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Midterm Study Guide

by: Johanna Murphy

Midterm Study Guide

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Midterm Study Guide for Early Judaism. Covers the various Jewish scriptures, important historical figures, and significant dates. Includes notes on the Pre-Monarchy period, Monarchy, the Persian Pe...
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Date Created: 02/11/15
HIST 347 History of USSRRussia Midterm Study Guide Important Terms Bolsheviks followers of Lenin wanted a proletarian revolution stressed centralization and ideological unity in the party Cadets Rejected Nicholas s October Manifest and creation of the Duma wanted more concessions from the regime Cheka security force created during the Civil War to monitor antiBolshevik conspiracies class enemies etc Beginning of the secret police Duma Parliament created by Nicholas after the 1905 revolution Had very little real power First Five Year Plan Industry plan introduced by Stalin from 19291933 meant to focus on exceeding the west in production Focused mainly on iron steel and tractors Intelligentsia Westernized educated elite who tended to have a radical ideology Kulaks peasants that accumulated wealth under the NEP During Stalin s revolution they were attacked deported and executed Mensheviks More orthodox Marxists believed Lenin was reaching too far New Economic Policy NEP Policies created in response to desperate economic situation after the Civil War Involved some revival of private trade and markets Nepmen people who were able to accumulate wealth under the NEP Seen as the new bourgeoisie October Manifesto Nicholas 11 made decree in 1905 promising to create a parliament the Duma Octobrists Those who accepted Nicholas s October Manifesto Order 1 Soviet order decreeing that every army unit should elect a committee to run the unit which should be obeyed over the officers in all situations except armed combat Created chaos in the military Populists Members of intelligentsia that believed industrial capitalism was bad supported socialism As opposed to other members of intelligentsia who based their plans for Russia s future on Western European structure Proletariat Industrial working class Provisional Government interim government of Duma legislators created after Tsar Nicholas abdicated meant to rule until Constituent Assembly was elected Zemstvos Local governing bodies that were often opposed to state bureaucracy tended to be sympathetic to radicals General Timeline 1861 Peasants emancipated from serfdom 187374 Going to the People movement in which thousands of students and intelligentsia went out to Villages to educate peasants some with socialist ideals 1881 Emperor Alexander 11 assassinated 1903 The SocialDemocratic Labor Party split into Bolsheviks and MensheViks 1904 RussoJapanese War strikes student demonstrations and calls for reform 1905 Revolution began with Bloody Sunday where troops red on demonstrating workers Country came together to protest autocratic regime Nicholas 11 proposed creation of the Duma Soviets began organizing in large cities 1906 Large loan increased industry and expanded the working class 1914 Beginning of World War 1 Russia suffered heavy defeats Lots of peasant uprisings and urban revolutions 1917 Revolution began with food shortages in Petrograd Mass Demonstrations turned political Socialists called for revolutionary Violence Tsar Nicholas abdicated leaving Russia with no monarch Duma legislators became Provisional Government Petrograd Soviet set itself up as rival national government Komilov attempted military coup failed Red Guard created Bolsheviks lead October Revolution drive out Provisional Government Bolsheviks gain 25 of votes at elections for Constituent Assembly 1918 Russia withdraws from WWI Civil War begins Bolsheviks move capital to Moscow Assassination attempt on Lenin unleashed Red Terror Royal Family executed Bolsheviks began nationalizing all largescale industry New Constitution drafted that gave votes to workers but not members of exploiting class 1921 10th Party Congress announcement of NEP Kronstadt rebellion Massive purge of Bolshevik Party expelled almost 25 of members Lenin s health begins to decline 1924 Lenin dies Beginning of drive to industrialize 1925 Stalin breaks off from Zinoviev and Kamenev Zinoviev and Kamenev join with Trotsky in opposition but Stalin has their supporters expelled for factionalism 1927 Trotsky and other Oppositionists expelled from Russia Widespread fear of attack from European capitalist powers Procurement Crisis 1928 Beginning of mass migration from villages back to cities 1929 Beginning of First Five Year Plan Push to collectivize agriculture Stalin imposed quotas on peasants with strict punishments for nondelivery Creation of gulags 1930 Large peasant revolts angry over collectivization 193233 Huge famine resulting in 35 million deaths 1934 Kirov leader of Leningrad Soviet assassinated Stalin s Terror Lecture and Reading Notes Pre Revolutionarv Russia At beginning of 20th century lots of peasants began moving to cities to get jobs in industry but maintained familial ties to villages 0 Moscow and St Petersburg suffered overcrowding Able to purchase urban goods like hats clothing tea etc After peasants were released from serfdom the villages were collectively responsible for redemption debts 0 State paid compensation to landowners then peasants were responsible for repaying the debt 0 Meant to keep too many peasants from moving to the cities Peasants were required to give state labor and military service Ethnic Russians only made up about 40 of population of empire Enormous cultural and religious diversity 0 Included Jews Muslims Orthodox Christians Russia was an autocracy public was completely excluded from politics 1905 Revolution General worker strikes began in cities spread to villages o Ignited by Bloody Sunday troops fired on demonstrating workers 0 Peasants began lootingbuming feudal estates 0 Troops put down revolts executed over 1000 peasants 0 Tsar Nicholas issued October Manifesto conceded to legalize strikes and political parties reduce censorship of the press establish the Duma o Duma had no real power over spending or appointments but helped politicize the Russian public 0 Even after political parties were made legal police still arrested members of parties and unions 0 Petrograd Soviet was created followed by soviets in large cities World War I 0 Russia believed that it could be selfsufficient during war but suffered from lack of infrastructure and weapons 0 1915 huge slaughter of Russian soldiers 0 Educated elite generally supported the war while common people were resistant o Tsar Nicholas took command of the military which made the public see it as Nicholas s War blamed him for defeats 0 Large numbers of soldiers deserted 0 Many Bolsheviks were arrested during war for being opposed o Lenin believed defeat would be good for Russia because it would provoke a civil war leading to a revolution 1917 Revolution 0 February Revolution was triggered by food shortages in Petrograd St Petersburg 0 Railroad lines were being used for military supplies instead of food 0 Announced that there would be no more deliveries of our for 8 weeks 0 Citizens started looting and stealing food stores 0 Mass demonstrations turned political o Socialists agitated crowd encouraged revolutionary violence 0 Signs read down with the monarchy 0 Police were friendly with the demonstrators Revolutionary crowd took over the armory and railroad stations Army sent emissaries to Nicholas requesting that he abdicate 0 He agreed but handed throne over to his brother Grand Duke Michael who refused 0 Russia left without a monarch Duma legislators appointed themselves Provisional Government meant to rule until Constituent Assembly could be elected Constituent Assembly would draft Russia s new Constitution Petrograd Soviet appointed itself as rival national government representing the proletariat o Represented people s revolution whereas Provisional Government