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Psychology 110 Dr Carver Sam le Stud uestions for Test 2 What is maturation Natural growth or change triggered by biological factors independent of the environment Growth in nervous system that does not depend on experience Maturation is biological How does it differ from learning Maturation is a growth in nervous system that does not depend on experience Learning does depend on experience and it is not biological Name some behaviors that are in uenced by maturation Walking talking What makes psychologists suspect maturation is important to a given behavior How does the in uence of maturation interact with practice Suspect a role for maturation when a behavior is not there no matter how you try and then suddenly it emerges It is like training until the wire in the brain is ready Ex walking talking Name some biological and chemical stimuli that can in uence a developing fetus Biological and chemical entities can cross into fetal blood Rubella HIV alcohol nicotine cocaine What does the phrase prenatal environment mean Environment of the developing fetus where the biological and chemical entities combine What are some differences between the prenatal and postnatal environment Pre natal before being born environment of the developing fetus where the biological and chemical entities combine Post natal starts with birth as an extraordinarily disruptive event huge changes in how things happen very sudden Ex Eating breathing Name the basic method used to tell whether behavioral characteristics are genetically in uenced How does it work Twin study method What s the difference between identical and fraternal twins and whv is this difference important in determining whether a characteristic is genetically in uenced Identical twins MZ have identical genes Fraternal twins DZ share no more genes than other siblings Which kind are MZ twins DZ twins MZ monozygotic twins are 100 the same genetically DZ dizygotic twins are 50 the same genetically on average Twin study method population behavioral genetics Correlate MZ pairs with each other m E DZ pairs with each other Compare correlations to create index of heritability What s a temperament Biological based normal tendency which differs in degree from person to person An individual s basic natural disposition that is evident from infancy Name 3 temperaments that seem to be genetically in uenced 0 Activity Level 0 Emotionality 0 Sociability What metaphor was discussed in class for thinking about the in uences of heredity maturation and learning The body is a machine with an specific design provided by heredity genes maturation provides the wiring and learning programs it to do things According to the Harlow monkey studies what is the most important determinant of a child s attachment to a caregiver Role of contact comfort What s required for a mother to be attached to her child Prior socialattachment experience What are 2 functions of attachment one early one later 0 It keeps infant safe 0 It lays ground for all social relations What is socialization and how long does it go on It s the process of creating normal social being from infant and it s a lifelong process It is the process by which parents teachers and others teach children the skills and social norms necessary to wellfunctioning members of society What are competence strivings What kind of parenting seems to foster vs interfere with it Competence strivings tendency to try to be independent seek challenges and master the immediate environment on your own Emergence of competence strivings as a focus of development Fostered by authoritative parenting compared to permissive or authoritarian 0 Authoritative parents reason with their children and are firm but understanding 0 Permissive parents give their child complete freedom and lax discipline 0 Authoritarian parents are firm punitive and unsympathetic Friendships and intimacy foster deeper understanding of social complexities Social skills as part of competence Skills that allow people to interact Adolescence can be divided into 2 subperiods what s the big event during the rst one What change in socialization pressure occurs during that time Adolescence as a time of transition divides into 2 subperiods Early adolescence Late adolescence Physical changes of puberty surges of hormones Change in role pressures popularity becomes more important What two areas of psychological concern are the focus of late adolescence SEE PAG 387 Later adolescence as a time to try on various roles I Workcareer roles I Interpersonal relation roles Adulthood Milestones in terms of work reer and interpersonal roles Several models of stages of adult life Socialization continues though usually more muted What do your answers to the last two questions say about the idea that late adolescence is a transition from childhood to adulthood Milestones in terms of workcareer and interpersonal roles Name the Piagetian stages in order READ FROM PAG 352 Sensorimotor birth 2 years Preoperational 26 years Concrete operational 711 years Formal Operational over 11 years What emerging abilities mark the transitions from one stage to the next eg in which stage is the symbolizing ability rst completely functional SM gtPreoperational children think in images and symbols symbolizing PO gtConcrete operational children manipulate mental symbols COgt Formal Operational Consider abstract and hypotheticals What fully developed capabilities or the lack of them characterize each stage eg at which stage is the child not really capable of thinking Who can rst do conservation problems consistently SENS URIMOTOR period birth to about a year and a half Characterized by doing not thinking Little sense of duration permanence only basic schemas Sensory and motoric experience dominate as child builds schemas Development of ability to mentally symbolize moves the child out of this stage to next Symbolizing ability also provides the basis for language shared symbols OUT OF SIGHT OUT OF MIND PREOPERA TIONAL period till about 4 or 6 begins as the symbolizing becomes solidified Object permanence Rapid acquisition of words and simple sentences Child cgn mgnipulatethe world and cgn svmbolizeand resnond to the ment l image Child can NOT manipulate the mental image Egocentrism stuck in own perspective CONCRETE OPERATIONS to roughly 11 CAN manipulate the symbol Perspective taking Visual 3mountain problem and mental rotation Informational explaining to another person Can now take other s perspective Conservation problems I Reversibility compensation involves mental manipulation Changing the matter doesn t change the size Language use use of verbs I Overregularizations Ex Go Went GoGoed I Rapid acquisition of words I Transformational grammar as a rule system Acquired rules of grammar FORMAL OPERATIONS adolescence or later Formal because it involves mental manipulation of abstract form instead of concrete existence Symbolic logic about hypotheticals syllogisms algebra The chemical problem When is egocentrism most obvious Preoperational 46 Why are Piaget s stages called an invariant sequence Can a child be hurried through the stages Can she skip a stage Because the order of the stages cannot be changed You can t skip stages because the stages are built upon the one before The emergence of language coincides with the development of what other cognitive ability Similizing abilities Perspective taking Reversibility compensation involves mental manipulation Changing the matter doesn t change the size During what period does language acquisition progress most rapidly Preoperational operations 26 In general terms what s the relationship between the ideas about moral reasoning mentioned in social development and Piaget s theory Early children based moral judgments on guesses about whether the actor will be punished Only later does a rule system develop that says this is good this is bad Preoperational thinking events in world giving way to concrete operational thinking rule system What are the two goals of any theory Theory A broad abstract summary statement about some relationship Goal 1 of theory Explain What is known Goal 2 of theory Predict what might be true Which goal are personality theories worse at Goal 2 of theory Predict what might be true A lot to explain as a result they sometimes have trouble predicting What theory is identified with Freud Psychoanalytic Theory Psychoanalysis What39s the meaning of the word determinism Behaviors are caused by systematic forces Idea that personality and behavior are determined more by psychological factors than biological conditions or current events Every event or state of affairs including every human decision and action is the inevitable and necessary consequence of antecedent states of affairs Was Freud a determinist Yes Psychoanalysis refers simultaneously to what 3 things 0 How personality is organized 0 Method of treatment 0 Method of research What are the 3 levels of consciousness in Freud s theory Conscious Things that are in your awareness Preconscious out of conscious but accessible on demand Unconscious out of conscious and not directly retrievable or accessible It is the biggest part of the mindconsciousness Because motives can lie in the unconscious person may not know them What are defense mechanisms Unconscious tactics that either prevent threatening material from surfacing or disguise it when it does Ego s trick to