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Study Guide Test 1

by: Carlee Gray

Study Guide Test 1 41443

Carlee Gray
GPA 3.7
Marketing Research

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About this Document

Study guide for Test 1. Chapters 1-6 outlined neatly and will help lots for the test if you do not have the book!
Marketing Research
Study Guide
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carlee Gray on Wednesday February 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 41443 at George Washington University taught by Ashley in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 156 views. For similar materials see Marketing Research in Marketing at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 02/11/15
Marketing Research Book Notes 01232015 Chapter One Brand equity dollar difference between what people will pay for a branded product as opposed to a generic version Major Customers of Marketing Research 1 Governments often use grant money to conduct research for the general public good 2 Businesses conduct research to support the bottom line bolster sales increase customer base expand to other markets and the like 3 Non Pro ts often conduct research to better understand and serve their members or to generate more info they can use to support their respective cases 4 Universities often use grant money to conduct research for academic research purposes Product tangibles that might or might not have a limited lifespan Services often intangible and once the service experience is over it s over Marketing research process of collecting data and through analysis turning it into information used to address a marketing or business problem or Issue Marketing Concept s Connection to Marketing Research Marketing mix combination of the four P5 of marketing price product promotion and place Market segment subset of the larger market to which you will aim your marketing efforts in order to capture that part of a given market Product orientation business focus is primarily on the product and its features came before marketing orientation Marketing orientation product and services are researched rst and then to the extent possible produced to meet the needs wants and desires of the marketplace and consumers Mistakes amp Key Concepts Mistakes Spend too much money on wrong type of research Rely too much on the information Conducting research with a predisposition to its outcome Failing to conduct research in the rst place know it all Using only secondary data to make business decision Issues in International Marketing Research Fails 1 Clairol introduced quotMist Stickquot to Germany mistis slang for manure in Germany 2 Gerber customers alarmed in Africa because companies typically put ingredients on outside of packaging due to illiteracy people thought babies were made with the baby food 3 Scandinavian vacuum manufacturer into America quotNothing sucks like an Elecroluxquot 4 Coors quotTurn it Loosequot translates to quotSuffers from Diarrheaquot in Spanish Deciding Whether to Conduct Marketing Research 1 Decision already made ex company decided to change the packaging of product then it is unnecessary to determine if they should embark on that course of action 2 Lack of resources if an org lacks the resources to do the research correctly then it should not be done 3 Usefulness of research in question sometimes the research being done is completed to late to be effective 4 Information already available 5 Costbene t analysis is negative spending 2 million to save 1 million is not cost effective 6 Lack of focus imperative that research is taken seriously and in a timely manner Types of Marketing Research Studies 1 Descriptive who what where and how related to questions describes what is sees in the marketplace ex hotel wants to know what its customers think about the hotel even though there are no clear problems 2 Diagnostic attempts to explain what might be going on in the marketplace by answering the why related questions quotwhy are customers unhappy why have sale decline why are customers returning productsquot requires more indepth questions ex hotel wants to know why room bookings have declined 3 Predictive helps management in deciding what to do if you do X then Y will happen if you decrease price sales will rise complicated because its trying to determine customer actions before they happen ex hotel wants to determine what needs to be changed in order to increase bookings Reasons to Conduct Marketing Research 1 Customers Employee or Stakeholder 2 The quotFour P5 of Marketingquot analysis What is the best product promotion place or product mix 3 Marketing environmental assessment What are relevant economic technological political or regulatory issues 4 Competitor Analysis quotopposition researchquot What are your competitors doing and how can you best respond to the demands of the marketplace Marketing Research Process Process details the steps necessary to conduct marketing research in general Design details how you will execute your speci c research Marketing research process the entire process from idea inception to data collection to report writing Eleven Marketing Research Steps 1 Establish Need why are you conducting research 2 De ne Problem what information are you seekingwhat problem is present 3 Establish Research Objectives What is the project scope and what are the objectives May be revisited Clear concise and speci c 4 Identify Information Sources and Types What resources are needed Knowing where and how to get the info needed 5 Determine Research Design 7 Research design stepbystep guide which you will execute the research Helps to stay on track with a timetable for each phase of research Access