RUSS100 Test3 Study Guide
RUSS100 Test3 Study Guide 637747
Pennsylvania State University Altoona
Popular in Russian 100
Sarah Jessica Harris
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Jessica Harris on Friday April 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 637747 at Pennsylvania State University Altoona taught by Irene Hurd in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Russian 100 in Russian at Pennsylvania State University Altoona.
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Date Created: 04/15/16
Russian 100 Test3 Guide To prepare for Test 3, please do not ONLY use this guide. This guide should be studied in addition to the past 4 weeks of notes and the study guide provided by the professor. ● I.Historically, Russia has been affected by Climate (long, harsh, cold winters) Exposure (vast borders, easy to invade) Poverty of their soil (permafrost makes agriculture difficult) ● II.he older generation of Russians... physically strong ultimate endurance ultimate survivors highly adaptable rugged full of energy ● IIIHow the older generations work... the extremes (doing nothing and then working very hard at the end of the season to meet quota) the importance of the group vs the individual (the collective, all emphasis was on the group) ● IIIHistorically, in Russia, there has been an emphasis on family (and Church...group worship) ● III Sameness along with groupness, under communism. Lack of privacy. Gossip Social envy ● IV. Slavic Soul: Russian soul. Hospitality, very similar to Italians. ● V. Obsessed with order (passion for order) ○ Why? size of country flatness of land easy to invade to keep the ethnic groups together as citizens of one country ● V. Strong government rule. ● VI. Devotion to the land (Mother Russia, the motherland. EXTREME patriotism) ● VII. he consumption of alcohol/drinking problem. Drinking vodka became a pastime Drinking beer has become very popular among the young ● Three most important things to Russians: Family, Friends, and Vodka ● A Russian has two escapes from life Vodka Nature ● Love the great outdoors. One of their favorite outdoor activity is picking mushrooms and berries. ● Why do Russians drink so much? They drink if they are sad, they drink if they are happy, they will drink if they are bored, they will find any reason to consume alcohol. It is an escape from their “gray” world. ● Gorbachev wanted his people to drink less alcohol (late 80’s) raised prices cut adds cut store hours, etc… ● In resistance to this, the Russian people started making their own vodka (moonshine). ● VIII. Unpredictable behavior equates to wild outbursts. They are very patient people, however quick changes from calm to range can occur, and then dissipate. ● Swaddling behavior may be explained by this. Swaddling is a European custom where you wrap the baby head to toe in cloth, so that the baby cannot move. Baby is unwrapped every so often so that the baby can move. Purpose of this was to make sure the baby grows straight, and will last for a few months. Transition from womb to outside world. ● Conform to do as you were told. No one was to challenge anything From a young age you learn to conform Those who do not conform are arrested People became passive accepted this way of life They just accepted everything ● This is due to… 1. Fear of the state (KGB...etc…) 2. Isolation from the world (they knew no other way of life)*** ● Attitude towards foreigners... by nature, they are suspicious and distrust foreigners (Xenophobia***) history of invasions isolation (feeling of being cut off from the world) fear of what they do not know ● Why all the restrictions? government didn't want them to make comparisons with foreign countries inferiority complex ● Before Gorbachev I. Would try to show the advantages of their system over the US Bragged about job security (no unemployment under communism) Lack of discrimination among all of their ethnic groups Low crime rate Education and health care were free No inflation (prices don’t go up) Low cost of housing Their government took care of them (from the cradle to the grave) (they were frightened by the chaotic way of life in the US how we are all on our own and everything is uncertain) II.Asking questions about the United States Salaries (they want to know how much people make which is not a comfortable topic for most Americans) How much your house costs? How much is your rent? How much is your car? Wanted to know about the president (First JFK, then Bill Clinton) ● Post Gorbachev I.Complaining (about the problems in their country inflation, poverty, income, etc…) and worrying about drugs, economic decline, etc… IIAsking questions (again) about the United States ● Why did the government put out so much propaganda against America? To show the superiority of their political system over the American political system. ● The media stressed an image of greed, corruption, strikes, discrimination, crime, violence, riots, poverty, hunger, unemployment, and the homeless, in America. ● 1990, the first McDonald’s opens in Moscow (HUGE success story). ● Snickerization the Americanization of Russia the snickers candy bar, which was the most popular American food, in Russia, became a negative image of American culture. ● Areas of competition between USA and Russia World influence Arms race Some areas of space exploration ● Stalin Industrialized the country Led his country to victory in WWII ● Russians number one source of news to this day is television, the most watched program is the evening news. ● Reasons for smaller families... Expensive/Cost of living Small living areas Not enough day care centers ● Reasons for housing shortage (during Communism) Devastation, most cities were rubble (the rebuilding of factories took precedent over housing) Everyone moved from the rural areas to the cities, the jobs were there, but there just wasn’t enough room for the influx of people (low rents were a big factor). High divorce rate ● Reasons for housing shortages (after the fall of Communism) Many small wars caused people to flee. Refugees*** Returning military. Many officers and their families returning from other countries, now had no place to live (many stayed in tent cities). 