avoid con ict Which is the most basic one What are defense mechanisms defending against Repression Anxiety created by con ict between id impulses and either the superego or forces in the outside world Define repression projection sublimation and denial SEE NOTES FOR THE OTHER ONES 0 Repression a painful memory that is said to be kept out of the consciousness by psychological process Keep from or remove from consciousness Ex a person may experience loss of memory of unpleasant events 0 Projection Unconsciously attributing one s own unacceptable thoughts or impulses to another person Transform from yours to someone else s Ex instead of recognizing that I hate him a person may feel that He hates me 0 Sublimation Converting unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable actions and perhaps symbolically expressing them Ex sexual or aggressive desires may appear as artistic creativity or devotion to athletic excellence 0 Denial more subtle not acknowledging reality of something unpleasant Simply discounting the existence of threatening impulses Ex A person denying having physical attraction by a person of the same sex What are the 3 components of personality according to Freud In what order do the others develop This will be easier if you remember why Children are born with personalities according to Freud Id exists initially source of all energies Follows pleasure principle Immediate gratification of desires Exists in an unreal world of its own in unconscious Ego Arises from con ict between id and the outside Makes compromises and mediates con icts between and among the demands of the Id the superego and the real world Follows reality principle Restrain impulses until safe Cares about safety Rational practical part of personality but amoral Superego is an incorporation of parents morals perfectionistic Tells people what they should and should not do Ego ideal Image of the good rewards with pride Conscience Image of the bad punishes with guilt Without super ego punish and guilt cannot happen Which is present first and is most basic Id Which is the source of energy Id Which part of the personality follows the pleasure princiM Id Which follows the reali rinci le Ego What do those terms mean Id represents the inborn unconscious portion of personality where life and death instincts reside Ego is responsible for organizing ways to get what a person wants in the real world as opposed to the fantasy world of the Id What are the 2 subcomponents of the superego and what do they do 0 Ego ideal Image of the good rewards with pride 0 Conscience Image of the bad punishes with guilt Without super ego punish and guilt cannot happen What is the Oedipal con ict Oedipal Con ict Oedipal complex is the notion that young boys impulses involve sexual feelings for the mother and the desire to eliminate the father Boy lusts after mother fears father Resolved by identification with father vicariously Learned by watching Girl lusts after father hates mother Resolved by identification with mother Penis envy re ected in later striving for power etc Is Freud s view of mankind essentially optimistic or pessimistic Why Pessimistic because people seem as driven by instincts What is a projective test of personality What assumption underlies projective tests It is a test where people project their concerns in ambiguous stimuli Ex Rorschach Inkblot Test and TAT Thematic Apperception Test Personality tests made up of relatively unstructured stimuli in which responses are seen as re ecting the individuals unconscious needs fantasies con icts thought patterns and other aspects of personality What is the Rorschach test and what kinds of things are noted in scoring it It is a projective test which features a series of ten inkblots then the respondent is asked to tell what the blot might be and then to explain Most methods of scoring this text focus on 1 what part of the blot the person responds to 2 what details colors or other features determine each response 3 the content of the response such as seeing animals body parts maps 4 the popularity or commonness of the response What is the TAT and what is it mostly used to assess Thematic Apperception Test It is a projective test that measures the need of achievement It is mostly used to assess the needs they saw as the basis of personality This test is less psychoanalytical than Rorschach Inkblot Test See the pics and create a story about those pics Use primarily to assess motive characteristics from stories Ex Need for a iliation need for achievement Who was Erikson and what is his relationship to psychoanalytic theory Erick Erikson said the psychosexual stages were psychoSOCIAL involving some issue in relating to others Each stage presents a new crisis relating to others What are the 2 issues that all personality theories address What is the position of psychoanalytic theory on these 2 issues Intrapersonal functioning competition among internal pressures internal functioning of the human body Individual differences result from fixations existence differs from person to person What do people like about Freud s theory 0 Broad in scope rich in symbolism and complexity 0 Defense mechanisms and unconscious in uences on behavior are Widely accepted Some elements are widely accepted the ones underlined for examples What are major criticisms of Freud s theory Prescientific devised from the intuitions of one person Little evidence Devised from thinking of people in therapy not study of normal people Based heavily on people in therapy not average people Theory is so convoluted it sometimes can t predict potential for further transformations Always one more transformation Pessimistic view because people seen as driven by instincts What theory is identified with Miller and Dollard Drive and reinforcement Drivehabit theory With Bandura Expectancyincentive motivational theory instead of Drive theory What s similar about those two theories What s different They both agree that conditioning matters but Bandura adds that other things matter too Thus uses of two different theories Miller and Dollard DriveHabit theory VS Bandura Expectancy incentive Theory Bandura emphasizes the direct study of human learning Better to look how people learn What did Bandura s approach add to that of Miller and Dollard Other things matter besides conditioning and the emphasis on observational learning and vicarious processes social reinforces and expectancies What was Miller and Dollard s de nition of reinforcement Reinforcement is equivalent to drive reduction What are approach and avoidance gradients Basic types of motivational con icts What do they represent How were gradients demonstrated The analysis of con ict between two competing tendencies What did Miller and Dollard say about topics such as thoughts and language Thoughts are internal behavior language is external Incompatible behavior tendencies How many kinds are there Three 0 Approachapproach gradient 0 Avoidanceavoidance gradient 0 Approachavoidance gradient What do they look like if you draw the gradients Vermeidungsgradienten ETRE HGTH CiF RESPONSE NEENCIEE39 What do the gradients tell you about decisionmaking and the likelihood of reconsidering a decision once it s made 0 Approachapproach con ict leads to pursuit of first tendency Closer to the goal stronger the tendency Tendency to go where you were heading When we must choose only one of two desrirable activities Ex going to the movie theater or to a concert Start is the Maximum point of con ict 10 0 Avoidanceavoidance con ict leads to repeated reconsideration Throw you back into the mic le alwavs because it has a tendency of running away from goal When we must select one of two undesirable alternatives Ex Sell the family house or declare bankruptcy 0 Approachavoidance con ict leads to increasing con ict as you get closer Only m goal but is Bad and Good things vou want but also things vou don t want Ex Very hungry only place open to eat the worst pizza ever that gave you stomach pain last time you ate it When a particular event or activity has both attractive and unattractive features Ex Someone you dislike has tickets to your favorite group s soldout concert and invites you to come along Miller and Dollard used many ideas from learning theory such as generalization and discrimination What do these 2 terms mean Generalization refers to a process within operant and classical conditioning where a conditioned response CR starts occurring in response to the presentation of other similar stimuli not just the conditioned stimulus CS For example a dog is trained to sit CR when you give the command quotsitquot CS Soon after that the dog might sit when you say quothitquot quotbitquot and quotkickquot In this case the CR sitting is not only done to the CS the command quotsitquot but also to commands that are similar Discrimination is a term that is used in both classical and operant conditioning In classical conditioning it refers to an ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus CS and other similar stimuli that don39t signal an unconditioned stimulus US For example if Pavlov39s dog had developed discrimination it would have salivated to the tone that had been paired with the delivery of the meat powder and not a similar tone with a slightly different pitch In operant conditioning the definition is essentially the same but here the organism discriminates between a learned voluntary