Data How will you access the data How you will get the secondary and primary data ie focus groups interviews experiments etc Design Data Collection Forms questionnaires writing an effective and good questionnaire is imperative 8 Sample Plan and Size How to de ne the right audience how you will select the respondents and how many respondents will you target Sample size number of people you need to complete the survey be in the focus group be observed and so forth Usually recruit more than you need because of people who do not participate once research is conducted 9 Collect Data where the marketing research execution is done in earnest ex run focus group do the observations conduct experiments etc 10 Analyze Data merge secondary and primary research data into report 11 Present Findings Final research phase 0 Provides clear guidance on the format and content of the research report Marketing Research Design Marketing research design research blueprint that includes the research statement and objectives followed by a detailed description of the qualitative and quantitative methods that will be used to collect analyze and report the research ndings planning part 0 Successful research requires planning 0 Most times it is modi ed amp changed The Analytical Model Analytical model helps researcher to understand or visualize the interrelationships between and among the key variables relevant to your research issue 0 Details the cause and effect relationships among your research variables Dependent variable change is dependent on the manipulation of an independent variable Independent variable can be changed directly with the purpose of affecting the dependent variable Extraneous variable no direct control over but can be quotmanage toquot Le weather government regulations economy and competition Request for Proposal and Request for Quote Request for proposal noti cation that an organization would like bids from prospective research companies on a project bid would include your cost and research approach Request for quote noti cation when the organization knows the research approach they want and that they are looking fro a cost proposal from a research company to execute their established approach Market Growth Matrix and Marketing Research Market penetration selling existing products in existing markets Product development selling new products in existing markets Market development selling existing products in new markets Market diversi cation selling new products in new markets Problem de nition process of determining the root causes of a situation through an understanding of the link between symptoms and the problem Research Approach vs Research Method Research approach overall scope of the marketing research study Research method the steps undertaken to accomplish the marketing research objectives Basic research research conducted to expand general knowledge Exploratory methods are common 0 Secondary research internal and external sources 0 Primary research interviews and focus groups Applied research research conducted for a speci c purpose to solve a particular problem or address a certain issue 0 Descriptive methods are useful 0 Primary research expanded interviews experience surveys focus groups observations and a questionnaire 0 Secondary research news articles internal records and background research on the key gures involved in the case 0 Casual research methods useful 0 Primary research experiments designed to amp cause and effect relationships between and among the key variables 0 Secondary research develops causal linkages such as by conducting a content analysis from news articles Research Methods 0 Primary Research research collected directly from the population of interest such as through focus groups interviews questionnaires experiments and observations 0 Secondary Research existing research that you are learning from through newspapers the Internet news programs professional journals etc Ex potato chip company might want to know why its market share has slipped applied research speci c issue or problem is raised Ex pharmaceutical companies spend millions of dollars on general research that often leads to more speci c research basic research Types of Research Providers Full service execute al aspects of your research including qualitative quantitative primary and secondary from project design to execution and data analysis Syndicated service offer a more limited or targeted set of marketing research services and might offer a limited combination of services Choosing a Marketing Research Provider When choosing a marketing research provider be sure to consider 1 Reputation 2 Work Quality 3 Expertise 4 Time 5 Budget Marketing Research Ethics Marketing research suppliers should not Misrepresent or overpromise Abuse respondents by pressuring them into biased responses or promising undelivered incentives they should be able to leave the research study if they want 0 Sugging or frugging selling or fundraising under the guise of research ln ate costs Falsify data either through the data analysis or data collection research phases Recommend additional research when it is unnecessary Divulge inappropriate or personal information about participants The client should not issue false RFPs or RFQs in an attempt to get free insight from wouldbe marketing research providers use their proposed idea for their in house research team withhold valuable information from marketing research provider change research purpose The respondent should not intentionally provide false answers become a professional respondent by trying to be in multiple research studies to gain monetary incentives Exploratory Descriptive and Causal Research Approaches 1 Exploratory