Psychology 105 Exam 1 Study Guide
Psychology 105 Exam 1 Study Guide Psychology 105
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Babu Hassan on Wednesday February 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 105 at Washington State University taught by Olesya Mikheeva in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 277 views.
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Date Created: 02/11/15
Chapter 1 Introduction What do psychologists study Everything Behavior of single brain cell to behavior of people in group Development to old age Normal behavior to quotcrazyquot De nition Psychology is the scienti c study of behavior and mental process Important people in Psych FREUD and Psychoanalysis o Austrian physician 0 Psychoanalysis role of unconscious 0 Role in behavior and personality 0 Based studies on his patients and himself WASTON and Behaviorism o Rejected FREUD 0 Focus on observable behavior that can be objectively measured 0 Goal discover basic principle of learning 0 Carl ROGERS and Humanistic Psychology 0 Developed humanistic psychology 0 Everyone has unique development to grow What are some of the major perspectives in psychology Biological Brain chemistry Psychodynamic Role of parents upbringing Behavioral Humanistic Free will 0 Positive Psychology why are people happy 0 Cognitive How you39re thinking Psychologist Psychiatrist Training in different types of 0 1st medical degree psychotherapy Specialized training in txt of 0 Can also prescribe in some states mental disorder Emphasize role of biology Prescribe medications Txt treatment What are the 4 goals of psychology 0 Describe explain predict and control or in uence 4 Goals of psychology 1 Describe objectively a What is an eating disorder How do you know it when you see it 2 Explain a What is the nature of an eating disorder 3 Predict 4 Control or In uence How do you achieve these goals 0 Scienti c methods set of assumptions attitudes and procedures 0 Creating questions 0 Generating evidence 0 Drawing conclusion 0 Events are lawful o Behaviormental processes follow pattern 0 Events are explainable o Behaviormental processes have causes Openminded Scienti c skepticism Cautious in making claims How do we quotknowquot what we know about psychology Empirical evidence result of observation and experimentation Follow 4 steps of scienti c process 1 Formulate a testable hypothesis a Hypothesis relationship between variable b Variables factors that vary c Operational de nition for variables i Why do we need operational de nition 1 To set the rules we follow 2 Design Study amp Collect Data a Descriptive i Observedescribe behavior ii Who what where when of behavior b Experimental i One variable causes change in another ii Vary one factor on purpose measure changes in another factors 3 Analyze Date and Draw Conclusion a Use statistics to draw conclusions b Are nding statistically signi cant i Statistically signi cant results 1 What is quotstatisticallyquot signi cant a To look at how big the difference is 4 Report Findings Rationale for experiment Participates Method Analyses Resu s Dunc91 Final Step Publishshare ndings in scienti c peerreviewed journals 0 Why do we need peer review 0 Why can39t we just publish our studies Theo es As ndings accumulate develop theories 0 Explanations integrate nding Chapter 1 Pseudoscience and Methods Notes Pseudoscience The warning signs Testimonials rather than scienti c evidence Scienti c jargon without scienti c substance Combining established scienti c knowledge with unfounded claim lrrefutable or no falsi able claim Con rmation bias Shifting the burden of proof a Disprove my claim P P PP NE Descriptive Research Methods Observing and describing behavior 0 Variables change Naturalistic Observation 0 Observe and record behaviors in natural setting 0 Problem Can be unreliable o How to x multiple observers o Advantage study can39t be changed Case Studies Details details details 0 Intensive indepth investigation of an individual family or some other social unit 0 A lot of info from a lot of sources 0 Friends family biological records psychological records medical records interviews 0 When to use 0 Rare unusual extreme condition 0 Problem you only get information from one person Surveys 0 Questions about experiences beliefs behaviors attitudes Big sample 0 Can39t administer everyone study Sample segment of the population