response and an irrelevant non learned response For example a dog that has learned to sit when a person says quotsitquot in order to receive a treat but the dog does not sit when a person says quotbitquot What are the good points and the criticisms of the social learning approach to personality Appealing about this viewpoint 0 Sense of continuity from basic processes through the complexity of personality 0 Definitely a scientific view with many tests of predictions Criticized about this viewpoint 0 Some failures of prediction leading to such ideas as selfreinforcement 0 Not much of a sense of identity self personality 0 Focuses more on process of change than the continuity within personality On the two issues that personality theories address what position is taken by the Miller Dollard and Bandura approaches jointly 11 The SELF as a CONCEPT THAT CROSSES THEORIES 1 Self is multifaceted a Physical selfaspects body structure capabilities physical sensations b Psychological selfaspects attitudes control center c Social selfaspects roles in social group 2 Self has capacity of re exivity looking back at itself a Self can judge evaluate what it sees Look back at the self as the object of view b Selfesteem as emotional reaction to what is evaluated What does it mean to say a personality test is an objective test Response choice from among specific available options Theoretical path of scale development theory guides what you try to measure Assessment of expectancies as content What is humanistic psychology SEE PAG 514 This approach emphasizes an individual39s inherent drive towards self actualization and creativity Humanistic because they emphasize human potential It s a psychological perspective which rose to prominence in the mid 20th century in response to Sigmund Freud39s psychoanalytic theory and BF Skinner39s Behaviorism Phenomenology Psychology which emphasizes personal experiences Is humanism deterministic Nodeterministic Rejection of determinism in favor of free will and autonomy What does selfdetermination mean Free will control of your own path What is selfactualization according to Rogers and Maslow Becoming more completely whatever is in you and it s di erent for each person The reaching of one s fullest potential the complete realization of a person s talents faculties and abilities Under what circumstances does selfactualization happen SEE NOTES back of page 8 After all the basic needs have been met In the Maslow s pyramid the lower level must be fairly satisfied before moving to the higher levels According to Rogers why do people fail to express their true self Selfactualization can be impeded by the need for positive regard affection and acceptance Thus people can be too busy satisfying conditions of worth and acceptance from people and the fact that acceptance is conditional makes them act differently What are the major good points and criticisms of humanistic psychology Good points 12 0 Optimistic positive view of people Criticized about this viewpoint 0 Theorists have tended to be therapists deriving intuitions from the therapy 0 Some see the ideas as too idealistic 0 Until the last 20 years ideas had been little tested though that has changed Is humanism optimistic or pessimistic about people s lives and their personalities Optimistic positive view of people Identify the various aspects of the self that were described in class Physical psychological social What position does humanistic psychology take on the 2 basic issues of personality 0 Intrapersonal functioning competition of selfactualization with other motives freedom to choose 0 Individual differences important but little said about their origins SAMPLE STUDY QUESTIONS FOR TEST 3 Psychology 110 Dr Carver What is a trait It is a summary label for some aspect of a person hypothetical construct that summarizes some aspect of a person s behavior thoughts and feelings This is a commonsense concept A type in the old usage and in newer usage I Ancient types as distinct discontinuous categories I Contemporary use of type as supertrait encompassing several more specific traits What makes a trait bipolar or unipolar Trait dimension as a variable with many possible values I Unipolar traits from zero to a lot of some quality I Bipolar traits with zero in middle 2 end with opposite qualities How do trait theorists often go about deciding what traits exist The goals of trait personality psychologists are to I Determine What traits exist and are important I Figure out how to tell where individuals fall on trait dimensions They also decide What traits matter either by 0 Theoretical pathway earlier 0 Empirical pathway approach informed by events In the Empirical Approach 1 Collect many descriptors of personality 2 Collect ratings of individuals on those descriptors 3 Procedure called factor analysis to distill the underlying similarities 31 Resembles correlation but many variables not just 2 What are the traits in the 5factor model Fivefactor model 5 very broad traits 1 Extraversion Sociable talkative dominant funloving 2 Neuroticism Anxious insecure worrying guilt prone 3 Openness Imaginative nonconforming daring 4 Agreeableness Warm trusting cooperative sympathetic 5 Conscientiousness Careful purposeful What s a personality pro le Personality assessment as personality inventoriesassessment This is a major focus of this view Personality profiles are applied across several dimensions Profile is more than summary because placement on one has different meaning as a function of others What is the position of the trait view on the issue of intrapersonal functioning Individual differences I Intrapersonal functioning very little emphasis on constancy rather than process I Individual differences important but little said about their origins until the trait view became joined to the biological view which comes up next What s good and bad about this approach Good or Appealing Trait concept has intuitive appeal Natural link to personality assessment Natural tie to assessment 0 The idea that most of personality can be covered in 5 big traits Bad or Criticizes It classifies people without creating an understanding of why they are the way they are Not much on how trait becomes manifest in behavior Labeling without understanding Traits historically have not predicted specific behaviors well What s interactionism Interactionism as an interpretation of that poor prediction Traits matter a lot in some situations but not at all in others I Personality is the major determinant of behavior in some circumstances but not others I Strong versus weak situations What is a strong situation A weak situation Strong situation force behavior to fit them Ex Boot camp class lecture Weak situation allow traits to be expressed freely Ex A Saturday afternoon at the park What are 2 major themes of the biological view on personality The biological view on personality has its roots in several places I Traits 2 Behavior genetics 3 Neuropsychology Theme 1 Personality is in uenced by genetics 0 Studies of temperaments 0 Extended to studies of traits 0 Studies of 5 factor model Theme 2 Nervous system is organized to manage certain functions and the functions are expressed in personality 0 Extraversion as incentive sensitivity You have to seek things you need Extraversion as approach 0 Neuroticism as threat sensitivity Neuroticism as avoidance 0 Openness as exploration 0 Agreeableness as investments in relationship 0 Conscientiousness as planfulness What does this approach say about intrapersonal functioning Individual differences I Intrapersonal functioning Biological systems aimed at particular kinds of goals I Individual differences Emphasis on their existence and biological basis What is appealing and criticizes about this viewpoint Appealing Suggests some process behind traits Based in biology some think it is more credible Criticized We know a lot less about the brain than we sometimes pretend These ideas are pretty far from personality What is the intended difference between ability tests and achievement tests Ability and Achievement tests contrasted with each other Ability tests should measure potential aptitude capacity Measure aptitudes Achievement tests should measure present level of performance Intended to measure learning Achievement is a ected by one s aptitude Is it easy or hard to maintain this distinction in creating the tests Why Hard because in principle they should be distinct but in practice they are not Achievement is affected by aptitude measures of ability are affected by prior learning Is an aptitude test more like an ability or an achievement test Ability test What is an IQ test IQ intelligence quotient It is a wideranging test of certain cognitive abilities What is intelligence Intelligence is sometimes defined as the ability to acquire and apply knowledge This ability or set if abilities should determine what results from experience Would it be correct to say IQ tests measure all of intelligence No because ability and performance are especially entangled in intelligence tests It wasn t explicitly about ability intelligence perse Besides there is a consensus that what IQ test measure is not all intelligence Because there are different kinds of intelligence sports emotional Why were IQ tests first developed To predict school performance Binet What is mental age Mental age as the agedistribution in which this score matches the average score The mental