Research exploratory research research designed to gain a general understanding of the issue at hand more general approach qualitative research methods are used methods include secondary data analysis learn about what has been written about your topic before 0 focus groups and depth interviews understand the issues directly from respondents o observation gain information into behaviors in natural or contrived settings 0 case studies examine similar or related events 0 pilot studies test the variables of your research topic 0 experience surveys small scale survey of experts see key issues are from which you can expand your knowledge f your research topic Descriptive Research descriptive research research designed to quantify your understanding of the research topic who What Where and how related questions 0 methods include o secondary data analysis learn what has been written about topic before 0 statistically representative surveys cross sectional surveys ask questions of various respondents but not resurveying the same group longitudinal surveys ask same questions of same respondents over time able to track trends and movement Causal Research causal research research designed to answer the Why questions requires that these three things are met 1 concomitant variation statistically predictable pattern between responsesvariables 0 ex if we lower price by 10 sales will increase by 5 2 time order of occurrence A must precede B if A is the cause of B 0 ex the pen will fall when I drop it it will not fall before I drop it 3 systematic elimination all other possible causes have been eliminated The Internet Impact l I cost reduction amp speed research can be done quickly and cheaply by using the internet 0 ex online surveys access to secondary data is immediate access to respondents enables the researcher to reach respondents through online or email based surveys 3 immediate analysis 4 generally higher response rates 5 data analysis 6 report generation software enables quick changes N Marketing Research Decision Support System marketing research decision support system designed to provide organizational leadership with the marketing information they need to run the organization effectively Qualitative vs Quantitative Research qualitative data nonnumeric conclusions interviews secondary data and focus groups quantitative data numeric ndings such as percentages correlations sums and counts and other descriptive statistics statistically representative large scale surveys analytic analysis quotWhyquot questions explains what the data might mean instead of simply what the data says interpretation or analysis of what was found Key Differences in Qualitative and Quantitative Research question depth qualitative data interviews allow more indepth responses amp quantitative data surveys set list of scaled questions to limit response sample size qualitative focus groups depth interviews observations have smaller samples quantitative involves large samples surveys mixed mode data collection using more than one technique on the same project respondent involvement qualitative requires the respondent to do more quantitative expects less from respondent can the research be replicated quantitative is easy to replicate qualitative is dif cult to replicate a similar focus group or interview because the difference in interviewersinterviewees research training quantitative requires more statistical skill while qualitative must be able to make good analytic sense of more openended type data research type qualitative data provides less speci c data while quantitative provides more descriptive or causal research level ofsubjectivity quantitative is not very subjective unless you are going to try to explain what the numbers mean qualitative data provides very different accounts of something Comparing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Approaches qualitative research leads to quantitative research 0 by rst covering qualitative you are able to see what types ofissues to cover on your questionnaire allows you to be certain of the questionnaire questions Secondary Data Sources often rst step in data collection primary could agree or disagree with the secondary ndings external secondary data internet journals magazines newspapers TVradio internal secondary data sources gathered from existing records within an organization sales receipts income statements personnel records etc Advantages and Disadvantages of Secondary Data advantages can clarify problems identify key issues inexpensive multiple sources available might identify other problems can be gathered quickly disadvantages can be misunderstood not always applicable outdated relevancy biased sources over generalized Assessing the Quality of Secondary Data relevance is the data relevant to your research timeliness is the data current can data be gathered in enough time to be useful accuracy how did the originator collect the data did they have good quality standards what methods were used to get the original data completeness does the data tell the whole story suf ciency is there enough data to make an informed decision is it useful biases is it biased in any way what were the original objectives Finding Good Secondary Data syndicated sources customized data from research providers on speci c topics biog an online personal journal with re ections comments and often hyperlinks provided by the writer also the contents of such a site Common Marketing Research Mistakes 1 overspending money is wasted on poorly designed research 2 not knowing What you re looking for need to have a plan and firm idea 3 poor choice ofreference materials solid secondary data is critical not thoroughy researching competition don t assume not