represented elite revolution Order 1 decreed that every army unit should elect committee to run the unit which should be obeyed over the officers in all situations except armed combat 0 Created chaos in military Concept of dual power shared between Provisional Government and Petrograd Soviet o Soviet acted as a watchdog over Provisional government protecting workers interests Provisional Government remained committed to the war Soviets only supported it as long as Russian territory was threatened defensivist stance As the war dragged on more popular hostility towards the bourgeois Provisional Government Workers taking control of factories in large cities Peasants calling for land redistribution resumed lootingbuming noble estates July Days more mass demonstrations in Petrograd Komilov attempted an army coup meant to establish a strong government 0 Sent troops to Petrograd in August 0 Workers joined together to resist the coup and troops lost motivation o Komilov was arrested and support for Bolsheviks surged Red Guard was created in response to Komilov threat Bolsheviks Take Power 0 Bolsheviks gained majority in Petrograd and Moscow Soviets 0 Lenin began to encourage armed insurrection returned to Petrograd in October but stayed in hiding o Insurrection began October 24th before the meeting of 2nd Congress of Soviets o Soviet s MilitaryRevolutionary Committee began taking over government institutions met almost no resistance 0 Drove the Provisional Government out of the Winter Palace 0 Bolsheviks wanted power transferred to small soviets throughout the country 0 Lenin wanted an allBolshevik government rejected idea of a multiparty socialist government 0 Bolsheviks immediately decreed o Suppression of all hostile nonBolshevik newspapers 0 All large landholdings to be redistributed to peasants 0 Declaration of rights of the people of Russia 0 As soon as they took power political Violence skyrocketed o Described their rule as a dictatorship of the proletariat o Soviets became the local organs of central government 0 Power divided between Council of People s Commissars Soviet s Central Executive Committee and Bolsheviks Central Committee 0 Saw all members of old privileged classes as enemies and class enemies were counter revolutionary simply by existing Red Army 0 Lenin and Trotsky realized they needed officers for the Red Army only qualified officers came from previous bourgeois army 0 Lenin was willing to pay them more to get them to work for the Red Army but he also didn t trust them planned to keep them carefully supervised o All officers paired with a Communist official who had to cosign their orders 0 Made up of volunteers conscripted peasants and workers and demobilized soldiers 0 Had support of the urban working class whereas White Army had support of the middle and upper classes 0 White Army s policies were not appealing to the general public seen as just wanting to turn back the clock Trotsky o Lenin made Trotsky chief negotiator for the Bolsheviks 0 He met with negotiators for other countries but failed because he tried to stir revolution among the citizens of that country 0 No War No Peace Trotsky s policy of not going to war but also not signing any peace treaties on unacceptable terms 0 Appointed Commissar for War of the Red Army Civil War 0 Broke out in 1918 a few months after Russia withdrew from WWI o Loyalist troops tried to fight the Bolsheviks in Petrograd and Moscow 0 European powers supported the White Army antiBolsheviks o Bolsheviks saw it as a class war revolutionary ideals vs capitalism 0 After White Army attacked Petrograd Bolsheviks moved capital to Moscow 0 The White Army was operating without any central leadership an had little access to transportation 0 Bolsheviks created the Cheka security force to monitor any antiBolshevik conspiracies o Took hostages made mass arrests and executed suspects 0 Ethnic con icts also broke out o Pogroms against Jews killed estimated 30000 to 70000 during Civil War 0 Con icts between Ukrainians and Poles 0 By 1921 the Civil War had mostly died down Red Army victorious although there were small rebellions on the periphery War Communism o Bolsheviks wanted to abolish private property and free market and distribute products according to need 0 Nationalized banking credit and all largescale industry 0 Peasants were unwilling to sell their grain surplus to the state because there were no items on the market to buy 0 Led to forced requisitioning of grain o Volunteers were sent out to countryside told to get grain at all costs 0 Caused Bolsheviks to lose support of the peasantry o Bolsheviks also created Village Committees of poorer peasants encouraged them to help the Soviets seize grain from richer peasants 0 Money lost value and bargaining became the main mode of exchange 0 The rationing system favored members of the Red Army Communist administrators and workers over other members of society Art and Culture 0 Theater ourished postrevolution as a form of social commentary 0 Gave out free tickets to make it available to workers 0 Had revolutionary mass spectacles with thousands of participants 0 Avantgarde artists offered services making propaganda art 0 Some wanted to get rid of all classic art 0 art into life wanted art to be more accessible to average person 0 Maj or theme of Socialist Realism was the heroic individual young strong figure contributing to the socialist revolution 0 Became only acceptable artistic approach under Stalin PostCivil War 0 Coal production and industry decreased railways broke down there was drought and famine o PostCivil War Russia was less urbanized than prerevolutionary Russia 0 Had to demobilize Red Army of 5 million men soldiers were unemployed and hungry 0 Masses of industrial workers moved back to the villages 0 Peasants were angry some openly revolting against Bolsheviks o 1921 Kronstadt naval base rebelled 0 Had previously been huge supporters of Bolsheviks 0 Wanted true soviet republic of workers 0 Symbolized parting of Bolshevik party and working class New Economic Policy NEP 0 Announced by the 10th Party Congress in 1921 0 Replaced grain requisitioning with a tax in kind 0 State took only a fixed quota of grain rather than entire surplus o Peasants were allowed to trade the rest privately o Allowed revival of private enterprise and market relations although state maintained control of largescale industry and banking o Factories and shops reopened 0 Currency stabilized after long period of runaway in ation 0 Relaxation of control over economic social and cultural life but didn t extend into politics repression of political parties continued 0 Thousands of Mensheviks were arrested 0 Nepmen people who were able to accumulate wealth under the new policy seen as new bourgeoisie 0 Many felt the NEP was admitting Communist failure Party Discipline 0 Factions began to form within Bolshevik Party over policy decisions 0 Lenin felt factions threatened the Party unity and his leadership and worked to destroy them 0 At 10th Party Congress disbanded and forbid any factions asked Central Committee to remove any members suspected of factionalism o 1921 fullscale purge of party expelled almost 25 of members Social Relations and Culture 0 Society went from official religion to official atheism o Bolsheviks viewed religion as false consciousness that fooled lower classes into seen oppression as virtuous o Lenin called for seizure of church valuables and execution of clergymen Class hierarchy was turned upside down 0 Nobility and parts of bourgeoisie not allowed to vote denied certain aspects of citizenship People were addressed as comrade instead of old formal way namepatronymic Focused on emancipation of women saw women as an oppressed class 0 Made divorce and abortion more accessible 0 Women theoretically gained equal pay and equal work opportunities Saw traditional patriarchal family as an outdated bourgeois invention Policy Towards Peripheral States 0 Lenin supported a policy of national selfdetermination separate union republics for non Russian peoples Largest ethnic groups got