capability which increases with age Binet said You get smarter as you get older How is IQ computed MA divided by Chronological Age equals IQ that is IQ MA CA 100 MA Mental Age Your score CA Chronological Age Puts all ages on the same metric now can compare 6yr with 12yr What is the average IQ among 8 yr olds among 20 yr olds 100 defined as average independent of age Average score is always 100 How did the Wechsler IQ tests differ from the one first developed by Binet Binet tried to predict school success used schooltype items Then Binet and Terman also mixed various types of skills On the other hand Wechsler s tested overall IQ but also focused on the profile of strengths weaknesses It separated scales subtests to get at different skills separate abilities I Verbal scales vocabulary analogies memory I Performance scales block design picture arrangement right order of pictures and nonverbal abilities What does it mean to say that a test has a cultural bias Some people are not exposed to the same content That it has cultural issues motivational issues exposure to opportunities What is a culturefree test It is a nonverbal test which includes matching pictures putting blocks together a nonverbal form of test A test in which components of intelligence will be a focus thus diminishing the in uence of culture Notes from FIRST TEST problems measuring anything I Reliability does the event repeat itself I Generality does the observation hold true for lots of people or only this person I Validity does the measure have the meaning you think it has I Objectivity are you sure you observed what you say you observed Can you double check Why were interest tests developed How do they work They were developed to match people to their jobs matching their profiles with people already in that field Name two kinds of reliability in testing What does each mean How is each demonstrated I Retest stability sometimes it should stay stable do you get the same answer whem you retest It is important if the variable is assumed to be stable e g personality intelligence mood I Internal consistency always it should agree internally do you get the same answers from different parts What is face validity Criterion validity I Face validity do you think it measures what you want measure Face validity is usually treated as less important I Criterion validity does the measure predict a spate standard for that construct Relation to external criterion Clinical judgment is a pretty good standard Which of these matters more Criterion Validity If there is a low correlation between a test and a criterion measure what does that say about the test Thet test has a low criterion validity and high discriminant validity What is discriminant validity Construct validity I Discriminant validity A low correlation between a test and a criterion measure Measure should not measure unintended constructs E g depression vs optimism 39 Construct validity overall fit to the construct Construct means concepts things you cannot touch e g intelligence mood What are test norms and why do they matter They are the norms used in a systematic observation in a stande situation described by a numerical scale or category It is important because a score does not mean anything without a norm Compared to What need norms to tell if high low middle Example You have a test score 24 What does it mean Nothing compared to What Why would people want to fake a psychological test result It is better to go to a hospital than prison someone would require extra time on a test or faking good as a way to impress an employer What are 2 response sets that can occur in testing situations I Acquiescence 39 Social desirability How do psychologists try to prevent these sets from in uencing the test results They writer attempts to design a test in which the highest score is yes for anxious for instance and calm for another so they can cancel each other one if the person agrees to everything What is the selfful lling prophecy and why is it important A process in which an initial impression causes to bring out behavior in another that confirms the impression because prediction helps create circumstances that cause the prediction come true Why must one be cautious of overrelying on psychological test scores Problems in a test can mess up psychological knowledge Because an unreliable invalid test will create errors in our psychological knowledge What kinds of extraneous factors look it up in a dictionary might in uence test scores Factors that are not manipulated as part of an experiment but may exert some in uence on the dependent variable under study like mood motivation distractions Give two different de nitions of the concept of stress 1 Stress is the process of adjusting to events that are hard to adapt to within a given time period 2 Stress is the process of confronting negative adverse events that tax your ability to deal with them 6 Book de nition The process of adjusting to circumstances which disrupt or threaten a person s daily functioning Which is broader Is that breadth good or bad Good 1 because this definition includes both good and bad events that require adaptation What is primary appraisal secondary appraisal Primary appraisal perceiving threat or loss Secondary appraisal deciding how to react Lazarus s theory on ways of coping with stress points to two distinct classes of coping responses name them Problem focused Emotion focused Research has found that too many life events can have adverse health consequences How is this usually explained Life events research events in one period effect in later period Preceding 6 months of events vs Preceding 6 months of healt 0 Accumulated life events predict bad effects on health 0 Interpretation Stress wears you out leaves you vulnerable Do all events in uence health or just negative ones Yes all including negative and positive events How does predictability of stressors resemble having control over stressors For one thing knowing that a stressor might occur but being uncertain whether or when it will occur tends to increase the stressor s impact In other words unpredictable stressors tend to have more impact on those that are predictable especially when the stressors are intense and relatively brief For example people whose spouses have died suddenly tend to display more immediate disbelief anxiety and depression than those who have had weeks or months to prepare for the loss However predictability does not provide total protection against the effects of stressors Research shows that predictable stressors can even be more damaging than unpredictable ones if they occur over long periods of time p 398 What does learned helplessness mean A process in which a person or animal stops trying to exert control after experience suggests that no control is possible Example Dogs in shuttle box trying to escape shock learns he can t Later when he could he won t try learned helplessness In humans learning it is futilevainuseless to try causes people not to try What are the components of the Type A behavior pattern Which matters Type A competitive achievement striving time urgent hostile Coronary risk Physical responses tax cardiovascular system increase atherosclerosis Why was Type A behavior of interest Because people are more prompt to have a heart attack or have coronary risks More recent work suggests hostility is the key Define the term psychosomatic 1 Of or relating to a disorder having physical symptoms but originating from mental or emotional causes 2 Relating to or concerned with the in uence of the mind on the body and the body on the mind especially with respect to disease Psychosomatic medicine psychological antecedents of bodily problems What two other terms similar in meaning to psychosomatic medicine though broader are used these days Behavioral medicine behavioral in uences on medical conditions Health psychology broader including psychological responses to health crisis What is stress management and why are its tactics useful The ways in which one can protect against stress because it helps us learn how to reduce tensionarousal and learn to avoid needlessly upsetting situations Abnormality is defined partly statistically partly in terms of maladaptiveness What does each of those criteria tell you A Statistical too much or too little of something People that are abnormal differ from a normal on how much they have of a certain characteristics B Issue of adaptive versus maladaptive deals with successful functioning Con ict with social standards deviance from norms written standards laws Personal discomfort Disorganization of normal functioning serious enough to produce impairment in living What does it mean to say that abnormality is relative that it is defined in terms of social norms 0 Relative we must have a comparison of what is normal 0 Social norms There are written norms in that rule society and how people comply with them In what 3 modes can abnormality be displayed Give examples of each Behavioral actions gt Cognitive thoughts Affective emotions Overt What is the meaning of the term diagnosis the word prognosis Diagnosis suggests basis for the problems proceed to the treatment classification by symptoms It also refers both to the process of attempting to determine or identify a possible disease or disorder and to the opinion reached by this process Prognosis chances of cure A prediction of the probable course and outcome of