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Shakespeare Final

by: Kimberly Burke

Shakespeare Final EH 403

Kimberly Burke
Jacksonville State University
GPA 4.0

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Here is my study guide for the Shakespeare Final. The page numbers and act, scene, and line numbers are from Riverside Shakespeare.
Shakespeare I
Dr. Gates
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Burke on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EH 403 at Jacksonville State University taught by Dr. Gates in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Shakespeare I in Foreign Language at Jacksonville State University.

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Date Created: 04/16/16
Shakespeare Final Shakespeare – Titus Andronicus  Characters o Titus Andronicus – tragic hero, Roman general who returns to Rome from war with the Goths at the beginning of the play, b/c of his heroic deeds people want him to be emperor (but he does not), loyal to Rome & emperor Saturninus  Demands Tamora’s son Alarbus be killed as revenge for the deaths of some of his sons in battle  Grants his daughter to Saturninus  Turns other Goth prisoners over to Saturninus  Kills a son who tries to support Bassianus’ claim for Lavinia  At first, he refuses to bury this son in the family tomb  Duped by Aaron’s plot & the framing of his other sons  Assumes he can save his sons if he sacrifices his hand; gives the hand to Aaron, who brings the sons’ heads to Titus  Uses the sacrifice of his daughter to exact his revenge o Lavinia – Titus’s daughter, passive, given away in marriage to first Saturninus then Bassianus  Demetrius & Chiron rape her, cut out her tongue & her hands – mute as a result  Contrasted with Tamora (powerful, clever, wicked, cruel)  Killed by Titus b/c she has lost her honor, chastity, & virtue  Begs Tamora to put her to “present death” o Lucius – Titus’s son, only one to survive entire play, exiled from Rome  Goes to the Goths & raises an army to challenge Saturninus  Popular support of the Roman people, promise to return Rome to former greatness o Young Lucius – Titus’s grandson, Lucius’ son, survives the entire play, innocent bystander  Principal speaking scenes including reporting his aunt’s behavior and an address the the body of his grandfather o Quintus & Martius – Titus’s two sons who are framed for murder of Bassianus  Beheaded by Saturninus for the crime – this turns Titus against Saturninus  Titus tried to save them by sacrificing his hand o Mutius – Titus’s son, tries to prevent Lavinia & Saturninus’ marriage  Angry at betrayal of the emperor, killed by Titus  Mutineer, stands up to father’s wish of Lavinia marrying Saturninus & not Bassianus o Marcus Andronicus – Titus’s brother & a Roman tribune (elected official), advises Titus throughout the play, survives the entirety of the play, assures the Roman people along with Lucius that they will bring stability back to Rome  Tries to offer his hand to spare his brother’s hand  After Titus dies, helps the Titus’s son lead Rome or let Rome fall  Wants Titus to be emperor, but Titus gives the title to Saturninus o Publius –Marcus Andronicus’ son o Saturninus – oldest son of recently deceased Roman emperor, current emperor, Titus’s sons & Bassianus claim that he cannot marry Lavinia, angry at the Andronicus family, marries Tamora instead (she is lying to & manipulating him)  Killed for killing Titus  Mockingly gives Lavinia to Bassianus o Bassianus – Saturninus’ younger brother, does not allow Saturninus to marry Lavinia b/c she was betrothed to him, killed by Demetrius & Chiron (but Titus’s sons Quintus & Martius are framed for murder & executed)  Killed early in the play from a plot masterminded by Aaron o Tamora – queen of the Goths, brought as prisoner to Rome by Titus (who kills her son Alarbus & she swears revenge), wife to Saturninus,  Helps (Aaron, Demetrius, & Chiron) avenge Alarbus by raping & mutilating Lavinia, killing Quintus & Martius, & exiling Lucius o Alarbus – Tamora’s oldest son, killed by Titus to avenge his children’s deaths  “his entrals feed the sacrificing fire” o Demetrius & Chiron – Tamora’s sons, carry out Aaron & Tamora’s