union republics Uzbekistan Kazakhstan Ukraine Armenia Georgia Tried to have smaller unions for smaller ethnic groups Chechnya Dagastan Bolsheviks wanted to extend their power throughout the old Russian empire Local Russians helped Bolsheviks conquer nonRussian territories 0 Wanted to raise literacy rates and educate people in nonRussian territories 0 Sent out ethnographers to help with developing languages 0 States were supposed to use their own languages for local government Antireligious stance alienated many in Central Asia because Islam was central to their identity Bolsheviks focused on liberating women through education so they could go on to form labor brigades for themselves 0 Usually involved getting rid of Islamic veil Leadership Struggle 0 Most power concentrated in the Politburo included Trotsky and Stalin o Zinoviev Kamenev and Stalin banned together in opposition to Trotsky o 1925 Stalin broke off from Zinoviev and Kamenev who then joined Trotsky in opposition o Stalin had their supporters expelled for factionalism o Stalin focused on policy of Socialism in One Country Russia preparing to industrialize with no foreign help 0 Trotsky was opposed to the policy argued that Russia needed foreign trade and credit 0 Stalin s supporters framed Trotsky as caring more about Europe than Russia 0 1927 Trotsky and other Oppositionists expelled o Stalin proposed that anyone promoting oppositionist views should be seen as an enemy of the Soviet Union and sentenced as a spy Drive to Industrialize 0 Rapid industrialization began around 1924 o By 1925 economy was returning to almost preWWI output levels 0 Tax in kind replaced by monetary tax 0 Soviets needed capital to industrialize and peasantry was the main base they could draw from 0 Defense industry was priority because leaders feared an attack from capitalist powers 0 1929 first Five Year Plan adopted 0 Focused on producing iron steel and tractors needed for farms 0 Suffered fuel and power shortages and transport breakdowns because coal electricity and railways were being neglected 0 Plants and factories were told to overfulflll their quotas 0 State permanently took control of urban economy distribution and trade 0 Gulags prison camps were created as source of free labor accompanied by mass arrests Collectivization of Agriculture Soviet leaders tried to control the prices of products 0 If goods like cloth became too expensive it would make peasants withdraw from the market and not sell their grain 0 Led to increased black market Procurement Crisis 19271928 0 State was trying to buy crops at lower than market price 0 Peasants began shifting farms to meat soybean crops with higher prices 0 State was not able to collect enough grain Bolsheviks responded by bringing up an article from the Civil War that made hoarding grain illegal 0 Even though selling excess was legal under the NEP peasants could now be arrested for private trading Stalin concluded the state needed to do something radical to stabilize food production 0 Believed solution was transition to collective farms which could feed the working class and the excess could be exported Returned to armed requisitioning When officials tried to get peasants to join collective farms most were reluctant Thousands of volunteers mobilized to go out to villages and help collectivize o Chosen because they had no local ties Many peasants massslaughtered their livestock because they would rather eat or sell the meat than just hand the animals over to the collective farms 0 Meant less fertilizer for crops and shortage of horses to plow fields 0 Agricultural production dropped even more 193031 4 million peasants were involved in armed rebellions 0 Secret police described them as kulak uprisings 1930 Stalin published Dizzy with Success an article blaming the Soviet agents for violating peasants rights to join voluntarily o Scapegoating the orders to use force had come directly from Stalin o Peasants took it to mean they were allowed to leave the farms 0 Pressure to collectivize returned quickly By the mid1930s almost all peasants were in collective farms o Soviets promised tractors but many didn t arrive or broke down easily 0 Procurement quotas continued to go up leading to famine 193233 estimated 35 million deaths 0 Stalin reintroduced internal passports didn t give them to peasants which prevented peasants from leaving their villages Attacks on Kulaks 0 State noticed that only small minority of farmers wealthy kulaks were making money off of grain 0 Some were wealthy but many were only slightly better off than other peasants 0 Push to collectivize came with attacks on kulaks 0 State recognized 3 Categories of kulaks Especially Dangerous Dangerous and Less Dangerous 0 All Especially Dangerous kulaks were to be shot all Dangerous to be sent to Siberia 0 Every region had a quota for each category of kulaks o All property was to be confiscated and used as an incentive for peasants to join the collective farms 0 Unspoken threat that peasants who didn t join might be labelled as kulaks 0 Some were labelled as kulaks simply because they had good houses for Party meetings 0 Coincided with increased attacks on churches o Majority of peasants were religious and angered by attacks on churches Society in the 1930s 0 With increasing numbers of women in the workforce and the bad conditions and famine women were not having babies 0 In the 1930s Moscow had 4X as many abortions as live births 0 Stalin declared abortion illegal with strong punishments 0 Put out propaganda blaming men for high divorce rates 0 Claimed divorce shouldn t be so easy 0 Young people were the most motivated in the revolution and the state naturally trusted youth over the older generations 0 Children were told to be on alert in case their parents were questioningundermining Soviet values 0 Children were urged to listen to Soviet authorities rather than their parents Stakhanovism 0 Named after a miner who broke all previous records for mining coal 0 People were urged to strive for individual production records and rewarded with material goods 0 Represented a break with revolutionary values 0 People being celebrated for consumption 0 Stalin viewed it as an example of the life every worker could someday have 0 Trotsky called it the revolution betrayed o Stalin countered that the revolution hadn t sought to make everyone poor but to allow workers to have a good life Terror 0 Terror was used by all sides during the Civil War reduced during the NEP but renewed again during the collectivization years 0 Police started making mass arrests of anyone suspected of being antirevolutionary 0 1930s Terror began to turn against other Party members 0 1934 Kirov the leader of the Leningrad Soviet was assassinated o Stalin used the assassination to unleash terror on Oppositionists those who had sided with Trotsky 0 Created series of laws that prioritized arresting enemies o 13 people besides the assassin were immediately accused of involvement and executed with no evidence I Their family members were arrested too some executed others sent to prison camps for 5 years Soviet Police also got involved in prosecuting antiSoviet Agitation crimes which could be something as simple as making a joke about the regime From the moment someone was accused of an Article 58 Crime counterrevolutionary they had only 10 days before the case was closed including trial sentencing and carrying out sentence 1929 creation of the prison camp network Gulags 0 Before the Terror Soviet policy was to reeducate prisoners o If they worked they received wages 0 During the late 1920s Soviet leaders started worrying about labor shortages and saw prisoners as a free labor source 0 Gulags were created in the remote parts of the country Siberia mostly to aid logging industry 0 Run by the secret police Show Trials were heavily publicized trials in order to make an example for the public 0 Included trials of Zinoviev and Kamenev o Meant to put citizens on guard encourage them to look out for traitors o In almost every case the accused confessed and pointed to