a disease the likelihood of recovery from a disease What is an organic disorder Organic disorders present clearly some sort of damage to nervous system are conditions that are due to damage or deterioration of brain tissue An alternative term is Neuropsychiatric Disorders E g tumors diseases substance abuse What disorders involve a hereditary predisposition Schizophrenia bipolar disorders Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 0CD Which classes of disorders are the least severe O Adjustments disorders changes in you life 0 Somatoform 0 Dissociative disorders amnesia fugue states gt disorder characterized by reversible amnesia for personal identity including the memories personality and other identifying characteristics of individuality What s the difference between generalized anxiety disorder and phobia Generalized anxiety disorder diffuse pervasive dread source unclear An unforcused irrational fear of nothing specific F ree oating anxiety Phobia Intense irrational fear of something identi able Special problems social phobia agoraphobia anxiety disorder in which a person has attacks of intense fear and anxiety There is also a fear of being in places where it is hard to escape or where help might not be available 010 Panic disorder abrupt onset of fear response panic attack What s the difference between hypochondriasis and conversion disorder Hypochondriasis continuing perception of illness symptoms with no illness Conversion disorder trauma converts to somaticlike or physical symptom it is a way to escape psychological threats What are the dissociative disorders Where does that name come from Conditions involving sudden and usually temporary disruptions in a person s memory consciousness or identity The name derives from the part of experience disassociates from the rest Which disorder most explicitly involves delusional thinking Paranoid Personality Disorder Which is characterized by extreme cognitive disturbances Schizophrenia schiz means fragmented functioning or splitoff from reality J angled cognitive processes slippage loss of train of thought Dual meanings clang associations word salad Obsessions compulsions hallucinations and delusions define each and be able to tell them apart 0 Obsession A persistent and seemingly uncontrollable thought 0 Compulsion The physical act resulting from an obsession Typically a compulsive act is done in an attempt to alleviate the discomfort created by an obsession 0 Hallucinations involuntary perceptual events Without stimuli 0 Delusions beliefs that don t fit reality often themes of grandeur persecution What is a borderline personality An antisocial personality A narcissistic personality 0 Borderline personality erratic shifts from idealization to anger Blackwhite thinking idealizationrage little sense of sel fear of abandonment 0 Antisocial personality unaffected by others needs Psychopath psychosocial irresponsible unconcerned With others charming but exploitive arrogant no remorse 0 Narcissistic personality selfabsorbed entitled arrogant Selfimportant the best entitled need for attention thinskinned meaning quick to anger What is pedophilia Is a sexual disorder in persons 16 years of age or older typically characterized by a primary or exclusive sexual interest toward prepubescent children generally age 11 years or younger though specific diagnosis criteria for the disorder extends the cut off point for prepubescence to age 13 An adolescent who is 16 years of age or older must be at least five years older than the prepubescent child before the attraction can be diagnosed as pedophilia What are the assumptions of the medical or disease model of abnormality That illness may underlie symptoms Strongly in uenced by medical methods used for other problems What s shifted in the evolving biomedical model Issues of imbalance of neurotransmitters and the evidence of genetic in uence What are the assumptions of the psychoanalytic model of the behavioral model 0 Psychoanalytic model Abnormal behavior re ects repressed con icts The symptom is not the problem treating it will only result in symptom substitution 0 Behavioral model Symptoms are learned just as anything else is Symptoms are the problem 10 What do the underlying assumptions of each of these models of abnormality tell us about how to treat the disorder I Psychoanalytic model The symptom is not the problem treating it will only result in symptom substitution Abnormal behavior reflects repressed conflicts and symptoms reflect over use of defense mechanisms I Behavioral model Symptoms are the problem What appears to be symptom is actually the whole problem Treat them will get rid of the problem You must unlearn the symptoms with therapy because like anything else they were learned What is symptom substitution When you treat one symptom another one appears An unconscious psychological process by which a repressed impulse is indirectly manifested through a particular symptom anxiety compulsion depression hallucination and obsession and when you treat one of this the other appears What theory leads to use of the free association method to use of drugs for therapy to behavior modification to behavioral contracts to clientcentered therapy 0 Psychoanalysis psychoanalytic model Free association 0 BioMedical model Drugs 0 Behavioral Learning model Behavior modification and Behavioral contracts 0 Hamanisticphenomenological model Clientcentered therapy Which therapy is most useful for phobias major depression schizophrenia Systematic Desensitization Behavioral Learning model useful for phobias Cognitive and drug therapy major depression Drugs and Psychotherapy schizophrenia Which therapy is least explicitly aimed at curing the person Humanisticphenomenological model because the person is not sick he she is in need of a service rather than a cure that s why it is called client Why is group therapy conducted 2 different ways Some groups share a problem Convenient less costly Some groups give therapist a chance to see people interact Therapist sees things that couldn t see otherwise What 2 problems of socialization are associated with institutionalization ll Break With former life Major disruption of life patterns after years E g after 20 years a prisoner gets out of jail Socialization into institutional life so that leaving is a threatening change What is the placebo effect and why must it be taken into account when studying the effectiveness of therapy A treatment that contains no active ingredient but produces an effect because the person receiving it believes it Will It has to be taken into consideration because people Will get better because they are expecting so Therefore you must pay attention to that by comparing it to another group Which is not receiving the placebo effect to see if there s any difference and to prove that the patient is getting better because the problem is being solved instead of getting better because he is thinks it Psychology 110 Dr Carver SAMPLE STUDY QUESTIONS E013 TEST 4 What s an attitude A tendency toward a particular cognitive emotional or reaction to objects in one s environment It is a predisposition to react in a particular way to some class of objects people vents What s the difference between attitudes and personality between an attitude and a belief 0 Attitudes are more focused than personality which is a very broad concept 0 Belief has components that support the affective tone of an attitude But not all beliefs are attitudes some lack the effect Attitude is an opinion belief is a cognition State the 2component and 3component definitions of attitudes Predisposition to respond may have several components 1 Affective evaluative component attitudes always have emotional quality Ex Dislike toward a group 2 Cognitive belief component beliefs that support the affective tone Ex Belief they are lazy or stupid 3 Behavioral tendency to act in ways that fit the affect Ex Act badly towards them discriminate On what issue do these de nitions disagree and why Disagreement mostly about the 3rd component How much structure to assume because behavioral tendency is not as strong as the rest Attitudes don t seem to predict behavior well Name 3 ways attitudes can be acquired Classical conditioning emotional tone rubs off good or bad experiences Ex Your black roommate is awful you then don t want a black roommate Mere exposure to a neutral stimulus increases positive response Ex Seeing the person more times will increase your interest of meeting himher Imitation of others Instrumental Learning indirect experience at most Ex Your mother doesn t like Chinese you neither without any personal reason Name 3 classes of variables that in uence persuasion Name one variable from each class and state its in uence 0 Communicating agent source of the message Credibility expertise trustworthiness Information on these is part of what is called peripheral cues Ex Who is saying it 0 Nature of the message Repetition explicitness how explicitly should you draw the conclusion 0 2sided vs lsided Which is one is better it depends lsided audience already favors your message 2 sided people don t favor your message thus you show both sides 0 Audience target recipient of message Women more persuasible than men Men more persuasible than women But it isn t true it is really about knowledge Knowledge makes people harder to persuade What are the assumptions of the theory of cognitive dissonance Cognitive