23 million homeless people. Russians coming in from the former republics, especially the Baltic countries. After the fall of communism, the government allowed people to privatize housing. ● Child/Parent relationships... Very close family bond No giving off family members as they got older, no assisted living type deal Children are very spoiled, they grow up to be very selfcentered, pampered, etc… They were very use to conforming at home, it gave them a certain rigidity. Young people were expected to conform (this led to high suicide rates in teens, especially in LGBTQ situations) The children are smothered by their parents No young people worked or did chores under communism. Their parents found it shameful (they never understood why Americans let their children work). Now, many of them have to. ● Education (under communism)... Favorite form of punishment (still true today) #1 public shaming, #2 ostracism (never used corporal punishment). Usually start school at the age of 6. Compulsory education is 9 years*** If they plan on going on to a University, it is 11 years. Topics of focus are maths and sciences All schools had the same curriculum and the same books Schools starts Sept. 1 and ends June 30 Some schools have to go in shifts (during the day) School was 30 hours a week, six days a week. Saturdays were half days dedicated to the arts Under communism, uniforms were mandatory. ● Curriculum Highly focused on math and the sciences Very heavy homework load ● Most prestigious professions under Communism Math Sciences Engineering Journalism ● Why journalism? With journalism, there was a chance to be stationed abroad. Particularly in the United States. ● University is five years. Education was free, plus government giving you money for food and a place to stay (Stipend). ● Why did the government limit the number of University applicants? During communism, the government needed men in the military. ● Problems (post fall of communism) Lack of textbooks due to absence of money. Inflation. Young people couldn’t go to school, so they started working. Stipend stopped. Private schools popped up everywhere, parents wanted to send their children to these schools for a better education. ● Most prestigious professions after the fall of communism Business Banking Economics Law Computer Programming Foreign Language ● Corruption professors would demand bribes from students. A good grade could be 400500 dollars. There was more cheating than ever before Students were disrespectful to their professors Professors, when applying for a job, would provide fake resumes ● Two changes 2009, students must take final exams to graduate high school, but instead of final exams, they have an SAT equivalent. Many universities require an interview, in addition to exam scores. ● Stereotypically, Russians are workshy, lazy, like to drink, and have poor business instincts (however, this really only applies to the older generation). The younger generation is very hard working and driven. The older generation, is not ambitious or career driven.***** ● Youth Organizations Under Communism: Little Octoberist League (during communism) had to wear a symbol to show what group they were from. Their symbol was a five pointed star with the face of a little boy (suppose to be Lenin). These school children learned songs and poems about Lenin. Young Pioneers (also during communism) Around age 9. Symbol was a triangular red scarf that they would wear around their necks (they can be compared to boy/girl scouts. All the children/young people belonged to these organizations. The Young Communist League (under communism) Komsomal Started at age 14. Like a training ground for the communist party. Teachers would look for qualities in these young people, that would make them good candidates for the Communist party. Only a few would be admitted, if they were interested. ● If you wanted to be successful in the Soviet Union... Have a higher education Pick the right career (maths, sciences, engineering) Be a member of the Communist party (this was the key) ● Why young people joined the Communist party... They believed in the ideology They wanted to have all the privileges that came along with being a member of the party ● Later, about 7% of the population belonged to the communist party*** ● Communist party privileges... all the best jobs were reserved for them better apartments access to the best shops their own hospitals and doctors, the best of the best their own dacha private clubs could import a doctor from the west some were allowed to travel (always in pairs, never alone) ● Why keep the membership so small? easier to discipline easier to control ● The average young person has very little interest in politics*** ● Three things they obsessed about western clothing, especially blue jeans*** music they have a true appreciation for the arts. Anything that was popular in the US was popular there (the only genre they didn’t like was country and bluegrass). fads in the 70’s the major fad was tshirts, the most popular ones, with American logos on them. ● What does a Russian woman want to own more than anything? Western brand cosmetics ● Omens They believe in magnetic forces The are very superstitious They believe in palm reading, zodiacs, fortune tellers, etc… ● Favorite TV shows American cop shows Action films Cartoons (among all age groups)*** ● Books/Literature**** They wanted to read everything in translation No one was writing anything of their own Translations were usually very poor Detective stories and mysteries were the most popular*** Magazines (most popular: Cosmopolitan*) Anything western ● If they can afford it, politics aside, young people still prefer to buy something made in the United States*** for them, that is quality and it gives them some kind of status among their friends. ● Favorite Sports… Hockey Socker ● High crime rate started after the fall of communism ● Russian heroin addicts have a 4 year life expectancy after they become hooked ● Krokodil Russian for crocodile, is one of the most dangerous drugs in the world. A synthetic heroin, extremely addictive and dangerous. A morphine derivative Cheap Homemade Extremely lethal Primary ingredient is Codine Much higher dosage for the same high Causes your skin to scale up, turn black, and fall off, to the bone, hence the name crocodile (many/most developed gangrene) Users typically die within a year of use, the most is 23 years ● After the fall of communism, the Russian youth turn to either drugs or religion*** they feel a spiritual emptiness. ● Religion… freedom of religion by the late 80’s (strong revival in many religions: Islam, Christianity, Orthodox, etc). Many Christians would wear crosses around their necks, they needed a cross to be baptised. The Russian Orthodox cross is slightly different from the traditional cross, with bars above and below the traditional cross. Young people decorate their homes with religious icons, Russians especially include a lot of color ● There are more Russians who profess to being religious than those who do not. ● One of the major trends among young people during the Gorbachev era, was an interest in prerevolutionary Russia Russia of the Czars, before Communism Especially the last Czar, and his family As part of that interest, was the restoration of churches ● With the revival of religion, all of these religious groups from all over the world, went to Russia, trying to convert the Russians to a religion. ● New law in religion cracked down, there are now only 4 officially recognized religions today... Russian Orthodox Judaism Islam Buddhism ● Young people to this day (started after the fall of Communism and intensified during the 90s) when asked, who do you trust the most? The number one answer is the Orthodox Church (doesn’t necessarily mean that they attend Church). ● All the rich in Russia initially made their money through import/export. ● Of all the people who were most poor, the pensioner suffered the most. ● The most important thing for an educated young person in Russia, is to earn money. ● Very few young people put their money in a bank. Again, please use this guide in addition to the study guide provided by the professor. Also look to the weekly notes from the past four weeks (or since the last test) for all details. Good luck!
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