiple tracts or fasciculi B Describe the structural and functional components that make up the peripheral nervous system 1 De ne how a spinal nerve is formed Made up of axons from hundreds of individual neurons Individual axons are surrounded by connective tissue endoneurium Multiple bundles are grouped together by another connective tissue sheath perineurium All bundles are enclosed by a common thick external connective sheath epineurium 2 De ne the functional components in a spinal nerve Efferent axons that conduct information away from the brain or spinal cord output 0 General somatic efferent axons GSE outgoing axons carrying motor commands to skeletal muscles 0 General visceral efferent axons autonomic GVE carrying motor commands postganglionic neurons that innervate smooth muscle cardiac muscle and glandular tissue Afferent axons that conduct information towards the CNS input 0 General somatic afferent axons GSA axons that transmit sensory information touch pain temp from body to spinal cord 0 General visceral afferent axons autonomic GVA transmit sensory information pressure distension pain from organs to spinal cord Large myelinated carry touch pressure proprioceptive info Small diameter axons pain and temperature information 3 De ne a cranial nerve including its functional components Arise from brainstem and innervate structures in the head and neck 0 Some are only sensory some only motor and some are both 0 Not formed from dorsal and ventral roots those are not present in the brain stem Neurons carrying afferent sensory information in a cranial nerve are located in ganglia in the periphery analogous to dorsal root gangHon Neurons giving rise to efferent motor axons are located in a nucleus located somewhere in the brainstem A GSE skeletal muscles in head and neck facial tongue eye muscles 00w pain GVE glandular structures in head salivary tears smooth muscle GSA axons that transmit sensory from face ear oral cavity GVA axons that transmit sensory info from organs to brainstem E Special visceral efferent unique voluntary muscles which have a different embryological origin F Special somatic visceral afferent sensory information unique to head vision hearing balance taste olfactory 4 Compare and contrast spinal and cranial nerves SFll39llla iL I39IilElEHE EHAHIlIAL iliIEFl39iufE Tilhere are Ell paira arrsa39ipinal nerves Tilrare are 11 pairs elf cranial nem ea Primarily innerliratea rsatrueturea lbellaw tine neck nratar and remnant llnnerliratea rstrnetrurea irl the ll39IEEIEI and nadir meter and aenser39r exreeatierns rlieruaeerl llater lFanrnen l hair unilan aii alreall ifeennanyr and ventral matri rants ll39iieinre arises il tll39jl39fli39 im brainstem H rents ipreaent Miter a39rltl sernaryremnnrnenta unite within lhrainatenn rare they emit brainatenr lMlatr neurana giving rise e erenta LJWE39 Heated in aentrail harn aftlhie apiiniail earn ll39lsi lltar neurna ginin riae ta efferenta are llcated in inneiei in the brainstem lliileuranrsa ginning rine ta remnant eenripainente ire Heated in diurnal rant ganglian ll39iierurerns ginning riee t sernanr annealtents are llaraterl i39rI manned anliai lliilereer eantain nnrulllsiplie E il39l pv lfl il39lit ilneluaiimgt E EJE are E15 EMA lliiernrea entaiin innulltiialle nrianema intruding GEE EUA 55A SHE SUE Neurons involved in carrying SENSORY information from the periphery to the CNS are located within ganglia located outside the brain or spinal cord Neurons carrying sensory information from the body below the head are located in DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA Neurons carrying sensory information from the head and neck are located in speci c ganglia which we will identify at a later time 0 Motor neurons involved in controlling voluntary somatic skeletal muscles as well as smooth muscles related to the viscera are located within the central nervous system that is in the spinal cord or brain Their axons extend into the peripheral nervous system Slide 4 gross anatomical features of the brainstem and forebrain 1 Recognize different divisions of the brainstem medulla pons midbrain and diencephalon Recognize different lobes within the cerebral cortex ldentify key landmarks related to the different divisions of the brainstem and cerebral cortex on the gross brain 4 Differentiate structures on the dorsal vs the ventral side of the brainstem WHEN MEDlllL i CEHIEBEllUM REMOVED EETERWML FEi iTllJl EE F ii 7 quotF quot T VENTRllGLE a ll 1 4T mural I VENTRICLE Wilbert I gracil39 Tilbercle lllwa Emmlllama oaex r x 39 v P39ustelrl r i av r 5 g 5 a Triguemmal Median liallaws 39 39 3 l v l i A K v Timbers l gt F 3 ii A I 1 l V V V l l it a v 7 V 5 Differentiate structures on the medial vs the lateral side of the cerebral cortex 6 MEADFl LEILILEI IF DEREK WEWWIFWAL iH U39Lh39ll39E EJLIILIEEIJE Entral Ellll rll lLallaral quot Eullnu39s GRAN IAL llll ElRVlEE RELATED TD MllEDllJLlLA 7 l p39 IE LEERllHE EULEILIE Identify the 12 cranial nerves and localize their attachments to the different regions of the brainstem Identify the lobes of the cerebral cortex and their borders including the s f frontal lobe parietal lobe temporal lobe occipital lobe cingulate lobe aI Identify speci c sulci in the 7 FEQHt LL B cerebral cortex including the central sulcus lateral