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Final Exam Review

by: Julia Scheinman

Final Exam Review Sociology 3410

Julia Scheinman
GPA 3.9

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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Scheinman on Wednesday February 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 3410 at Universidad de Granada taught by Bellair in Fall2013. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Universidad de Granada.


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Date Created: 02/11/15
Criminology Final Review Monday December 2 2013 943 AM Desistence spontaneously stop committing crime Developmental theory attempt to explain the quotnatural historyquot of a criminal career Glueck39s ndings on persistent offending o How does a criminal career begin early onset versus late bloomer 0 Biological andor psychological traits family attachment differential association 0 Why does a criminal career continue to escalate 0 Differential association drug use criminal opportunity gang membership 0 How does a criminal career end desistence 0 High quality job dedication to wife cognitive change criminal opportunities dry up 0 Virtually everyone stops Life course theory Criminality is dynamic in uenced by multiple individual characteristics traits and experiences People are bombarded throughout life with perceptions and experiences and their trajectory can change for the better or worse 0 Changes in criminal offending patterns over a person s entire life re ect changing social and psychological conditions experiences and perceptions o Emphasize early adulthood transitions such as high quality employment and marriage with potential to Change antisocial traiectories 0 Does not deny stability but assumes that people are capable of Change 0 Patterning their involvement in criminal behavior early in life 0 Mixing cement throughout the course of life it is not until much later that your central nature solidi es 0 Life course is agegraded because people mature and change In uences vary depending on stage in the life course Family important early school an peers in adolescence in adulthood vocational and employment relationships lnteqrated Theories weave social and individual variables into a complex explanatory chain Sampson and Laub Agedgraded theory of informal control Crime begins early in life as a result of a breakdown in social control but turning points and social capital can alter the development of a criminal career 0 Age Graded Theory propensity to commit crime linked to the accumulation of social capital social control and human decision making 0 Factors that increases the likelihood of criminality weak social bonds accumulation of deviant peers labeling by the social justice system unemployment longterm exposure to poverty 0 Factors that may reverse a criminal trajectory positive high school experience escape from poverty stable employment military maintenance of a successful marriage 0 Emphasize that even with a rough beginning there are still opportunities to correct that especially in young adulthood We don39t need to incarcerate so many people we should focus on connecting to the labor force and relationships instead Talked about the importance of the military Resurrected the Gluek39s data from Harvard university Explanation applies to everyone it39s not thought there are separate classes of offenders that go down separate paths 0 Does not single out single groups to focus on Sampson and Laub would say that the onset of a criminal career is the result of a breakdown of parental control in early childhood Critiques Does a military career actually deter future criminality Why do some youths turn their life around but others don39t Role transitions Trajectory emerges in childhood Role transitions reinforce or change trajectories For instance follow rules starting school making friends completing each grade extracurricular leaving school getting a high quality job leaving home marriage and children career ladders Timing of transitions is key 1 Orderly transitions foster prosocial trajectories but life can be bumpy 2 Current transitions impact the timing of future transitions Cognitive transformation theory Giordano Argues that Sampson and Laub assume that if a good job presents itself the criminal will embrace the change What39s missing in their theory is the cognitive process the individual has to realize that something is wrong and thev need to chanoe their life Problem behavior theory A cluster of social problems faced by atrisk youths 0 Family dysfunction 0 Substance abuse Early onset of antisocial behavior strongly predicts later and more serious criminality Loeber39s pathways into crime 0 Authority con ict pathway stubborn de ance avoidance Covert pathway minor underhanded behavior property damage more serious crimes Overt pathway aggression ghting violence Adolescent limited and life course persistent offenders Terrie Mof tt The agecrime curve conceals 2 distinct populations Adolescent limited offender one who follows the most common criminal trajectory in which antisocial behavior peaks in adolescence and then diminishes Body comes of age but society stays in school and tow the line Leads to rebellious delinquent behavior imitating the persistent offenders Age out because they are developmentally normal Life course persistent offender one of the small groups of offenders whose career continues well into adulthood Cause is latent traits such as family and neurological dysfunction low lQselfcontrol family crimedrug use toxins poverty Late bloomers get involved in offending in teenage years rather than early adolecence and become involved in adult offending Latent trait theory propensity People don39t change their fundamental nature There is a master trait at birth that makes people more apt to commit crime It is not people but rather external forces that impact criminal behavior Differ from lifecourse theorists based beliefs about the onset of crime 0 quotMaster traitquot present at birth or soon after that is stable over the life course directs behavior IQ low selfcontrol evidence is less verbal abilities 0 Behavior uctuates over time in response to opportunity for crime 0 Assumes people do not change their fundamental nature 0 Has links to biological and psychological trait theories 0 These traits interact with the social environmental and puts us at risk for crime 0 Even though environment is changings our essential personality stays the same 0 Mixing cement during childhood solidi es around age 10 remains very stable throughout ourHves Crime and human nature Wilson amp Hernnstein 0 Behavior determined by its perceived consequences rational choice 0 Personal traits such as genetic makeup body build intelligence and impulsivity impair choices and may outweigh the importance of social variables as predictors of criminal activity General theory of crime GTC Gottfredson and Hirschi lack of self control and impulsive