revenge plan against Titus, heartless & cruel, mock Lavinia after raping & disfiguring her  Told before their deaths that they will be baked into a pie for their mother o Aaron the Moor – Tamara’s secret lover & father of one of her children, African, villain  Abused by the Andronicus family, Demetrius & Chiron b/c he’s black  Arranges for Quintus & Martius to be framed for Saturninus’ murder  Encourages Demetrius & Chiron to attack Lavinia  Feels no regret when he is caught by Lucius except he wants to live longer to commit more crimes  Role is expanded from the source o Aemilius – Roman messenger who helps propel the plot along  Announces Lucius’ imminent arrival with armed Goths, sent to invite him to a truce meeting  At the end of the play, leads all to pronounce Lucius emperor o Clown – ordered to be killed by Saturninus, unaware that Titus’s supplication wrapped in a weapon will anger the Emperor o Nurse – killed by Aaron after expressing outrage at what Aaron has done  Earliest Shakespeare Tragedy – evidence that he collaborated with others  Several “givens” in comparison/contrast of Titus & Shakespeare’s later tragedies o Senecan values – early career o Later – developed tragedy beyond Titus level  Handout Questions o 1 & 2 – Hamlet & Othello vs. Titus  Aristotle tragedy – catharsis, self-recognition o 3 – Titus’s mental condition evolves later in the play  Hamlet pretends madness, extreme grief from loss of father  Titus does strange things – attributed to madness  Pretends to not know who his family is  Shakespeare sometimes lets the audience in on the ploy o 4 – Immature playwriting or brilliant scheme  changes orientation of the scene  Lavinia – Titus’s daughter, victim  Triggers in the play – touches you closely, like PTSD  Titus feels entitled to kill Tamora’s son to avenge his child’s rape & dismembering (trigger) o In turn, triggers revenge from Tamora  At the time Shakespeare wrote Titus, he also wrote The Rape of Lucrece which is mentioned in Titus  Normally - Vigilante justice – kill attacker  The Rape of Lucrece – 1 time crime is taken to state instead of person-person or family-family  Lavinia as victim/mute – crude scene when she names her rapist  She writes names with her arm stumps with a stick in the sand & points out a classical rape story  Victimized, uncomfortable stage time o 5 – last scene, ploy by Andronicus family who put up a case for their family to take over st  In the 1 scene – Titus comes home from war & is asked to name the next general  Titus has blind spots o 6 – divided by the consciousness of Aaron  Iago wanting to bring Othello down, Othello’s black power attitude  Titus – a mixed race child is brought to Aaron who refuses to get rid of the child  Family allegiance – even though the child is illegitimate  Caught – he pleads for child’s life, Lucius has to make the decision  Aaron – very important character, more than just the bad guy o 7 – Shakespeare’s development beyond Titus  Early - obvious allusions; later - uses literary style  Titus – not in control of allusions o 8 – Titus’s aside – tells audience & not Tamora that he is pretending madness  Hamlet – able to turn on his pretend madness o 9 – deaths o 10 – list of mistakes  Summary of article – Hammersmith too severely translated ‘hamartia’ to mean tragic virtue  Misguided in pursuits of what he thinks is right  Tragic pride over excessive pride  Father thinking he can make husband choice for his daughter – seen in several plays  Bassianus & Lavinia – she is given to Saturninus  Ending in problematic – Titus has to publicly kill (honor killing) to revenge his daughter  Cuts up Tamora’s sons & feeds them to her in a pie – taken straight from Seneca play  What becomes of Aaron’s child – not clear – Lucius agrees to let it live but may be faking it  Scene 1 o Titus is war hero, could be emperor  Romans & Goths are both barbaric o Goths defeated by Romans o Tamora’s 1 son sacrificed for Titus’s sons deaths o Goths – nebulous force o Lucius leaves to get on army to march against Rome  Titus kills Tamora’s sons & puts them in a pie to feed to Tamora  Titus plays along with people thinking he’s mad but tells audience in aside that he is not  Masque