sulcus calcarine sulcus cingulate sulcus and parietooccipital 7 a atrium L EE suclus PAH ventricles and 9 u j l BEEIFI g 7 EEH THAL animus a FAEIETAL LGEE 39 7 Slide 5 blood cllmEULATBEEELIsaU LEus I 39t CNS 5 1 l i a HE T L EiE TALL rL EE V E lElP39UE E LL S UM 39 the Enemar ow of CSF 1 Describe the arterial supply to the spinal cord brainstem diencephalon and forebrain See D 2 List the names of the major arterial branches arising from the internal carotid and vertebral arteries and the regions that each vessel supplies Vertebral artery enters skull through foramen magnum after coursing posteriorly over C1 20 of blood ow to brain 0 Arterial supply to medulla pons midbrain cerebellum Internal carotid artery ascends in lateral part of neck to reach base of skull Enters skull through carotid canal located just below cavity of middle ear Rostral to vertebral artery at base of skull 80 blood ow to brain 3 Name the vessels that make up the circle of willis and describe their role in collateral circulation to the brainstem Circle of vessels that loop around the optic chiasm and tract circulatory anastomosis that supplies blood to brain and surrounding structures Links the vertebral and carotid arterial systems in the brain Anterior cerebral artery Anterior communicating artery Internal carotid artery Posterior cerebral artery Posterior communicating artery Name the blood vessels that supply speci c regions of the brainstem and cerebral cortex Vertebral artery spinal cord medulla pons midbrain posterior cerebellum Basilar artery pons rostral cerebellum Posterior cerebral artery midbrain thalamus ventral and medial surface of temporal and occipital lobes Middle cerebral artery lateral surface of cerebral cortex Anterior cerebral artery medial surface expect occipital and temporal Posterior cerebral artery medial surface occipital and temporal lobe FEE 1 tlerteihrel Anterie Ellrrterriil Earto Arteree 3 F39oe teriior Inferior erebelier Artery Poeteriior Epi l Artery E mterir Eleinell Amery E t iEaeime rritel ranch wt Aort rnteri r Inrteriior Eerebeller Artery oeier Artery 1f5uiperir Eerreller attery 1113Foeteri r Eer ehreli Artery ti rnterior cerebral Amery 13Anteror Eommunieetini Artery timildle Eerehrel irtery 115Feterir Eiommruriieetrr Artery II Ereniei meme 2 tie Home at F Ehiieerrr til menial iniEW39 3 V Erenil nerye E xiihdu trite 2 1 it 1 H to Eireie olfWillie Slide 5 Venous drainage from the brain Dural sinusesI and ventricles A Review layers of the meninges and identify specializations related to venous drainage of the brain 1 Review the layers of the meninges Dura matter thick durable closest to skull Arachnoid matter web like cushions CNS Pia matter rmly adheres to surface of brain and spinal cord following all sulci and gyri surrounds blood vessels 2 De ne dural projections Falx cerebri midline projection of dura that separates the 2 cerebral hemispheres Falx cerebelli small projection separates 2 hemispheres of cerebellum Tentorium cerebelli tent that separates cerebellum from occipital lobe 3 Describe locations of the major venous structures veins and sinuses that provide drainage for the brain Superior sagittal sinus upper edge falx cerebri attaches to skull Inferior sagittal sinus lower free edge falx cerebri Straight sinus point of fusion between falx cerebri amp tentorium cerebelli Transverse sinus in tentorium cerebelli where it is attached to skull Occipital sinus small channel in falx cerebelli along occipital bone Con uens of sinuses point where superior saggital occipital and transverse sinus converge Cavernous sinus dural enlargement on either side of sella turcica IHFEm FALH IEEFEEEIFII EAEI il ll All r SIHUE ETHAIG HT gulFE j SAGIT I TAL El n313 TEFIITIZIIHIIJH GEHEELLI EHFLLI EHEE iF E IN u SEE E39EEIF ITFLL EIH LIE 4 Describe the ow of venous blood from the brain to the internal jugular vein and the role of the dural venous sinuses Openings between periosteal and meningeal layers of dura and where 2 layers of dura meet Represent the major routes by which venous blood is drained from the brain 0 Blood lled spaces are called venous dural sinuses 5 Distinguish between epidural subdural and subarachnoid hematomas Subdural hematomas dural border cells innermost layer loose arrangement provides a potential plane of separation between dura and arachnoid Location of subdural hematomas bleeds o Epidural hematomas middle meningeal artery Subarachnoid hematoma aneurysm ruptured into SAS ows into subarachnoid hemorrhage B Name the ventricles and describe the ow of cerebral spinal uid through the ventricular system 1 List the subdivisions of the lateral ventricle 2 Relate each ventricle to the area of the CNS in which it is located vrrlmmm reign Er y and BanalEl emit quotIa Iij in mnl cu air Imam n EIFZI iEi1 El 13II than and Ehinzl wntricl a hrmr Hiesarmeiphu lm Maaj am mmmuctl L r Fnurll iila r39i l mjl iillgvli 39 Gamhallmnq mrn ipme 3 Identify the structures that produce cerebral spinal uid Choroid plexus arises from tufts of cells within the walls of the ventricles Secretion of CSF is active process requiring energy 4 Describe the ow of cerebral spinal uid in the ventricular system 5 Describe how cerebral spinal uid is removed from the ventricular system
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