elements are separate from each other attitude change is driven by efforts to reduce tension caused by inconsistencies between attitudes and behaviors What is necessary for dissonance to exist Dissonance creates inconsistency and it instability among these thoughts beliefs and attitudes and creates a pressure to reduce the con ict among the elements What can be done to reduce dissonance Distort it to fit change it or acquire another piece of knowledge What does it mean to reduce dissonance Reducing the con ict reduce the drive shifting either opinion or memory of action by making a mental picture of reality more consistent In this theory what happens when a person makes a dif cult decision what goes on before the decision right after the decision what happens eventually and why Before making the decision they notice they are an even balance of goods and bads and after making the decision once you make it dissonance because you rejected good qualities chose bad ones Why do these processes apply only if the decision was dif cult Because once you make it try to buttress your choice as the right one How does the theory explain what happens when a person does a counterattitudinal behavior what s the rst thing the person checks for what s the eventual result for each answer to that check and why If you do something you disagree with you check to see if there s a justification If yes you were forced or overpaid no dissonance If no there s dissonance action contradicts opinion Apply balance theory to attitudes in a 2element situation In a 3element situation what patterns are balanced and imbalanced I 2element relations between you and another element If an imbalance exist there s a pressure to reorganize I 3element relations between you and 2 other elements My enemies enemies are my friends Certain arrangements are balanced others are not What happens when the pattern is imbalanced When imbalance exists pressure to restore somehow What s the relationship between attitudes and behavior Which of them in uences which Attitudes do in uence behavior but they are far from being the only in uence on it Name 3 reasons for the problems in prediction from attitudes to behavior I Learned through personal experience I Attitudes at the right level of abstraction predict better I Strong and weak situations differ What is person perception Forming first impressions on the basis of limited information Why is it important Because people then act on the basis of those impression People will try to get others to confirm those impressions and will disregard disconfirming evidence What is a primacy effect A characteristic of memory in which we recall is particularly good for the first two or three items in a list First information has bigger impact What is a central trait Trait which has a big impact on impressions What does the phrase implicit personality theory mean What is the role of schemas in that idea Use of schemas you have in your mind about how a personality is organized and this infer other traits as defaults What does it mean to make an attribution about something It means to make a judgment of what caused an event to happen it begins with interfering the cause of the event How do actors and observers differ in the attributions they make for events As observers we tend to attribute causal responsibility to the event s actor to actors the context is salient According to attribution theory what are the elements that make up an emotional experience Physical arousal and emotion related interpret label Ex feeling angry and attributing you did bad in your test because you were angry attributing this to the emotion Why does this theory of emotion use the word attribution Because it starts with making an inference about the cause of some eventin this case internal arousal What does misattribution of arousal mean It s mixing up the real source of arousal What do facial expressions have to do with experiencing emotions If expressions are wired in re ections of emotional experience maybe they somehow contribute Emotional patterns are reminiscent of actions patterns Nerves that move facial muscles may be in connection with other areas of the brain Facial expressions are immediate creating arousal takes longer your mind loses track of the arousal s source As you look from one culture to another how closely do the facial expressions that people link to a given emotion match up Generally speaking the correspondence that people see in linking a facial expression to a particular emotion is pretty good across cultures What is the affiliative tendency The tendency to spend time with another vs alone What situational factors increase the tendency to af liate I Stress enhances tendency to affiliate mostly among females I Some social situations prescribe affiliation e g holidays parties religious events Events de ned as social What factors in the environment increase the tendency to af liate I Seating patterns can increase chances of a iliation I Architectural design What is the proximity hypothesis for interpersonal attraction the classical conditioning hypothesis the mere exposure hypothesis the similarity hypothesis I Proximity People tend to interact with others who are close to them thus providing contact among them I Classical emotional tone rubs off good or bad experiences I Mere exposure they are more interested in getting to know one person if they see himher many times I Similarity especially in attitudes people are drawn to others who are similar to them Take the similarity hypothesis together with balance theory and come up with an interesting additional prediction described in class Perceived similarity can lead to attraction attraction can lead to perception of similarity People are drawn to others who are similar to them What hypothesis contradicts the similarity hypothesis Complementary Hypothesis In what restricted ways is this other hypothesis supported 0 Dominance who is in charge Who obeys Leadership vs Follower 0 Role complementary complementing each other s role What is the sexual selection hypothesis concerning human mating Sexual Strategies Theory strategies based on the idea that males and females have dijferent implicit goals What does it predict about what men vs women find attractive To evolution relationships are about reproduction 0 Male biological goal is to reproduce My 0 Female biological goal is to reproduce My Males should be drawn to signs of beauty fertility youth 0n the other hand females look for power resources What is the autokinetic phenomenon Means selfmove and it s also referred to as autokinesis is a phenomenon of Visual perception in which a stationary small point of light in an otherwise dark or featureless environment appears to move It presumably occurs because motion perception was always relative to some reference point Apparent movement diminishes in a group over repeated test What happens when people are tested alone versus in a group on the task showing the autokinetic phenomenon Less variability in a group than oneat thetime Perception can be influenced by expectancy People tend to conform with the norms of a group Ex In this experiment several actors gave the wrong answer and others tend to agree What were the results of Asch s studies of conformity Solomon Asch Everyone gives the wrong answer and it s your turn Guess what You give the wrong answer because there is a tendency to conform which is weakened by one previous dissenter In Asch39s experiment some of the participants stated that they believed they must be wrong since no one else 9 agreed with them They changed their answer so that they would be 39right What are informational and normative conformity in uences 0 Informational conformity When you don t know what to do You watch others to see what they are doing It is the kind of conformity that occurs because of the desire to be liked and accepted Informational conformity is so named because we believe that it gives us information that we did not previously have 0 Normative conformity when there is implicit pressure It occurs because of the desire to be correct e g go with the group or think of peer pressure What s a reference group It is a group to which you refer yourself for norms Groups which define norms for you and everyone who forms part of it Name some of your reference groups Friends siblings39 classmates What was the basic result of Milgram s studies of obedience Going along with a rooted authority when told What to do explicitly The experiment had 3 participants teacher real participant learner an actor and doctor the experimenter What factors increased or decreased obedience in that research for example name a couple of things about physical and psychological distance 0 Distance to victim increase obedience gt If the experimenter is closer and the learner farther teacher tends to be more obedient 0 Distance to authority decreases obedience gt If the learner is closer and the experimenter further the teacher tends to be less obedient How is aggression usually defined by social psychologists As the attempt to deliver aversive unpleasant stimulus to another person This de nition of aggression is interpersonal Aggression is not only physical If it omits destruction that does not aim at a person unless is attempting to hurt the person or omits fantasy and rumination meaning thoughts of aggression is NOT considered as aggression Distinguish among anger