people commit crime probably because of inadequate child rearing practices Modi es social control theory by combining biological psychological routine activities and rational choice theories Applies equally to all crimes Truly general theory all deviant behavior may originate from the same source 0 Ineffective parenting impairs development of selfcontrol inability to deter grati cation impulsive here and now orientation Critiques runs in circles different classes of criminals ecological differences racial and gender differences moral beliefs peer in uence people change culturally limited misread human nature just one of many causes more than one kind of impulsivity calculating instead of impulsive Selfcontrol cause of delinquent behavior is an impulsive personality Social policy and developmental theories 0 Programs aimed at really young children to alter their life course 0 Boys and Girls Club SMART kids reduce risk factors and increase coping skills The Promised Land Alfred Blumstein and criminal careers Selfcontrol and the drug trade Critical con ict Criminoloqv 0 Crime is a political concept designed to protect the power and position of the upper classes at the expense of the poor 0 Criminal law is a mechanism of social control used to maintain control 0 Prevalence of bias in justice system operations is evidence that the system favors the powerful Capitalism aided by government causes crime by concentrating poverty and marginalizationarger portions of the populations live in crime prone areas 0 Critical criminology redirects attention to quotrealquot crimes racism corporate crimes substandard housing pollution defective products etc These crimes are punishes with lenient sentences Criminologists should not focus on street crime 0 Surplus value the difference between what workers produce and what they are paid which goes to business owners as pro ts as surplus value rates increase people are displaced from work and the size of the marginal population swells Origins o lntensi ed during the social upheaval of the 19605 0 Critical of positivist criminology which supports the status quo o Unequal distribution of power and wealth produces crime 0 The key crimeproducing element of modern corporate capitalism is the effort to increase surplus value c The global economy through transitional markets and political and legal systems intensi es the process lstrumental Theorv Sees criminal law and the critical justice system as capitalist instruments for controlling the lower class and preserving rulingclass power seeks to expose this 0 Enables the powerful to impose their morality of standards of behavior on the entire society Structural Theory 0 Based on the belief that criminal law and the criminal justice system are means of defending and preserving the capitalist system c The law keeps the system operating smoothly which is in the long term interests of the po wen u Laws against corporate crime seems to diverge from the interests of the powerful but are designed to appease 0 Ex antitrust legislation no one company can become too powerful capitalists must play by the rules Critique of Critical Criminoloov 0 Hot air 0 Neglects the capitalist system39s effort to regulate itself 0 Fails to address con icts in socialist countries 0 Fails to explain why some highly capitalist countries have low crime rats 0 People do not live in fear of corporate criminals but do fear street criminals Left realism 0 Sole focus on the ruling elite is misguided Should not ignore street crime 0 Approach that sees crime as function of relative deprivation under capitalism and favors pragmatic communitybased crime prevention and control Represents a compromise between con ict and traditional criminology oppose law and order approaches 0 Non punitive approaches should be made more primary preemptive deterrence o Predatory criminals prey on the lower classes Critical feminist theory 0 Approach that explains both victimization and criminality among women in terms of gender inequality patriarchy and the exploitation of women under capitalism 0 Male supremacy or patriarchy sustains female oppression at home and in workplace 0 Explains gender bias violence against women and repression 0 Females commit fewer crimes in a capitalist society because they are isolated in the family and have fewer opportunities to engage in elite deviance o Powerlessness increases the likelihood that women will become targets of violent acts 0 quotdoing genderquot is when males dominate women in order to prove manliness and men achieve masculinity at the expense of women 0 Boys are socialized to be aggressive and exploit women this exploitation leads to early onset female deviant behavior the female criminal is herself a victim Powercontrol theory John Hagan o The view that gender differences in crime rates are a function of economic power and parental control and women39s economic status 0 Parent39s work experience and class position in uence the onset of criminality of their children 0 Girls are controlled more closely than boys in traditional maledominated households and there is gender equity in contemporary egalitarian homes 0 Middle class females most likely to violate the law relative to poor females 0 Critique new family dynamics in postmodern society and power and control may not have an independent in uence on behavior what about personal traits Peacemaking criminology 0 Approach that considers punitive crime control strategies to be counterproductive and favors the use of humanistic con ict resolution to prevent and control crime 0 Offers a new approach to crime control through mediation Restorative Justice social movement within the criminal justice system 0 Reduce con ict and competition in society 0 Reduce harsh punishment of offenders 0 Using humanistic nonpunitive strategies to right wrongs and restore social harmony 0 Repairs injuries suffered by victim and community while ensuring reintegration of the offender o Balanced and Restorative Justice BARj The justice system should give equal weight to offender accountability competency development and community protection because the victim community and offender are equal clients of the justice system and should receive fair and balanced attention 0 Principles of restorative justice 0 Crime is an offense against human relationships 0 Victims and the community are central to justice processes 0 The rst priority ofjustice processes is to assist victims 0 The second priority is to restore the community 0 The offender has personal responsibility to the victims and the community 0 The offender will develop improved competency and understanding 0 Restoration programs negotiation mediation consensus building peacemaking setencing circles sentencing panels 0 Pro offense diverged from prison sentencing reduced recidivism more than prison reduce victim revenge and PTSD increase satisfaction decrease costs of criminal justice system


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