Representative sample closely matches the larger group age sex race marital status education level 0 Random selection every member has an equal chance of being selected Problems with Surveys Honesz Long surveys Solutions Rephrase question and ask twice Validity questions 0 Online surveys make participants more comfortable and get more people Correlational Studies 0 How strongly two variables are related to each other 0 Can be used with any descriptive method 0 Correlation coef cient numerical indicator of the strength of the relationship between 2 factors 1 to 1 strength of relationship sign is the direction of strength 0 Example 9 means strong relationship 0 Positive correlation The two variables connect 0 Negative correlation Two variables don39t connect Experimental Method Cause and effect relationship between change in 1 variable and the effect that is produced that can39t be created in other methods 0 Independent variable the factor we manipulate IV Dependent variable outcome DV 0 Experimental method Controlling for other variables 0 Extraneousconfounding variables In uence DV Produce inaccurate results Control for these or hold them constant so change in DV can be attributed to manipulation of IV The Placebo Effect 0 Giving people a fake pill but telling them it39s real Doubleblinded study 0 Demand characteristicscuesignals from researchers that hint at an expected response Practice effect naturally What the main effect is Directly attributed to treatment variable Example Exercise leads to decrease in depression 0 Negative One goes up other goes down Chapter 2 Neuroscience and Behavior Why do we study neuroscience in psychology 0 What goes on in your brain Neuroscience 0 Biological Psychology biological bases of behavior and mental process Neuroscience nervous system How does your nervous system communicate Neuron Cells that receive and transmit information 3 types of Neurons 1 Sensory Info about environment to brain a Light sound b Skin internal organs 2 Motor Info from brain to muscles and glans a Blinking contracting muscles 3 lnterneurons Between neurons Parts of Neuron Cell Body quotSomaquot Manufactures proteins and processes nutrients Contains nucleus Nucleus contains genetic material DNA Dendrites Short bers that extend from cell body 0 Receive information Elongated extending from cell body 0 In most neurons 0 Carry info from neuron to other neuron What other cells make up the nervous system Glial cells or cells 0 10 times more gila than neurons 0 Structural supports Types of Glial cells Microgila look for damaged neurons and infectious agents and remove them Astrocytes repairscarring process after brain injury Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells from the myelin sheath 0 Myelin sheath white fatty covering wrapped around axons of some neurons Segments separated by small gaps called nods Why do we need the myelin sheath Neurons with myelinated axons communicate 100 times faster than unmyelinated neurons 0 What if the myelin sheath is damaged Example Multiple sclerosis Degeneration of myelin sheath 0 Transmission of neural messages slowed or interrupted 0 Results 0 Muscular weakness loss of coordination speech disturbances Communication with the Neuron An Overview Messages gathered by dendrites Transmitted along axon in electrical Signal called action potential lons electrically charged particles Sodium and Potassium ions How does communication within the neuron start Neurons have a stimulus threshold 0 Minimum level stimulation necessary to activate it Communication within the Neuron While waiting to reach threshold neuron is polarized Difference in electrical charge between inside and outside of axon Neuron waits at its resting potential More sodium outside 0 More potassium inside 0 Action potential 0 When neuron reaches stimulus threshold it is depolarized and begins action potential 0 At each axon segment ion channels open to let sodium ions in 0 Right after potassium ion channel open and potassium goes out of axon OOOO o Continues to go down the axon All or none law 0 Action potential either happens or not What is the neuron39s 1 0 Communicate information to other cells 0 Point of communication between 2 neurons is called synapsesynaptic gap 0 Message sending neuron presynaptic Message receiving neuron postsynaptic Electrical and Chemical Communication How do neurons transmit information 0 Electrical 0 If synaptic