hostility and aggression Anger an emotion Hostility an attitude or dislike Aggression an attempt Why are these distinctions important Because they don39t always go togethe different things can make each occur Name two ways that aggressive behaviors are learned Skills learned by 0 Observational learning 0 Instrumental conditioning Name two effects of TV violence on people 0 It teaches new tactics 0 It disinhibits unrestrains unlimits observers Also It makes seem aggression as the usual way of dealing with problems Ex Let s ght it out It makes this expected no surprise Define frustration It s the disruption of a goaldirected behavior What is the relation between frustration and aggression Frustration leads to many divergent responses one which may be aggression Also the frustration aggression hypothesis states that frustration always lead to some form of aggressive behavior What is the most reliable instigator of aggression Perception is critical rather than reality Why are perceptions important in instigation of aggression Because perception of receiving aggression leads to it What s the difference between angry and instrumental aggression First follows from anger second may not involve anger at allit39s just about getting something else Instrumental aggression no emotion and may be impersonal Ex drug dealers shoot at a police not because they are mad at them but because they want to escape What is displacement of aggression and why might it occur Displacement is turning aggression onto someone other than the desired target It might occur to release the impulse which is making the person aggressive This concept is rooted in ideas from the psychoanalytic theory What is the catharsis hypothesis It proposes that the release of the impulse which makes a person aggressive leads the person less likely to aggress again But it doesn t really work What does it mean to try to produce catharsis vicariously It means that to try to reduce catharsis releases of feelings of aggression through vicarious or symbolic means Ex watching aggressive movies football games fights etc Does it work No Rather than reducing catharsis those symbolic means eg aggressive movies fights football games etc model aggression and catharsis Under what conditions does catharsis actually happen This can happen in a very limited way Ex retaliating directly against provoker What would be a good strategy to use in trying to reduce a child s tendency to be aggressive I Alternatives to aggression need to be taught early because aggression is learned early I Reinforce use of nonviolent alternatives I Diminish access to tools of violence because the impact of an aggressive act is greatly amplified by tools What is the bystander effect A phenomenon in which the chances that someone will help in an emergency decrease as the numbers of people present increases Slower to help if others are there How is it usually explained 2 answers Analysis in terms of series of implicit decisions Presence of others can bias the decisions Most emergencies are ambiguous and in ambiguous situations people turn to each other for cues What other factors increase or decrease helping in general Decision 1 Is it an emergency Others look calm less likely to say yes Decision 2 Is it my responsibility to help Others present responsibility diffuses and since people are riding their reaction when they look around everyone else sees people not reacting What are two ways that emotion in uences helping Effects of moods People help more if in good than bad mood Good mood may free people s minds from preoccupation Effects of guilt People help more if they feel guilty than people who don t feel guilty Even a person unrelated to the guilt can make you feel better Pay it forward Another way to in uence helping is 0 Effects of models People model what they see Thus TV ads for charities often induce models What are cooperation and competition Cooperation any type of behavior in which people work together to attain a goal helping other along the way Competition any type of behavior in which individuals try to attain a goal While denying others access to that goal behavior aimed to bene t yourself at someone else s expenses In games used to study them what strategy usually predominates Competition What are some of the ways that researchers have tried to get people to increase cooperation By creating Noncompetitive situations which didn t help Creating situations neither group could solve alone Which ones work Creating situations neither group could solve alone Define the term group as it s used in social psychology People coming together with shared goal What two types of goals can a group have Instrumental taskfocused Social funfocused goals Name an aspect of group structure Communication networks What is centrality in communication networks It when there is a center position where every communication must go through before reaching the target What position in a communication network do most people like best Central position leader What kind of network makes the most people happy A highly decentralized network What kind of network makes the group most effective Centralized group In the study of kids at summer camp how were the groups produced Randomly assigned strangers in 2 parts of camp with separate shared activities When the groups were brought together what were their initial reactions Competition between groups hostility antagonism between groups How were these reactions altered Through mutually shared goals they created situations neither group could solve alone forcing therefore to work together towards the same goal What does this tell us about the nature of groups When people believe they can better obtain a goal people tend to group even when they might dislike other members How are groups affected by increased cohesiveness Cohesiveness increases pressure to conform pressure to conform to the group norms Are cohesive groups more effective or less Both depending on norms What is groupthink and what does it have to do with the preceding 2 questions A pattern thinking that renders group members unable to evaluate realistically the wisdom of various options and decisions Group overestimates consensus is closeminded about options discouraging likewise any questioning or dissent about goal or path to it What is the great man hypothesis of leadership The idea that particular personality configuration leads to leadership What is an alternative hypothesis that seems to predict better Fit between personality and the needs of the group situation Name two types of leadership styles and describe how each works 0 Taskoriented provides close supervision leads by giving orders and generally discourages group discussion instrumental directive This style may make them unpopular 0 People oriented provide loose supervision ask for group members ideas and are generally concerned with subordinates feelings 10 What ethical issues come up in psychological research Some research activities create risk of harm physical or psychological 0 Institutional Review Board IRB to protect participants rights 0 Weighing costs risks against the benefit In clinical practice Practice means having an impact on people s live Therapy is an attempt to change a person An assessment can label a person in uence the person s life deciding competence freedom What kind of situation does it take at a minimum to raise an ethical issue in each of these settings When the costs of participants is higher than the bene ts In clinical practice gt Problemsolving research to help fix human suffering In psychological research gt Basic research to develop better understanding of how things work Part Four SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Ways the behavior thoughts feelings of one person are affected by other people present or implied A set of topics rather than just one ATTITUDES AND ATTITUDE CHANGE 1 Attitude as predisposition to react in a particular way to some class of objects people events Attitudes are more focused than personality Predisposition to respond may have several components Affective evaluative component attitudes always have emotional quality Cognitive belief component beliefs that support the affective tone Behavioral tendency to act in ways that fit the affect Disagreement mostly about the 3rd component 2 Prejudice as an example of an attitude discrimination as action 3 Where do attitudes come from Classical conditioning emotional tone rubs off good or bad experiences Mere exposure to a neutral stimulus increases positive response Imitation of others 4 Attitude change I Persuasion active attempt to change someone s attitude Persuasion has several elements each with influences Communicating agent source of the message Credibility expertise trustworthiness Nature of the message Repetition explicitness 2 sided vs 1sided Audience target recipient of message Women more persuasible than men Men more persuasible than women Knowledge makes people harder to persuade A summary the Elaboration Likelihood Model Central route to persuasion involves thought and mental elaboration Peripheral route involves just accepting A separate issue fear appeals Fear can motivate change but also get people to deny 5 Attitude change ll Naturally occurring changes based on principle of consistency Theory of cognitive dissonance Cognitive elements in several relations to each other Dissonance conflict is aversive creates