other coconspirators 0 Leading Leading figures in any area were arrested in large numbers especially members of the bureaucracy Arrested lots of statisticians because there census numbers were too low 0 So many people had died from the famine but officially there was no famine Stalin s Ideas Saw industry as deciding factor of whether socialist regime would survive o Believed all of Russia s past failures and defeats were due to backwardness Firmly against any opposition in Party Believed Russia could industrialize without any help from other countries Came up with Five Year Plan and drove the collectivization of agriculture in order to reverse the effects of the NEP o Needed grain to feed workers wanted to be able to export the extra grain Lenin s Ideas Believed WWI was an imperialist war and that Russia should withdraw 0 Also believed that Russian loss could be good because it would provoke a civil war in Russia leading to the desired revolution 0 Believed the war was based in capitalist interests so achieving democratic peace required overthrowing capitalism Wanted a singleparty Bolshevik government distrusted soviet unity Rejected the Provisional Government believed the Soviets would facilitate power transfer from the bourgeoisie to the proletariat Supported peasant seizure of land Power should be based on revolutionary seizure not legitimized by a central government 0 Communism could only be achieved by violent revolution led by a small disciplined party The people should be armed as opposed to a state police force or military Of cials shouldn t be paid more than ordinary workers Capitalists are the enemies of peace and socialism Wanted to abolish the police army Provisional Government and bureaucracy Believed the famine and problems of 1917 could not be solved by any committees even the Soviets could only be solved by popular uprising Marxist Ideals The industrial working class was the only group of people capable of creating a true socialist revolution Capitalism was a necessary stage in the natural progression towards socialism Notes on Novels Notes on Heart of a D02 0 Book and play were banned until 1987 0 Plot 0 Doctor adopts a stray dog for experiment of putting human testes and pituitary gland into the dog Pituitary gland begins to turn dog into a human though he retains some animal attributes Sharikov the doghuman hybrid causes so much chaos that the doctor eventually reverses the experiment 0 During the 19203 there were similar scientific experiments going on in Russia 0 0 Russian doctor tried grafting animal glands into humans Pavlov experimented with animals using vivisection 0 New Soviet bureaucracies such as the house committee in the book were focused on equalizing space 0 0 Moscow was so overcrowded many workers were renting comers of rooms Large apartments were usually confiscated and turned into communal apartments 0 Philip Philippovich represents the old bourgeoisie O 0 Has 7 rooms almost unheard of at time and wants an 8th Talks about the general ruin of the period perceived breakdown of order and morals economic struggles etc Eats luxury foods like caviar In general whole understanding of the world is based on class but at the same time he is not depicted in a negative way Emphasizes kindness with treatment of the dog 0 Sharikov represents the proletariat 0 Is depicted as crass vulgar and retaining some of the criminal tendencies of the man whose pituitary gland he possesses I Implies that the criminal activity committed by the man were biological impulses o The Bolsheviks were against the concept of biological determinism believed that people were shaped by their social environment 0 Class depictions o Educated people referred to each other formally by first name and patronymic example Philip Philippovich but referred to others by first or last name only 0 Philip Philippovich refuses to refer to Sharikov by his chosen formal name 0 Referring to people differently based on class was something the Bolsheviks were strongly against 0 Constant presence of paperwor in the story points out bureaucracy of the Party one of the only thing Bolsheviks were allowed to complain about 0 Philip Philippovich treats sexual disorders which were believed to be the result of the bourgeois lifestyle 0 Bolsheviks believed that the Soviet lifestyle would be healthier and sexual disorders would disappear Notes on So a Petrovna o So a Petrovna s character was an everywoman 0 Not very interested in politics just leading a normal life 0 Her husband had been a doctor before death 0 She generally has faith in the government and Communist Party 0 Believes the country wouldn t lock up innocent people 0 When she sees all the other women waiting in line she feels bad for them because they are relatives of traitors believes her son is the only exception 0 Heavily in uenced by propaganda 0 Many people shun her after Kolya is arrested 0 Considered a mother of an enemy of the people 0 Others are just afraid to be associated with her 0 In the end she begins to lose her mind 0 General distrustsuspicion of the time 0 Police began rounding up experts in certain areas physician and arresting them 0 Meeting in which one of the typists declares that traitors have even invaded the publishing house 0 Natasha is twice denied membership to the Komsomol because her family came from a more bourgeois background and the Party doesn t trust her loyalty o So a is only told that her son is being held in the city doesn t receive any other information Essay Questions note this section contains evidence and examples that could be used for the essays It is up to you to evaluate the evidence in your own essays 1 Sheila Fitzpatrick the author of your textbook considers the outcome of the Russian Revolution and Civil War as primarily due to the social support that the Bolsheviks were able to muster for their cause Evaluate this interpretation on the basis of evidence that supports or undermines it Your thesis statement should either support her view or dispute it Subsequent paragraphs need to provide factual information in support of your arguments Evidence For 0 During the Civil War the working classes supported the Bolsheviks more because they were seen as more revolutionary 0 Workers and common people drove the riots that ultimately forced Nicholas to abdicate 0 People trusted the Soviets more than the Provisional Government because the Provisional Government was selfappointed not elected by the people 0 Provisional Government was also committed to the war effort whereas the Bolsheviks rejected the war which appealed more to the suffering soldiers o Komilov was unable to stage his military coup because the people were in support of the Bolsheviks and they stopped the trains from coming in 0 His attempted coup also increased support for Bolsheviks because it created a tangible enemy o Bolsheviks started out as minority in the Soviets but gained support quickly during 1917 revolution 0 Supported the workers in taking control of factories 0 October Revolution had so much public support that the revolutionaries met almost no resistance in driving out the Provisional Government During the Civil War Bolsheviks were able to muster a massive Red Army largely on volunteers and eXsoldiers 0 White Army had more trouble drafting peasants than the Red Army did because they were more loyal to Bolsheviks Most outside powers including Europe Japan and the US supported the Red Army so the Bolsheviks only real source of support was the people Focused on liberating women women gained equal rights Gave thousands of proletarian workers administrative jobs in the Red Army Cheka food administration factory managers etc Stalin had a campaign to send lots of workers and Communists to college Evidence Against During the February Revolution 1917 most Bolshevik leaders were in exile Striking workers often called for all power to the Soviets which contradicted Bolshevik vision of proletarian dictatorship Bolsheviks only got 25 of popular vote for the Constituent Assembly Towards end of Civil War there were popular