gap very narrow 0 Ion channels serve as bridge between neuron Chemical 0 Presynaptic neuron creates chemical substance o It diffuses across synaptic gap 0 Picked up by postsynaptic neuron Chemical communication between neurons Presynaptic neuron activated Generates action potential 0 At end of axon are tiny sacs caed synaptic vesicles hod neurotransmitters 0 Special chemical messengers made by the neuron Synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitters into synaptic gap Attach to receptor sites on other neurons This process is called synaptic transmission Excitatory vs Inhibitory Neurotransmitters Increase or decrease likelihood of next neuron ring Reuptake After neurotransmitters attach to receptor sites 0 Can detach and be reabsorbed by presynaptic neuron Reuptake Why are neurotransmitters important What happens if there are abnormal levels of neurotransmitters Answers Neurotransmitters Dopamine Dopamine movement attention learning rewarding sensation Drug addiction cocaine nicotine Degeneration of neurons that produce 0 Not enough dopamine o Parkinson39s Rigidity muscle tremors Too much dopamine o Schizophrenia Relationship between antipsychotics and Parkinson39s symptoms Neurotransmitters GABA Inhibitory 0 Too much GABA Impairs learning motivation 0 Too little Can lead to seizures Neurotransmitter Primary Role Associated Disorders Acetylcholine Learning memory Alzheimer39s Disease muscle contractions Dopamine Movement Parkinson39s Disease Thought processes Schizophrenia Rewarding sensations Drug addiction Serotonin Emotional states Depression Sleep Sensory Perception Norepinephrine Physical arousal Depression sleep Learning memory Regulation of sleep GABA Inhibition of brain activity Anxiety disorder Endorphins Pain Perceptions Opiate Addiction Positive emotions Endorphins Brain manufactures its own painkillers Chemically similar to morphine o 100 times more potent than morphine Act as neurotransmitters o In response to stress or trauma 0 Reduce perception of pain How do drugs affect synaptic transmission 1 Block reuptake a Increase amount of neurotransmitter in brain 2 Mimic a Agonist binds to receptors cites b Example nicotine similar to acetylcholine Antagonist blocks effect of neurotransmitter Example nanxone Antagonist to opioid receptor cites Eliminates effect of endorphins and opiates Used in overdoses of heroin Oxycodone What is the nervous system Communication network Divided into central and peripheral Central communicates with neurons Peripheral communication along nerves 0 Nerves bundles of axon What is the Central Nervous System 0 Brain and spinal cord Crucial to functioning Brain highly susceptible to injury 0 Concussion most common and midest type of traumatic brain injury example What is a concussion Can cause physical damage Disrupts brain function Damage axons myein brain chemistry May not show up on CAT or MRI 0 Symptoms Loss of consciousness dizziness blurreddouble vision slurred speech memory loss 0 Repeated Concussion Can lead to CTE Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy DiagnosabIe after death Depression anxiety poorjudgment concentrationmemory problems lack of impulse control dementia Increasingly diagnosed in professional football players Central nervous system 0 Brain command center Spinal incoming and out coming messages 0 Spinal cord SpinaI re exes 0 Simple automatic behaviors that occur without the brain Withdrawal re ex something hot example 0 Peripheral Nervous System 0 All nerves outside the central nervous system Divided into 1 Somatic a Sensory info b Voluntary movement 2 Autonomic a Involuntary functions b Can in uence with exercise emotions Autonomic NS Divided into 1 Sympathetic a Fight or ight b Emergency system 2 Parasympathetic a Calms you down The Endocrine system 0 Made up of glands 0 Communicate by secreting hormones o Hormones regulate physical process and in uence behavior 0 Part of the Endocrine System 0 Hypothalamus controls pituitary gland Pituitary gland regulates production of other hormones Growth hormone Endorphins Prolactin nursing mothers Oxytocin o Adrenal glands ght or ight No repinephrime and epinephrine adrenaline Introduction 0 Some brain regions particular function Psychological processes multiple structures Does brain structure change throughout the lifespan Brain39s structure is shaped by experience Neuroplasticity ability to change function