drive state Drive to reduce the dissonance Applying theory to postdecisional dissonance Hard decision is evenly balanced Once you make it dissonance because you rejected good qualities chose bad ones Once you make it try to buttress your choice as the right one Applying theory to counterattitudinal behavior If you do something you disagree with you check to see if there s a jus ca on If yes you were forced or overpaid no dissonance If no there s dissonance action contradicts opinion Reduce dissonance if it exists by shifting either opinion or memory of action Balance Theory maintain internal consistency among beliefs 2 element relations between you and another element 3element relations between you and 2 other elements Certain arrangements are balanced others are not When imbalance exists pressure to restore somehow 6 Attitudes and behavior Certainly marketers believe attitudes influence behavior Attitudes do influence behavior but they are far from the only influence on it Reciprocal influence sometimes behaviors influence attitudes PERSON PERCEPTION IMPORESSION FORMATION 1 Forming first impressions on the basis of limited information 2 Why does it matter Because people then act on the basis of those impressions People will try to get others to confirm those impressions People will disregard disconfirming evidence 3 Effects of physical characteristics Beauty as implying other good qualities Bits of style taken as cues to personality 4 Knowledge of a few personality characteristics Central vs peripheral traits Implicit personality theory Primacy effect first information has bigger impact 5 Observation or knowledge of behavior Attribution judgment of what caused an event to happen We tend to see events as intended motivated reflections of who people are Actor versus observer role and its effect on attribution INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION 1 Impressions influence whom you want to spend time with attraction 2 Attraction part random part choice Proximity closeness thus having contact Physical attractiveness Similarity especially in attitudes Perceived similarity can lead to attraction Attraction can lead to perception of similarity Complementarity do opposites attract Dominance Role complementarity Sexual strategies theory Male biological goal is to reproduce widely Female biological goal is to reproduce wisely Further evolution of relationship Communication Conflict management 3 Affiliation Spending time with another vs alone Stress enhances tendency to affiliate mostly among females Some social situations prescribe affiliation eg holidays parties religious events Environmental effects on affiliation Seating patterns Architectural design SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY of EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE 1 Emotion came up several times earlier but social psychology has some special bits to add 2 Emotional expressions as social communication ldea that expressions have meaning traces to Darwin Expressions as remnants of action patterns Subtext of link between emotion and action preparedness ln emotional expressions are wired in must be universal lf expressions are universal so must recognition be Emotional expression and emotional experience 3 RADICALLY different view Attributional analysis of emotional experience Attribution judgment or inference about cause in this case of arousal Assumption that arousal is much the same across emotions Assumption that given arousal people search the context for cues as to its cause Emotional experience arousal emotional interpretation attribution Misattribution as mixing up the real source of arousal 4 How to fit with the Darwinian facial feedback version SOCIAL INFLUENCE CONFORMITY and OBEDIENCE 1 Conformity as tendency to match behavior to some value eg group norms 2 Norms as sociallyagreedupon ways of behaving 3 Norm formation using the autokinetic phenomenon Apparent movement diminishes in a group over repeated tests Less variability in a group than oneatatime 4 Asch forcing people to choose between norm and own perceptions People at lab in groups calling out answers to perceptual task On some trials everyone gives the wrong answer and it s your turn Tendency to conform Weakened by one previous dissenter Informational vs normative social influence 5 Why do people conform Groups reject deviates disagreers 6 Reference groups as groups you refer yourself to for norms 7 Obedience Going along with an authority when told what to do Research procedure teacher learner punishment for errors Punishment level has to escalate for each error Appears to be a giving up of responsibility to the authority Distance to victim increases obedience Distance to authority decreases obedience ALTRUISM and HELPING 1 Altruism is doing for someone else with no expectation of gain for self 2 Helping in emergencies Sometimes people risk lives sometimes do nothing why Social psychologists tend to look to situation for answers Simulated emergency research The bystander effect slower to help if others are there Analysis in terms of series of implicit decisions Presence of others can bias the decisions Decision 1 Is it an emergency Others look calm less likely to say yes Decision 2 Is it my responsibility to help Others present responsibility diffuses 3 Helping in general which can also apply to emergencies CostBenefit analysis Help occurs if potential benefits exceed costs Effects of moods People help more if in good than bad mood Effects of guilt People help more if they feel guilty Effects of models People model what they see AGGRESSION 1 Aggression as the attempt to deliver aversive stimulus to another person Omits destruction that does not aim at person Omits fantasy and rumination Distinguishes aggression anger hostility Aggression is different from assertiveness 2 Where does aggression come from in general Innate Based in male competition for mates Aggressive displays as dominance display Learned Skills learned by observational learning and instrumental conditioning Choice of aggression as tool learned same way 3 What conditions elicit aggression Frustrationaggression hypothesis Frustration leads to many divergent responses one of which may be aggression Attack he did it to me first Perception is critical rather than reality Instrumental purpose to be served by aggression 4 Ideas from psychoanalytic theory Displacement turning aggression onto someone other than desired target does happen Catharsis release of impulse makes person less likely to aggress again doesn t really work Modeling effects you may model other may model yourself 5 Media violence and aggression Media violence teaches new tactics Media violence disinhibits observers Media violence makes this seem the usual way of dealing with problems Media violence makes this expected no surprise 6 Can violence be reduced Aggression is learned early alternatives need to be taught early Reinforce use of nonviolent alternatives Diminish access to tools of violence COOPERATION and COMPETITION GROUPS 1 Two strategies you might use to get things helping other along the way vs not 2 Mixedmotive situation in the lab Arouses both desire to cooperate and desire to compete Payoff matrix displays what happens when the people act in various patterns Reduce competition by changing payoff matrix What if one person models cooperation Doesn t work if continuous only if conditional What if other is labeled as partner vs opponent 3 Groups as longerterm cooperation People coming together with shared goal Instrumental taskfocused vs social funfocused goals 4 Summer camp study Group formation phase strangers in 2 parts of camp with separate shared activities Intergroup conflict phase Competition between groups Conflict resolution phase Created situations neither group could solve alone 5 Groups structure and group dynamics Communication networks structure Influence on communication flow dynamics Centralized group is more effective People on the average like the decentralized group Leadership Greater than average influence on group Individual differences Situational forces visibility centrality incumbency Interactional approach right person for group s current needs Leadership styles Taskoriented vs people oriented Cohesiveness attraction of members to group Increases pressure to conform Consequences depend on nature of group s norms Unfavorable norms from directive leader can lead to groupthink Groups also make decisions that are more polarized 6 Does the presence of the group add anything It depends Groups can help the best member by division of labor social facilitation Groups can hinder best member by getting in the way social loafing PSYCHOLOGY and SOCIETY 1 Psychology as a profession clinical and counseling Ethical issues Therapy is an attempt to change a person An assessment can label a person influence the person s life Political issues Who can do what where for what fees Competition with medicine issue of managed care 2 Psychology as a science research Ethical issues Some research activities create risk of harm physical or psychological IRB to protect participants rights Weighing costs against the benefit Political issues Research costs money to do What kind of work should the money be spent on Problemsolving research to help fix human suffering Basic research to develop better understanding of how things work
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