revolts against the Bolsheviks such as the Kronstadt Revolt and several peasant revolts After Civil War Bolsheviks began to lose favor with public because of their policies 0 Forced grain requisitioning 0 Agricultural consolidation 0 Industry and production broke down causing workers to move back to the villages The Red Army had been the biggest source of support for the Bolsheviks but after they were demobilized they were unemployed and hungry not enough jobs Tried to focus on liberating women but often ended up alienating women because they were more religious and traditional than men Lenin and Stalin s attacks on religion especially angered peasants Stalin s policy was to squeeze the peasant class in order to support the industrial workers Peasants crippled the collective farms by slaughtering their animals instead of giving them over to the farms 19321933 major grainproducing areas suffered famine 34 million deaths Imprisoned thousands of people in the gulags In the late 1920s Stalin adopted a radical policy of socialist modernization sometimes called the Revolution from Above What were the major elements of that policy Which problems real or perceived did they address How successful were they in solving those problems Mai or Elements o Overturning the NEP which many Bolsheviks viewed as admittance of Communist failure 0 Class warfare o Liquidation of kulaks as a class 0 Arrests of anyone perceived as being a class enemy kulak or otherwise 0 Collectivization of agriculture 0 Needed in order to produce enough grain to feed workers and have leftover to export 0 First Five Year Plan 0 Focused on production of iron steel and tractors for the collective farms 0 Prioritizing industry over all else 0 Attacks on religion C Partly class warfare Viewed priests as members of bourgeois class C Partly to seize wealth statues monuments etc and property C Partly because of antireligion stance overall 0 Stalin s Terror 0 Mass arrests and people being sent to gulags o Expulsion of Trotsky and all other oppositionists Problems They Addressed 0 192728 perception that capitalist European powers were going to invade Russia 0 The need to industrialize Without help from outside countries 0 Wanting to catch up to the west in production 0 Belief that the peasant class could hold the state ransom as long as grain prices were negotiable 0 Some also feared that the peasants would try to starve the Bolsheviks out 0 Stabilizing food production and addressing the procurement crisis 0 Making sure there was enough food to feed the working class 0 Finding perceived conspirators behind the Kirov assassination and later finding any antirevolutionary individuals 0 Dealing with threat of labor shortages trying to encourage more output 0 Waging class warfare as part of cultural revolution breaking all ties with the past 3 Following Leon Trotsky some historians view Stalin as having betrayed the Leninist legacy Evaluate this interpretation To what extent were Stalin s priorities policies and methods consistent with those of Lenin and to what extent did they represent a rupture with revolutionary Bolshevism Provide evidence to support your arguments and you should also discuss contrary evidence if appropriate Consistencies 0 Both emphasized singleparty dictatorship and didn t tolerate dissent within the party 0 Lenin led a huge purge of the Party in 1921 set up strict disciplines on what they were allowed to criticizedebate and when 0 Stalin also drove out oppositionists during the Terror 0 Both utilized secret police and terror in order to get rid of enemies and set an example for the public although Stalin pursued terror to a greater degree 0 Both believed in strict Marxist class differences bourgeois elite were enemies and the proletarian workers were the allies 0 Both tried to establish different social classes within the peasantry and turn the lower class against the upper classes 0 Lenin tried to get lower classes to help the state seize grain from the upper classes during forced requisitioning o Stalin tried to get them to turn on the kulaks and seize property from them 0 Both strongly antireligious Change from Revolutionary Bolshevism 0 Lenin had supported peasant seizure of land and land redistribution whereas Stalin practically forced the peasants into collectivized farming that for many resembled serfdom 0 Because Lenin believed that WWI was an imperialist war he believed overthrowing capitalism was necessary to win it o Stalin faced the threat of war from European powers by trying to ramp up production and output 0 During the revolution Lenin and Trotsky tried to stir up proletarian revolutions in other countries because they believed that Russia would need support of others 0 Stalin pursued policy of Socialism in One Country believed they could industrialize and survive as the only socialist country in Europe Required having exports and strong internal economy 0 Stalin became so focused on building up economy and industry that he was willing to sacrifice socialist ideals to do so 0 Lenin considered Russia s past failures and defeats the result of bourgeois oppression whereas Stalin saw it as the result of backwardness Stalin turned against his own party members and the working classpeasants to a degree that Lenin never did 0 Let go of Lenin s idea of the government being legitimized through support of the people Lenin legalized abortion but Stalin made it illegal with strict consequences 0 Women were not having enough babies worried about labor shortage Stalin s obsession with enemies during the Great Terror had roots that stretched back to the revolutionary era How did the concept of enemies change over time from 1917 to 1938 Who was targeted and what were the consequences of being perceived as a real or potential enemy of Soviet power Make sure to include some concrete information about the Great Terror in your answer Changing Concept of Enemies At the beginning of the 1917 Revolution the enemies were the Tsarists and the imperial government The Bolsheviks soon turned against the Provisional Government as the enemies because they weren t elected and were therefore not a government of the people 0 October revolution drove out the Provisional Government Those loyal to the Tsarist regime were also enemies o Komilov and attempted military coup o The White Army Bolsheviks early on set up idea of class enemies the bourgeoisie vs the proletariat 0 Members of bourgeois class distrusted even when they were needed such as officers in the Red Army 0 Attacked priests and religious leaders for being members of bourgeoisie Any nonBolshevik parties were considered hostile after the Bolsheviks took power During Stalin s drive to collectivize they began to focus more on class enemies again 0 Kulaks and Nepmen who had gained wealth under the NEP o Kulaks were blamed for hoarding grain leading to food shortages During Stalin s Terror even members of his own political party became enemies o Determined to root out the conspirators behind the Kirov assassination 0 Turned against oppositionists anyone who had sided with Trotsky o Attacked people in positions of power experts in any field 0 Almost anyone could be suspected of being a traitor Conseguences Members of bourgeoisie unable to vote or exercise certain citizenship rights Any parties other than Bolsheviks made illegal all other forms of media suppressed Many kulaks were exiled executed and had property taken Stalin reissued internal passports that kept peasants from leaving their villages leaving many to starve Any Trotsky supporters were arrested or exiled during Stalin s Terror 13 people connected to Kirov assassination were immediately executed and their family members executed or put in prison camps Mass arrests of anyone considered a traitor or antirevolutionary 0 Many sent to gulags 0 Anyone convicted of Article 58 Crime being counterrevolutionary had only ten days before their case was closed and sentence carried out Elites in many areas were arrested Early Judaism Midterm Study Guide Johanna Murphy Breakdown of Scriptures Torah first