researching price information LJ39IIgt 6 researching the wrong group ensure you have the right demographic of interest when researching 7 not using the right research instrument 8 not being aggressive enough in research efforts good research can be expensive but also can be worth it 9 relying on one set of data 10 ignoring your marketing research failure to act on research is a costly mistake Developing a Marketing Research Strategy Research Strategy considerations objectives what do you want to get out of the research impacts how the researcher will plan and execute a research study resources budget the money before the project starts methods how the researcher will accomplish the research project Main Components of a Research Strategy research statement declaration of what you re studying without a theory of cause hypothesis testing systematic process offsetting the possible causes of the phenomena parameter vs sample statistic parameter actual value of a variable in the population learned from collecting data from entire population 0 sample statistic sample of a variable in the population from which observations about the whole population can be theorized research hypothesis argument the researcher hopes to prove null hypothesis starting there is no relationship between variables alternative hypothesis stating there is a relationship between variables Research Strategies Venn diagram depiction of overlapping circles representing relationships among variables consumerpanes large samples of respondents often households who regularly supply information of purchase habits or buyer behavior over a long period of time aimed to identify consumer behavior patterns over time content analysis synthesizing secondary data secondary research technique that involves reading articles books information etc while searching for a pattern of data that might not be readily apparent in one article putting all secondary data together to tell a story Freedom of Information Act Freedom oflnformation Act request makes available to the public information on various government activities which can be most helpful in a number of research projects named to honor Thomas Jefferson Individual Depth Interviews IDI individual depth interview lengthy interview 30minshour with knowledgeable participants designed to get detailed information on the research topic requires much training to execute successfully advantages direct access to experts can be conducted anywhere lack of a group prevents quotgroup thinkquot disadvantages cost time it takes to conduct and recruit cannot represent the general population steps select interviewer research topic develop question list screening l execute l analysis How to Conduct IDI 1 plan interview carefuly develop a detailed discussion guide to sue for the interview learn the topic well don t wing the interview 2 interviewer skills required interviewer must be prepared to challenge and drawout the interviewee by demonstrating knowledge of the research topic 3 dealing with Challenging interviewees Focus Groups focus group moderatorled brainstorming discussion among 8 to 12 participants helps the researcher better understand critical issues that should be raised on a questionnaire steps select participants l select moderator create moderator guide select location execute l written amp video report select participants should NOT be randomly selected target knowledgeable participants about the speci c topic select moderator must be a clear communicator and an effective discussion referee preparation is key create a moderator guide serves as the discussion roadmap and is critical to running a successful focus group execute rescreen participants before focus group prepare some light food issues to avoid groupthink disruptions amp failure to participate groupthink allowing a few participants to dominate the discussion leading remaining participants to a collective opinion not otherwise in evidence disruption participants who are too loud aggressive argumentative should be reinedin by moderator failure to participate moderator should make a note to contact quiet participants later for an indepth interview projective techniques methods moderators use to spur group discussion 0 word association moderator quickly moves from participant to participant asking word association reaction based questions ex what word or phrase comes to mind when you hear summer or yogurt 0 not looking for facts looking for emotional answers such as leader decisive witty etc 0 take note of reactions quotI noticed Sarah 5 remarks accused a reaction tell me what you were thinking sentence completion questions are thought provoking as they are centered on a construct as opposed to a onedimensional issue 0 quot the president s policy to wards social security is quot 0 third party amp storytelling tell a story in the sense that it is not my opinion but rather quotMr Jones squot opinion photocard sorts sort cards in a particular order roleplaying best used with experienced participants 0 what to look for in a focus group body language reactions beliefs opinion shifts etc written report descriptive what was said and analytic what was meant by what was said analysis includes the purpose how people were screened amp recruited where it was who moderated demographic mix of participants summary of responses analysis of results and what they mean Focus Group Mapping focus group map used to chart interactions among focus group participants detailed process of who talked to who and on what subjects perceptual mapping process of producing a visual representation of perceptions about a product or service through scaled questions of key constructs as anchor points bridges a gap between manager