and structure 1 Functional plasticity shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain area 2 Structural plasticity change structure with learning practice environment Hippocampus new memories Neurogenesis form new neurons Neurogenesis in humans Humans form 1005 of new neuron everyday We also form a new sense of smell The Brainstem Made up of Hindbrain 0 Made up of medulla pons and cerebellum Sensory info comes in from one side crosses over hindbrain project to opposite o Contralateral organization Medulla Vital life functions like breathing and circulation Vital re exes like coughing vomiting Pons means quotbridgequot Connects medulla two sides of cerebellum Helps coordinate and integrate movement on each side of the body Cerebellum Balance muscle tone coordination Habitualautomatic movements and motor skills Affected by alcohol consumption 0 Midbrain Processing of auditory and visual sensory information Substantia nigra 0 Motor control 0 Neurons that produce dopamine Parkinson39s disease 0 The Forebrain 90 of the brain in humans lnclude cerebral cortex 0 Cerebral cortex Two hemispheres connected by corpus callosum Main communication link 0 Each hemisphere is divided in four lobes The Four Lobes Temporal auditory Occipital visual Parietal somatosensory info touch Frontal planning initiating voluntary movement 0 Executive functioning ADHD Limbic System Emotion motivation learning and memory 0 Hippocampus o Thalamus o Hypothalamus o Amygdala Hippocampus New memories 0 A hippo on campus wouldn39t forget this how to member this Thalamus Sensory info for all senses except smell 0 Attention and Motivation Hypothalamus Regulates autonomic NS 0 Eating drinking fear aggression Amygdala Memory and emotional responses 0 Memories with emotional component 0 Particularly fear Specialization in the Hemispheres In many cases functioning is symmetrical 0 Same functions in same places each hemisphere However they do differ in specialized abilities Language and the Left Hemisphere Borca 0 1860s Pierre Paul Broca 0 Patients with dif culty speaking but could comprehend written and spokenlanguage o Autopsy damage to lower left frontal lobe o Broca39s area Speech production 0 Broca39s aphasia inability to produce speech Wernicke 0 18705 Karl Wernicke 0 Patients with dif culty understanding spokenwritten language but could speak quickly and easily Speech made no sense Damage to area on left temporal lobe Wernicke39s area Wernicke39s aphasia inability to comprehend language OOOO Broca and Wernicke Discoveries showed language and speech functions performed primarily by left hemisphere 0 Similar damage on right hemisphere disruptions in language and speech not seen 0 This is called lateralization of function Cutting the Corpus Callosum The Split Brain 0 1940s Splitbrain operation stop or reduce recurring seizures in severe epilepsy cases 0 At rst didn39t seem to impact abilities The 2 hemispheres Left language speech reading writing 0 Right nonverbal emotional expression and visual spatia tasks 0 Puzzle recognizing faces 0 Relative difference Chapter 4 Consciousness and its Variations What is attention 0 Always attending to something 0 Capacity to selectively focus senses and awareness Most of the time can control Characteristics of attention 1 Limited capacity a Focus on what is most relevant to our immediate or longterm goals b Selective c Can be quotblindquot Misdirection magicians focus on one thing don39t see something else lnattentional blindness lnattentional deafness Change blindness haircut Multitasking Some better than others but still limited 0 Different tasks less likely to interfere o How to improve multitasking Play action video games Circadian Rhythm 0 Biological or psychological process that systematically varies over the course of each day 0 More than 100 of these identi ed Blood secretion of different hormones mental alertness pain sensitivity Sleep 0 19205 EEG invented Sleeping brain remains active REM amp NREM sleep 0 REM rapid eye movement sleep 0 Active sleep 0 Heightened activity 0 Dreaming NREM or NonREM non rapid eye movement sleep 0 Physiological functions and brain activity slow down 0 Divided into four stages The Sleep Cycle 0 First 4 stages of NREM sleep 50 to 70 minutes 0 REM 515 minutes 0 Then continue 90 minutes cycles of alternating NREM and REM sleep 0 Sleep Stages of NREM Sleep Stage 1 NREM A few minutes Disengage from