five books of the Old Testament Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers and Deuteronomy In the tradition it was the law as presented to Moses on Mt Sinai Scholars believe the texts were composed over a period of time after the monarchy had been established put together during the First Temple Period Nevi im major and lesser prophets Early Prophets 0 Joshua Judges 1amp2 Samuel 1amp2 Kings Later Prophets 0 Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi Ketuvim writings Psalms Proverbs Job Song of Songs Ruth Lamentations Ecclisiastes Esther Daniel Ezra Nehemiah 1amp2 Chronicles Septuagint Hebrew Scriptures translated into Greek canon closed around 167 BC around time of Maccabean Revolt Vulgate Latin translation of Scriptures Targum Aramaic translation of Scriptures Apocrypha Jewish stories not included in the Septuagint because they were written after the time of the closed canon Martin Luther removed them from the Catholic Bible when he was translating it from Greek Pseudipigrapha false writings rewritten Biblical stories written under another name Not necessarily considered false Many were maintained in the Eastern Orthodox Church Dead Sea Scrolls manuscripts from caves in Qumran library of a sect that lived there between the Maccabean revolt and the Great revolt Three sections Biblical manuscripts apocryphal compositions and sectarian documents Esther was the only Old Testament book not found Sect s Biblical commentaries called the Pesharim Important People Samuel Last of the judges prophet who was head of all of the tribes The people asked him to appoint a king Saul First king appointed by Samuel He was supposed to burn and kill everything he conquered in failing to do so he angered God Before he died he defeated many of Israel s enemies including the Ammonites and Philistines David Saul s successor secures borders of Jerusalem and conquers lots of area for Israel During his reign Israel became the strongest empire in the fertile crescent After Saul s death David ruled over Judah while s Saul s son ruled over other tribes which led to a 7year civil war Solomon David s son killed several other sons in order to become king Reigned in time of peace began several huge building projects most importantly the temple During his reign Jerusalem became the capital Rehoboam Solomon s son during reign the kingdom split in half due to his unwillingness to reduce taxes on the people He became ruler of the southern kingdom of J udea centered in Jerusalem Jeroboam tried to revolt against Solomon failed and ed to Egypt During Rehoboam s reign he returned became ruler of Northern kingdom of Ephraim also referred to as Samaria or Israel Established centers of worship at Dan and BethEl Cyrus King of Persia gave declaration that God wanted him to build a new temple allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem to rebuild Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel prophets who left written documents of prophecies Confronted Mesopotamian in uence of Jewish worship established ideas of morality Jeremiah told the people they would be captives of Babylon for the next 70 years and they should accept it Haggai and Zechariah prophets who advocated for completing the temple and reestablishing pure worship Malachi talked about social issues like violation of sacred laws neglecting the Sabbath not paying tithes Nehemiah was given governorship over J udea got it established as a separate province from Samaria brought in people from outside Jerusalem to boost the population Encouraged reforms against syncretism like reestablishing proper altar ceremonies and tithes and banning intermarriage Ezra was authorized to enforce the Torah and collect money from Babylonian Jews to rebuild the temple Expelled foreign wives read Torah out loud to the people during festival of Sukkot for 7 days and reestablished covenant between Jewish people and God From then on the Torah defined Jewish life Ptolemy IV according to tradition degraded Jews to status of slaves and imposed taxes on them Antiochus III conquered J udea from the Ptolemies gave the Jews a series of privileges including a decrease in taxes and the right to live by their ancestral laws According to Biblical writings gave the Jews gifts of silver wheat our and salt Antiochus IV was told that a revolt was going on in Jerusalem against the Hellenizers formally revoked religious freedom introduced idols into the temple and plundered it outlawed circumcision and kosher eating and set a death penalty for violating the ordinances Later he tried to offer a truce to the Hasmoneans but they didn t take it Onias 111 High Priest who had previously supported the Ptolemies and went to Antioch to defend himself before Antiochus when the Seleucids took over He was forced to stay in Antioch and his brother Jason succeeded him Jason tried to turn Jerusalem into a Greek polis named Antioch and revoked rights to live by the Torah Menelaus one of the Tobiad brothers Simeon Menelaus and Lysimachus bought the priesthood out from Jason The people tried to turn against him but Antiochus still supported him He was a Hellenizer and continued to introduce foreign gods to the temple Mattathias priest of Modiin refused to offer sacrifice to other gods He went into the wilderness with his sons and other followers Judah Maccabee fought back against Hellenizers and Greek soldiers taking over villages until they finally took Jerusalem where he purified the temple and offered sacrifices to God Alcimus the new High Priest established by Antiochus V brought the Seleucid general Bacchides against Judah who finally died in battle Jonathon Judah s brother who the Hasmoneans rallied around after Judah died Came to a truce with Bacchides giving him control of most of J udea Jonathon eventually gained the high priesthood He also created treaties with Kings Alexander and Demetrius rivals for the Seleucid throne Simon Took over after death of Jonathon The people gave him power as leader high priest and governor which meant he had military religious and political power Alexander J annaeus farther down Hasmonean line became king when his brother Aristobulus died Cruel leader crucified hundreds of Jews that tried to rebel against him Was also strongly against the Pharisees though his wife Salome gave them plenty of power after he died Important Dates 1000 BC 961 BC rule of King David 5 86 BC destruction of the first temple 539 BC end of Babylonian Empire takeover by Persians 538 BC King Cyrus allowed the Jews to return to J udea and rebuild the temple 515 BC second temple completed 323 BC Ptolemy seizes Judea end of Persian Period 168164 BC Maccabean Revolt 37 BC Pompey enters Jerusalem with help of Herod IIIIUDIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD PreMonarchy Three theories of Jews leaving Egypt didn t happen at all left in 2 waves slow trickle out of Egypt and into Canaan Kosher involves animals that are cleanunclean animals that kill others for food are unclean blood should never be consumed because it is a life force amphibians and animals that move between two elements like ducks are forbidden animals that chew their cud and have cloven hooves are clean Judges were charismatic leaders strategists and warriors but did not create monarchies didn t pass rule on to sons the judges governed in times of war while the council of elders governed in times of peace Joshua presents story of conquering Jericho in one large strike but book of Judges describes it more as long series of battles 3 theories of settlement 2 major waves of Jews left Egypt reached Canaan at different times and settled there continuous ow of nomadic tribes from Egypt into the Mt Sinai area which eventually became a single nation core of the Israelite group was oppressed people who broke away from their masters and were later joined by nomadic groups Levitical priest calls the tribes to come fight the J edissites but the Benj amites don t come to fight After the victory the tribes turned on the Benj amites causing a civil war people were frustrated with