perceptions and customers reality observation research primary research process of drawing conclusions based on observed behavior patterns of research subjects whether they are aware or unaware of the observation taking place what people actually do ethnographic research observation research in a natural setting geared towards understanding human behavior and decisionmaking processes through the lens of social norms traditions and culture Conditions Needed for Observation Research observable actions are observable opions attidudes and perceptions are best measured through interviews focus groups and surveys short duration the longer the observation the more extraneous variables and less control the researchers has over the situation detectable patterns without these patterns the researcher will not have actionable data Types of Obesrvation Research DirectIndirect directo observation researcher observes the behavior rsthand ex watching someone make a purchase indirect observation results when for example the researcher is outside the department store and observes a woman with two children emerge with the adult holding the bag researcher might assume the adult made the purchase although she doesn t have rsthand knowledge of having watched her make the purchase no direct evidence supporting the indirect observation circumstantial evidence evidence gathered is not directly observed or positively linked to the crime but conclusions are deduced based on a reasonable interpretation of the data ContrivedNatural contrived observation people are lured in situations for the purpose of observing how they responde natural observation observe subject in their natural setting Mechanical mechanical observation machine records observation data ina qunatitaive manner no research bisases StructuredUnstructured structured observation making observations while looking for speci c aspects of the observation ex observing baseball fans and you are speci cally looking for their reaction when their teams star pitcher stirkes out an opponent unstructured observation researcher observes actions whiteout a list of speci c things they are looking for ex researcher simply watches the game and makes a list of behavior patterns that might be the focus of future research DisguisedUndisguised disguised observation subject being observed aware or unaware of being observed ex water bottle example undisguised observation subject is aware of the purpose of the research mystery shopping someone pretending to be a customer Level 1 walk through store observe no interaction phone call Level 2 make purchase or ask basic questions minor interaction Level 3 interact with staff complicated situation in mind Level 4 fully engage staff that may require manager intervention how do they handle crises content analysis identifying braod information patterns by combingin invidual data elements ex audits forensic evidence tangible sometimes physical scienti c evidence often positively linkable to the subject of interest case studies form of content analysis in that they involve gleaning information from the totality of written qualitative data tell the story of a particular issue Internet amp Growing Forms of Observation netnography observations of online patterns are mapped analysis of online behvaiors through observation Key Types 1 eye tracking tests which parts of the Web page are most appealing or at least get the most attention 2 brain wave tracking track the brain s reaction to various stimuli 3 click rate how long it takes customer to get to a given part of a Web page 4 newsgroups people subscribe to these groups to remain informed on a particular issue Observation Research Advantages and Disadvantages subjects in natural setting test theories helps w product or taste testing quick interactive interesting and engaging H time consuming and costly not for use of general population misapply results easily Survey Research Error Sampling vs NonSampling sampling err0ror random sampling error error associated with chance variations that typify samples in other words when you have a sample of 1000 people that represent 100 million people there are statistical variations that occur when we make the leap from the 1000 to its representing 100 million nonsampling or systematic error occurs from a aw in the research design or its subsequent execution researcher or respondent caused the error 0 auspices bias unintentional respondent bias in uenced by who is sponsoring the research extremity anol central tendency bias unintentional respondent bias respondent is predisposed to respond to the extreme endpoints of a scale ex rate the service from 1 to 10 respondent responds at top or bottom of the scale in order to provide a stronger opinion than he might normally have central tendency bias tendency to respond on the center of the scale might be culturally driven fatigue unintentional respondent bias respondent may be tired and not fully engaged in the survey process which result in incorrect answers acquiescence bias unintentional respondent bias respondent provides answers she thinks the respondent wants to hear but they aren t intentionally trying to skew the results just wants to be helpful interviewer bias interviewer intentionally or unintentionally causes the respondent to respond in a certain way rigorous interview training is imperative to avoid a bias sample selection error unintentional researcher error occurs when the researcher simply has the wrong sample or partially wrong sample must be vigilant to ensure they have the correct sample before initiating a survey nonresponse error 0 researchers would prefer a 20 response rate over the 60 response rate if 1 the 80 who didn t respond are