surrounding sensations Can quickly regain consciousness if needed Stage 2 NREM quottrue sleepquot 0 Breathing rhythmical Muscle twitches 15 20 minutes Stage 3 amp 4 NREM Lowest levels of heart rate blood pressure breathing rate Noises up to 90 decibels may not wake you Muscles can move Sleepwalking stage 4 Won39t remember next morning 0 Sequence reverse stage 4 to 3 to 2 to REM REM 0 Brain 0 Dreams 0 Muscle activity suppressed 0 Rapid eye movements 0 Heart rate blood pressure respirations uctuate 0 1st REM episode 5 to 15 minutes For the rest of the night NREM and REM Each cycle about 90 minutes c As night progresses REM becomes longer NREM shorter How do our sleep patterns develops Newborns sleep 16 hoursdays 50 in REM the rest in quiet sleep similar to NREM stages 1 and 2 At 3 months stages 3 and 4 appear 90 minutes sleep cycle gradually emerges How do our sleep patterns change throughout the lifespan From childhood through late adulthood Percentages 0 Total sleep time decrease 0 Time spent in deep sleep decreases 0 Time spent in stage 1 and 2 increases Percentages of night spent in REM sleep 0 Increase during childhood and adolescence 0 Stable through adulthood o Decreases during late adulthood Why do we sleep 0 Researchers aren39t entirely sure WHY 0 However sleep Rest to muscles and body Immune system function Learning and consolidates memory Regulates mood and emotion What if you39re short on sleep 0 Sleep restriction studies 4hoursnight Results impairment in Concentration Reaction time Memory skills Ability to gauge risks Driving skills Negative mood Metabolism Hormone levels Can you quotmake upquot for lost sleep 0 REM deprivation studies 0 Wake sleepers when entering REM sleep 0 After several nights allowed to sleep uninterrupted o What happens REM rebound Amount of time spent in REM increases by as much 50 Alcohol amp School Reduce quality and quantity of sleep At higher alcohol doses Increased stage 1 amp wakefulness during second half Alcohol suppresses REM sleep Chapter 4 Introduction of Dreams Mental activity during sleep 0 Sleep thinking more common 0 Vague thoughtlike ruminations about reallife events 0 NREM sleep 0 Solutions to problems 0 Can interfere with sleep keep you in NREM Dreams Unfolding sequences of perceptions thoughts and emotions during sleep 0 Can be bizarre illogical What about sleep amp memory 0 REM helps consolidate new procedural memories You dream even if you don39t remember o If awakened during REM you won t remember Dream Themes amp lmagery Usually about everyday things quotbizarrequot dreams are the exceptions Typical dream themes 0 Negative feelings o Aggression Most frequent emotion 0 Fear Nightmares Vivid and disturbing dream that often awakens the sleeper 0 Middle and late childhood 0 Stress anxiety emotional dif culties associated with nightmares The meaning of dreams Freud Freud39s Theory most famous quotdisguised ful llments of repressed wishesquot Unacceptable urges repressed into the unconscious amp surface in dreams Freud39s 2 components of dreams Manifest content Latent content disguised psychological meaning Activation Synthesis Model of Dreaming Hobson amp McCarIey 1977 0 Dreams are activation of brain circuits 0 Activate visual auditory motor areas 0 REM sleep limbic system 0 Brain integrates signals and imposes meaning Neurocognitive Theory of Dream 0 Continuity between waking and dreaming thoughts 0 Dreams re ect our thoughts personality When does it become a sleep disorder A Consistent abnormal sleep pattern B Distress C Interfere with functioning Sleep Disorders Dyssomnias Disruptions in amount quality or timing of sleep Parasomnias Undesirable Dyssomnias Insomnia 1 Quality or duration of sleep 2 Dif culty going to or staying asleep 3 Wake before time to get up Most common sleep complaint among adults Insomnia Prevalence 1 of 3 people experience transient insomnia 12 nights to a couple weeks 1 of 10 chronic insomnia 3 nights each week for 1 month or longer What factors play a role 0 Women more likely during pregnancy 0 Environment noise temperature Stimulants How do psychological factors contribute to insomnia Worrystress anxiety inability to fall asleep or stay asleep concerns about seep more anxiety Psychological amp behavioral factors almost Dyssomnias Obstructive Sleep Apnea Key symptom daytime sleepiness What happens Airway narrowedblocked during sleep Treating sleep apnea Lifestyle