lack of centralized leadership and after being defeated in battle against the Philistines they asked Samuel to appoint a king Monarchy Saul from the tribe of Benjamin was appointed King tried to unify the tribes When he was conquering areas he failed to kill and burn everything which Samuel said angered God Samuel appointed David as the new king David ruled over Judah while Saul s son ruled over the other tribes causing a civil war When Saul s son died the people came back to David David secured the borders of Israel defeated many of their enemies making Israel strongest empire in the Fertile Crescent Solomon was declared David s successor started attacking other sons after David s death to ensure his place During reign he made Jerusalem the capital built the first temple as well as several cities and conquered areas divided the kingdom into twelve districts the tribe of Judah was not required to pay taxes Solomon s rule established peace and stability although it began to breakdown towards the end had been bringing in men from the northern tribes to work intensively on building projects began marrying foreign women and allowing temples to be built for their gods Jeroboam tried to lead revolt against Solomon but it failed and he ran away to Egypt Rehoboam becomes king after Solomon worsens workload and taxation Jeroboam returned from Egypt and led revolt against Rehoboam splitting kingdom in half Kingdom of Judah in the south capitol Jerusalem with the tribes of Judah and Benjamin Kingdom of Ephraim in the north capitol Shechem usually referred to as Israel in the Bible Judah was always ruled by the house of David while Ephraim had constant power struggles Two kingdoms fought each other for next few decades several sections under Israelite rule broke off later the two kingdoms chose to compromise and rule sidebyside During reign of Josiah find old scrolls saying that all sacrifices should take place at the temple New theological ideas developed like the prophetic ideal taking care of the poor weak and marginalized in society developing Hebrew law connected civil and religious law together Social justice human life and equality were valued idea that history is set divinely by God nothing happens by chance idea of false prophets and true prophets Isaiah book says that there is only one true God and the world will come to believe in Him idea of predestination presented in Jeremiah in the future the commandments will be inscribed on the hearts of the people 722 BC northern kingdom Ephraim fell to Syria lots of refugees came south The Persian Period The Assyrians captured Samaria deported lots of Israelites or took them as captives The people who remained were assimilated with the Assyrians and became the Samaritans assimilated more easily because they had been exposed more to pagan worship Baal period known as the ten lost tribes During J osiah s rule there was a period of renewal where he got rid of all pagan religions But after his death in 609 BC the kingdom of Judah began to decline again had trouble fighting the Assyrians 5 86 BC the temple was destroyed by the Babylonians and Nebuchadnezzar took 10000 men from top families of Jerusalem back to Babylon Jeremiah told the people they would be under Babylonian rule for at least 70 years that God had given Jerusalem to Nebuchadnezzar Many Jews ed to Egypt Those in Babylon formed their own semiautonomous cells 539 BC King Cyrus of Persia started conquering areas held by Babylon had general policy of allowing repatriation of exiles and rebuilding of shrines issued the Balfour Declaration 538 BC saying that God had told him to allow the Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their temple favored establishment of Jewish national home in Palestine Book of Isaiah refers to Cyrus as the Lord s anointed Persians allowed people to live by their ancestral laws because violations of a law were violations against the state and they created instability Many Jews stayed in Babylon because they had built a new life there and many served in the army in allJewish units while under Persian rule the High Priesthood had been granted temporal authority after the second temple was completed the High Priests were the rulers Jewish colony at Elephantine was a defense for the Persian Empire There was tension between Zerubabbel who wanted political independence and to restore the line of David and Joshua who wanted to settle for religious autonomy granted by Persia Zerubabbel is credited with the rebuilding of the temple Rebuilding of temple lasted from 521515 BC biblical sacrifice system became dominant form of worship for entire Second Temple Period During the Second Temple Period developed dual system of leadership a Davidic King and Aaronide High Priest Ezra names the Samaritans and one other group that had stayed in Jerusalem who wanted to help rebuild the temple but they were rejected by the returning Jews because they were not Holy Seed group of elites priests scribes and land holders who returned from Babylon and established their power over the area of Jerusalem tried to consolidate and separate from the rest of the Jewish community creates split in Judaism into a separatist group and a universalizing group Samaritans had become mixed between nonevacuated northern Jews and people the Assyrians brought it Angry about not being allowed to help rebuild the castle Samaritans tried to stop it from happening by reporting that the Jews were trying to throw of Persian rule and establish a new Davidic king because Jerusalem was in the south and the Samaritans were northern they may have opposed worship being centered there Samaritans insisted on sacrificing outside of Jerusalem at their own temples at BethEl and Dan another group of officials in Samaria were also opposed as well Because of hostility from the Samaritans so they focused on rebuilding Jerusalem s walls as well Prophets and Ideas of Persian Period 3 principles of Biblical prophecy God is one God is moral and God has chosen certain people who he reveals his will to and instructs them to tell others prophets Elijah was the first prophet not to come from the upper classes he was exiled because he criticized the king scholars began criticizing the prevalence of sacrifice believed they should focus more on charity Moral Imperative it s not enough to just do sacrifice but have to help others and change the things that are wrong in society new traditionof morality coming before nation ritual and wealth evolution of the scribal tradition writing down historical events from a religious perspective reinterpreting the scriptures movement away from prophecy more emphasis on studying the word view of history as God s way of teaching his people the ultimate goal of history was salvation through destruction of idolatry Day of Atonement became about personal atonement for sins that had been committed unintentionally Haggai and Zechariah told people they needed to complete the temple or risk poverty famine and drought Zechariah warned against people s need for prophecies but also prophesied about destruction of neighboring kingdoms and coming of the Messiah Second Temple Period prophecies shifted more towards apocalyptic writings Malachi talked about the day of Justice and God s coming as well as God s love for Israel attributed problems with crops to God s anger over bad sacrifices Malachi also talked about series of societal problems neglecting the Sabbath not paying tithes rise in divorce also men divorcing their wives so they could marry younger women intermarriage with surrounding nations Nehemiah got governorship over J udea and got it established as a separate province from Samaria brought in people from outside Jerusalem to boost the population encouraged reforms against syncretism reestablished tithes and proper altar ceremonies was given power to get rid of debts abolish tribute to the government and return confiscated property Ezra was authorized to enforce the Torah and read it publicly to the people for seven days during the festival of Sukkot also authorized