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CSU - BC 103 - Class Notes - Week 16

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CSU - BC 103 - Class Notes - Week 16

School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Professor: Jennifer Dewey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Name: Life 103 Week 12
Description: Different dietary strategies and digestion for animals and methods of circulation.
Uploaded: 04/16/2016
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background image Dietary Strategies & Digestion all animals are ingestive heterotrophs why eat? —obtain chemical energy, organic molecules, essential nutrients 
—support survival, growth, and reproduction
3 molecules are sources of energy, building blocks, and essential nutrients —carbohydrates
—proteins
—lipids
journey through digestive tract —ingestion
—digestion
—absorption
—elimination
dietary generalists vs specialists —larger animals tend to be generalists so they can support metabolic needs
—specialists tend to be small and herbivorous or parasitic
modes of feeding —filter feeding
—substrate feeding (eating what you live on, ex. caterpillars)
—fluid feeding (ex. nectar feeders like butterflies)
—bulk feeding (eating pieces of other organisms or swallowing them whole)
how to get and consume prey —carnivores A. venom: immobilize relatively large prey
B. projectiles: grab prey from distance, usually utilizes tongue
—herbivores A. nectar feeders: specialized long mouth parts and hovering capability
B. plants invest in toxins to prevent animals eating unripened fruit
C. leaves: abundant and easy to obtain but low in nutrients, so large 
quantities must be eaten (symbiotic bacteria, protozoans, or fungi help 
with digestion of cellulose)
—omnivores A. oportunistic —others A. mycophage: fungi
B. coprophage: feces
C. scavengers and decomposers: dead and decaying material
D. parasites
for every 1 human cell there are 9 other cells gut biodiversity linked to —nutrient absorption
—obesity
—autoimmune disorders and mental health
background image Circulation 3 components of circulatory system —circulatory fluid: carries nutrients and (possibly) oxygen and wastes
—system of vessels: fluid transport
—pump (heart): uses metabolic energy to generate pressure to move fluids
interstitial fluid - solution that bathes and surrounds tissue cells of multicellular 
animals
open vs closed system —open: hemolymph is the fluid all cells are in contact with for exchange,  metabolically cheaper but lower pressure means less efficient delivery of oxygen to 
tissues
—closed: circulatory fluid is blood, exchange between blood and interstitial fluids,  more metabolically costly but higher pressure means more effective delivery of oxygen  components of closed circulatory system —arteries: carry blood away from heart
—capillaries: site of exchange with tissues
—veins: carry blood to heart (valves)
single loop circulatory system —simple pump: single atrium and vessel, blood loops in and out of heart 
—blood oxygenated in gills
—sharks, rays, and ray finned fish have these
double loop circulatory system (frogs and most reptiles) —two atria: receive blood into heart
—*single ventricle: pumps blood out of heart
—blood oxygenated in pulmocutaneous circuit (lungs and skin/gills)
double loop circulatory system (mammals and birds) —two atria: receive blood into heart
—*two ventricles: pump blood out of heart
—blood oxygenated in lungs
—no mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood for maximized efficiency due 
to high metabolic rates of mammals how is oxygen carried? —blood carries oxygen via special reversible oxygen binding molecules  (proteins) A. hemoglobin (vertebrates): iron incorporated into red blood cells B. hemocyanin (crustaceans, some mollusks): copper suspended in 
blood
reversible nature of hemoglobin - Bohr effect —picks up 4 O2 molecules in high O2 and high pH environments
—releases O2 in deoxygenated, low pH tissues via diffusion
fetal hemoglobin oxygen affinity is high, fetus can take oxygenated blood from 
mother
fluid flow through circulatory systems generates force —systolic pressure: pressure in blood vessels when heart contracts

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Professor: Jennifer Dewey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Name: Life 103 Week 12
Description: Different dietary strategies and digestion for animals and methods of circulation.
Uploaded: 04/16/2016
3 Pages 18 Views 14 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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