changes Avoiding alcohol Losing weight CPAP machine continuous positive airway pressure Dyssomnias Narcolepsy Brief uncontroabe episodes of sleep micro sleeps 0 Few seconds to several minutes 0 During micro sleeps 0 Automatic behavior writing driving 0 Performance impaired Lifelong chronic condition 0 Causes Hypocretins hypothalamus 0 Maintain steady state of wakefulness during day Parasomnias Brain is awake enough to carry out actions but not enough to be consciously aware NREM stages 3 amp 4 0 Sleep walking amp night terrors Nothing found on these subjects Parasomnias REM sleep Behavior Disorder 0 Failure of brain mechanisms that normally suppress movement during REM o Verbay and physically respond to dream 0 Serious physical injuries 0 Maes over age 60 0 Chronic 0 Early symptom of underlying neurological disorder like Parkinson39s or Alzheimer39s Sleep paralysis 8 of population Role for anxiety Not a diagnosis When falling asleep or awakening Linked with narcolepsy hypertension seizure disorders Associated with general lack of sleep sleep disturbances jet lag being a student African descent What is hypnosis Cooperative social interaction 0 Participant responds to suggestions What hypnosis is not 0 People do not lose control of their behavior How susceptible are you 0 Children Absorbed in fantasy Effects of Hypnosis 1 Alterations in sensation amp perceptions a Used for pain control 2 Hallucinations 3 Post hypnotic suggestion a Smoking cessation weight loss Hypnosis amp Memory Hypermnesia using hypnosis to enhance memory of past events Does not enhance memory Does not improve accuracy Can increase con dence in false memories Drugs Psychoactive drugs are chemicals substances that can alter o Arousal Mood Thinking Sensann Perception 0000 Four categories of drugs 1 Depressants a Decrease brain activity 2 Opiates a Chemically like morphine relieve pain 3 Stimulants a Increase energy 4 Psychedelics a Distort sensory perceptions What is drug abuse Recurrent drug use resulting in disruption of academic social or occupational functioning or in legal or psychological problems What is drug dependence 0 Body and brain physically adapted to drug 0 Drug tolerance increasing amounts of drugs needed for original effect Withdrawal physical reactions to lack of drugs amp intense craving Drug rebound effect withdrawal symptoms opposite to drug39s effect Overdoses What drug causes most overdose deaths 0 Prescription drugs painkillers antianxiety meds antidepressants How do drugs works Affect synaptic transmission by increasing or decreasing neurotransmitter amounts in the brain 0 Chronic use can lead to changes in brain structures and functions 0 A lot of factors in uence drug use The Depressants Inhibit CNS activity Drowsiness sedation sleep Additive effects Alcohol Lowers inhibitions Affected by body weight gender etc Withdrawal effects 0 Sleep anxiety mild tremors o Delirium tremens Confusion hallucinations serve tremors or seizures Ba rbiturates Depress brain activity that controls arousal breathing Relaxation euphoria lower inhibitions 0 High doses loss of coordination impaired mental functioning unconsciousness Withdrawal The Opiates Relieve pain amp produce euphoria Mimic endorphins 0 Most common Prescription pain pills OxyContin Opiate overdose 2nCI leading cause of accidental death in US 2nCI to car crashes The Stimulants Simulate brain activity 0 Caffeine Mental alertness Frontal lobe Withdrawal headaches irritability fatigue 0 Excess anxiety disrupt sleep 0 Cocaine lntense euphoria amp mental alertness Blocks reuptake of dopamine serotonin and norepinephrine Mixing Stimulants amp Depressants Common source of caffeine 0 Energy drinks Psychedelic Drugs Perceptualdistortions Alter mood Affect thinking 0 Marijuana One of most widely used quotillegalquot drugs THC brain has speci c receptor sites Relaxation amp euphoria vs sensory distortions Medicinal use lmpair muscle coordination learning memory No physical dependence Withdrawal irritability restlessness insomnia tremors difficulty concentrating o LSD Lysergic acid diethylamide Big psychological effects with few physiological changes Chemically similar to serotonin Effects vary greatly depending on personality current mood surroundings other people present Adverse reactions ashbacks if bad trip depression psychological problems psychotic reactions
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