statistically no different from the 20 who did respond 2 the 40 of those who didn t respond are statistically no different from the 60 who did respond suppose no women over 40 responded then the 60 who did respond to the survey are not statically representative of the entire population 0 nonresponse respondents might answer some of the questions but not all might no respond to the entire survey because they refused to participate or forgot to participate o cutoff respondents answer part of the survey and quit part way though the survey causes the survey is too long or the respondents get frustrated and no longer want to take the survey 0 refusal respondent refuses to participate in the survey process 0 undeliverable respondents location of these respondents is known but they are not or do not accept unsolicited correspondences o unreachable respondents people are not reachable due to a bad address or unlisted phone numberemailpostal address response rate is not that critical as long as the nonresponse error is low and that the actual number of respondents is an acceptable sample size Intentional vs Unintentional intentional error error that the researcher or the respondent causes on purpose unintentional error not trying to skew the results they simply are causing error unintentionally for a variety of reasons Respondent vs Researcher Who caused the error important to determine if the proportion of those who did respond is different from those who did not ex suppose the population is 50 men and 50 women yet only 40 of the respondents are women are the 10 of women who did not respond statistically different from the 40 of women who did respond weight score can weight male responses more or weight the female scores less because the women are overrepresented in the sample 0 ex female scores are weighted 67 600 x 67 400 Female scores are now in parity w the male scores male scores are weighted 15 400 x 15 600 male scores are now in parity with female scores resampe resample males to get 200 more men for the survey which would put the total number of male respondents at 600 could be costly and timely reduce sample randomly take out 200 females from the survey reverses the resample technique could increase the error rate multiadjust combination of approaches Data Collection Methods and Increasing Response Rates Key Survey Considerations 1 Data Collection Methods 0 Internet internet survey collection methods are primarily in the form of online or email surveys 0 online surveys selfadministered respondent goes to webpage to answer questions 0 email surveys prompt the respondent to go to a Web link or the questionnaire might be embedded directly into the email 0 ofinternet typically inexpensive speed interfaces can be downloaded quickly into software charts and graphs access respondents from anywhere can respond o H ofinternet cost for survey software tools sample anonymity 2 In Person in person quotmail interceptsquot collect direct information from respondents advantages sampletarget who they want to interactive feedback disadvantages samplenot necessarily representative of the population cost time 3 Telephone CATI computer assisted telephone interviews CATI done through LAN lines or to cell phones when respondents optin the survey 0 advantages sample screening cost costs vary wideIY Speed disadvantages complexity response rates segmentation focus 4 Self Administered sefadministered taken by the respondent without the researcher being present 0 advantages length cost market segmentation less pressure disadvantages response rates mailing list quality lack of control one way communication time 5 Mail or Online Panels panes groups of people who agree to be in a long term survey or short term convenience sample on a variety of research topics 0 advantages cost measuring trends expertise disadvantages cost sample integrity representativeness 6 Hybrid using multiple methods to collect the data 0 advantages convenience disadvantage representativeness Choosing the Data Collection Method time time pressure can be driven by the need to get the information quickly for management budget research can be expensive accuracy doesn t necessarily represent the entire population access extent to which you can reach the population through both their willingness to participate and the incidence of their occurrence in the population 0 Willingness has to want to participate suitability need to screen respondents as being knowledgeable enough to contribute substantively to the research 0 ability someone might want or be willing to participate but perhaps they simply do not have the time or are not able to participate incidence rate of population who are quali ed to be research subjects Key Incentive to Raise Response Rates pretest administering the questionnaire among a small group of appropriate respondents advantage clarify new information disadvantage time nancial incentives include money prize giveaways gift certi cates etc o advantage effective variety easy disadvantage cost biases noti cations informing potential respondents that they will be contacted to participate in a survey will increase response rates 0 advantage effective list veri cation disadvantage cost administrative time deadlines convey a sense of urgency to the respondent to complete the survey in a timely manner 0 advantage effective free disadvantage pressure impact appeals convince people that completing it will be noble or help a good cause 0 advantage effective free disadvantage credibility source cover letter opening paragraph that will increase the survey response rate thank them for participation 0 advantage effective cost disadvantage credibility


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