to collect money from Jews in Babylon for building the temple led movement to expel 113 foreign wives publicly renewed covenant between the people and God Book of Chronicles discusses genealogy reviewing Israelite history with emphasis on the Davidic line probably trying to legitimize territorial claims to J udea The Torah presented some problems because it had contradictions over laws which led to practice of midrash Midrash process of explaining one passage in terms of another lasted until the middle ages Hellenistic Era Began when Alexander the Great conquered the area in 332 BC Ten years later 323 BC Ptolemy gained control of Jerusalem Jerusalem got caught in the territory fight between the Ptolemies and the Seleucids Josephus wrote that Alexander paid homage to the Jews allowed them to follow their ancestral laws in exchange for drafting them into his armies When Ptolemy took over he relocated several Jews to Alexandria Ptolemy II had the Jewish laws translated Septuagint expansion of the Diaspora allowed increased trade under Ptolemies Judea was considered part of Syria and Phonecia Judea had considerable amount of autonomy High Priest was considered the religious and political leader not having to worship local deities kept Jews from becoming full Greek citizens Jewish units in the army were not required to march on the Sabbath Ptolemy 111 had con ict with the High Priest Onias 11 over taxes which led to rivalry between the Tobiad and Oniad families Tobiads were wealthy family in Jerusalem with lots of connections who supported the Seleucids 223 BC Antiochus seized Jerusalem Lots of Hellenistic culture brought into Jerusalem lots of Jews learned to readwrite Greek services sometimes conducted in koine Greek Gymnasium was a part of the polis focused on militaryathletic training some Jews who had sons participate in the gymnasium abandoned circumcision because the Greeks viewed it as mutilation ephebion was used for academic training like philosophy Greek and math Hellenizers sometimes adapted Jewish scriptures to be consistent with pagan myths peasantsfarmerslower classes hardly affected by Hellenism Hebrew remained their main language Jews adopted the Gerousia representative council of elders members were called archons some scholars see Gerousia as forerunners of the Sanhedrin Good polis had to contain public buildings for government a garrison theater library marketplace and Gerousia Became important for Jews to hold onto their customs which included keeping the Sabbath keeping kosher festival holidays sacrificing in the temple circumcision and using Hebrew for prayers nonJews could only enter outermost areas of the temple mount certain portions of the tithe went to the temple officials to make sure they were fully supported temple became a government structure as well as religious later when Hellenizers gained control of the High Priesthood they tried to turn the temple into a Hellenistic center challenging Jewish religion and autonomy the synagogue was a place of worship instruction justice and lodging for visitors during this period with Jews traveling from trade some began to convert Gentiles even as far as Greece some people in Greece becoming disillusioned with their religions eventually Jews spread to every part of Asia Minor the Syrian Diaspora was centered in Antioch under the Ptolemies Jews in Alexandria became tax collectors Throughout the Diaspora others became middle class tradesmen some with guilds many Jews in the diaspora returned to Jerusalem for festivals and holidays continued to send tithes to Palestine even after the destruction of the second temple 9 u Politeuma political body the communal system that connected all Jews Antiochus III gave the Jews lots of rights to try to gain their loyalty but his son Antiochus IV retracted many of their rights AntiSemitism started from Romans and Greeks misinterpreting Jewish culture some saw them as misanthropes who hated all people others thought they were barbaric Maccabean Revolt High Priest Onias had supported the Ptolemies so when the Seleucids took power he was in trouble went to appeal to Antiochus III but when he got there Antiochus III had died and son Antiochus Epiphanes IV was king Antiochus IV wanted to take Egypt from the Ptolemies needed lots of money for an army So increased taxes Onias s brother Jason brought the priesthood out from him Jason was a Hellenizer tried to turn Jerusalem into polis called Antioch to please Antiochus revoked the people s rights to live by the Torah and made many Jews secondclass citizens The Tobiad brothers Simeon Menelaus and Lysimachus wanted to take the priesthood from him Menelaus managed to buy the priesthood and run Jason out of Jerusalem the people turned against Menelaus and the Gerousia tried to have him removed but Aniochus continued to support him Jason returned and tried to attack Jerusalem but was unable to regain control Menelaus and Hellenizers introduced foreign gods Zeus and Baal into the temple Antiochus IV heard about the violence and thought there was a revolt happening so sent soldiers to begin killing people In 167 BC he formally revoked Jews religious freedom created a death penalty for violating the ordinance allegedly burned Torah scrolles and executed people who hid them idea was that he would force the Jews to become regular citizens so they had nothing to revolt over The Seleucids put a garrison near Jerusalem with Antiochus s Greek soldiers increasing tensions Mattathias priest of Modi in was asked to offer a sacrifice to foregin god Zeus He refused killed the officer who gave the order and a man who tried to follow it he and his sons began killing Jews who went along with Antiochus starting a civil war one of first historical examples of guerilla warfare Mattathias died his son Judas Maccabeus took over joined by the HasidimHasideans pious righteous group took down idols and forcefully circumcised uncircumcised men Soldiers attacked their forces on the Sabbath and they didn t fight back so about 1000 of them died Afterwards the Hasmonean family decided to fight on the Sabbath Judah and forces finally took Jerusalem and purified the temple offering sacrifices Antiochus offered to rescind and give the Jews the right to their religion appointed Alcimus a Hellenizer as High Priest who the Hasmoneans did not approve of Judah refused he and Hasmoneans continued attacking went into Greek cities and forcefully circumcised men Judas son of Judah sent a man to Rome to ask for alliance promising the Jews as allies if war ever came to Rome Alcimus and Bacchides led campaign to punish the Jews for their resistance The Hasideans tried to make peace with them but many were seized and killed eventually Bacchides became disillusioned with the fight and made a truce with Jonathon Jonathon became the High Priest started fortifying Mount Zion created treaties with kings Alexander an Demetrius rivals for the Seleucid throne Simon became the next High Priest was given power over military religious and political rule was given right to mint coins which gave the Jews their own currency separate from the Greeks John Hyrcanus Simon s son became High Priest next he was a new High Priest with a standing army not from the DaVidic line started a line of extreme Hellenizers spoke Greek and took Greek names Alexander J annaeus was a cruel ruler feasted while watching several hundred Jews bein crucified 63 BC ciVil war going on between two Hasmonean brothers Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II Pompey came and claimed Judea for Rome appointed Herod son of Antipater as king of the Jews Herod was from Etruria place where men were forcibly circumcised very Roman culturally Herod begins building projects throughout Jerusalem aqueducts bathhouses palaces theaters increased size of temple created port of Caesaria Many Jews blamed the Hasmoneans for allowing Jerusalem to be taken by the Romans Psalms of Solomon hope for a new DaVidic King to come and retake Jerusalem the messiah


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