presentation – play figures have come to Titus’s window in costume o Tamora, Chiron, & Demetrius = Revenge, Rape, & Murder o Sympathize with Titus – really knows who they are  Aaron’s nationality – race is a big part of the play o Comes forward out of nowhere – on his own o Associated with Goths o Titus picture on pg. Plate 9 – Aaron to the side  Weirdness of Titus’s response to Lavinia’s rape – laughs b/c he can’t cry anymore – iron leader  Honor killing – raped woman killed o Private killings – rapist killed – private justice  Final scene – death, too rapid killings o Shakespeare’s early take on tragic endings o Titus kills Lavinia, Lavinia kills Saturninus  Psychotic Grief Illusion – Titus & Hamlet – so wrapped up in not getting over grief of a loss  Titus shoots messages in arrows to Empress – make sure Saturninus knows how he feels  Clown visits Titus – Clown goes to Saturninus & Tamora with note in Titus’s knife  Is Titus a full tragic hero?  Sources o Seneca’s Thyestes o Ovid: for story of Philomel’s rape and revenge of Progne o Plutarch’s Parallel Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans in a translation by North o A translation from the Italian of a chapbook, with Titus Andronicus in its title, not printed till the 18 century  Characteristics of the way Shakespeare uses allusions o Phrases in Latin o Characters’ awareness of plot of stories or events which involve the characters or persons: Virginius, Tereus, Philomel, Lucrece Shakespeare – Richard III  Characters o Duchess of York – Edward IV, Richard, Edmund, and Clarence’s mother, widow, protective of Elizabeth & her children, hates Richard o Richard – Duke of Gloucester  King, deformed, villain/evil  Killed by Richmond  First 3 Acts – Richard is called Duke of Gloucester; called King Richard later  Dictator who gets rid of his enemies – snapping behavior, turns on people, tyrant  Has a moment of guilt in his last soliloquy  Previously killed Henry VI in the tower  Animals associated with Richard: boar/hog, spider, toad, dog o Buckingham – Richard’s right hand man, character who most assists Richard in consolidating his power o King Edward IV – Richard & Clarence’s older brother o Queen Elizabeth – wife of King Edward IV, mother of 2 young princes & Dorset & Gray & Elizabeth, sister to Rivers, previously married to a Lancaster  Courted for her daughter Elizabeth, tells Richard he can’t have young Elizabeth after she asks her  Has her 2 young sons taken from her  Suspicious wife of Edward IV  Wooing scene – Edward IV’s brothers see him woo for the first time o Negative view of Queen Elizabeth o Young Elizabeth – Queen Elizabeth’s daughter, wanted by Richard, betrothed the Richmond at the end of the play, never appears in the play o The princes – sons of King Edward IV & Queen Elizabeth  Richard has the boys murdered by Tyrell in the Tower of London  Edward V – Richard’s nephew, Edward IV’s son o Clarence – Edward IV & Richard’s younger brother, has a son & daughter  Murderers tell him that his brother/Richard ordered his death o Dorset – son of Queen Elizabeth from previous marriage  Murdered by Richard o Gray - son of Queen Elizabeth from previous marriage  Murdered by Richard o Rivers – brother of Queen Elizabeth, flees & survives o Lady Anne – young widow of Prince Edward (son of former King Henry VI), wooed by Richard over the dead body of her father-in-law Henry VI, dies of sickness o Margaret – widow of late King Henry VI, mother of Prince Edward, prophetic  The only character to appear in all 4 plays in this series  Her son, Edward, was murdered by Richard and his brothers  She murdered Richard, Duke of York, & their father, who was king after Henry VI th  Also killed the 4 brother, young Edmund Earl of Rutland  Returns after her first curse to say “I told you so”  Curse all characters, they recall those curses later  Her action in the play is to prophecy & curse against those who have contributed to her downfall  Rivers, Hastings, Buckingham, Queen Elizabeth – make reference to Margaret o Ratcliffe & Catesby – Richard’s lackeys  Catesby – character who stays with Richard & will “help [him] to a horse.” o Tyrell – murderer, hired by Richard to kill the princes o Richmond – member of Lancaster family, gathers forces to challenge Richard for the throne, kills Richard, Christ-like warrior  Becomes Henry VII, father to Henry VIII  Has the last speech of the play o Hastings – lord who is loyal to the royal family, killed by Richard  Richard: “off with his head” o Lord Stanley – Richmond’s stepfather, secretly helps Richmond but pretends to be for Richard  Pledges loyalty to Richard, but after his son is taken hostage, secretly aligns with Richmond & is the character who offers Richmond the crown o Mayor of London – used by Richard in his plan to become king  Character who is fooled by the machinations of Richard & Buckingham o Vaughan – friend of Elizabeth, Dorset, Rivers, & Gray  Murdered by Richard with Dorset & Gray o Scrivener – makes copies of the death decrees & is aware of the rising death count  Places in the play o Tower of London – where Clarence & the princes were killed o Pomfrey - castle o Chertsey - castle o Tewskberry – famous battle, prior to play, where Margaret lost her son Edward o Bosworth Field – where Richard & Richmond are visited by ghosts  Sources o Tudor apologies o Senecan tragedy – avenging women o Sources in Hall & Holinshed derived from More  Similar o Anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III o Marlowe’s ambitious driven heroes – Tamberlaine, Faustus o Machiavelli’s The Prince, The Mirror for Magistrates o Medieval drama’s depiction of devils  Didactic religious drama depended upon the defeat/conversion of evil characters o Moral lessons placed side by side with the colorful presentation of evil  Hugh Richmond - Follows a medieval cycle o Wooing of Anne parallels Eve being tempted by the devil o Betrayal & murder of Clarence = Cain slaying Abel o Richard’s murder of nephews = Slaughter of the Innocents o Mater dolorosa o Richmond’s entry has parallels with New Testament salvation & noble warrior image of Christ  In histories & tragedies false motives are disguised sometimes with a flair  Shakespeare condenses history b/c he could leave things understood b/c of the audience he wrote for  Actual Title – The Tragedy of Richard III o Macbeth is a later version of Richard III o Will do anything to become king  Cohesiveness of the play o Biblical analogies – like Cain & Able  Buildup to Clarence’s murder – Richard builds plan to take over throne of England o House of York has just taken over  Wooing Scene – Richard woos Lady Anne – pg.775-756 o Richard is not suited to be romantic o Interrupts the body of Anne’s father in law (Henry VI) being buried in the family tomb  Richard killed Henry VI & his son (Edward) o Richard stops Anne & tells her why she needs a new husband o Anne agrees to marry him by the end of the scene  Vehemently against him at first – he killed her husband & father in law  Wants to reform/change Richard  Takes his word that he is changed by love  Power of Richard o Stichomythia – rapid fire one liners, argumentative  Pick up what one person says & reverse it  Common in wooing scenes  Shape of the Play – parallel wooing scenes nd o 2 – Richard asks for hand of young Elizabeth (his niece) by wooing her mother, Queen Elizabeth  Ends with no conclusion b/c Queen Elizabeth says she has to ask her daughter’s opinion  Richard thinks he has won Queen Elizabeth over – crack in his facade  Act 1, scene 4 o Hire people to kill Clarence & blame someone else  Richard contrives to make it look like King Edward IV ordered the death of Clarence  Frame the death on a misunderstanding of orders o Clarence & Richard are married to sisters (Neville family)  Richard wants to kill family members close to the throne o Even kill of/ get rid of Clarence’s sons o Get rid of sons of Edward IV – illegitimate father & sons o Edward IV will die of sickness o Make it look like he’s a good guy  Edward IV dies – Richard is protector of his son’s o Nephews are ahead of Richard for the throne o He gets Buckingham to do the dirty work  Coronation scene – Richard becomes King, orders nephews’ death o Richard bypasses the princes o Buckingham calls Richard king early by accident o Excuse for execution: they are bastards & not legitimate heirs  Richard has no biological heir – tells people Anne is sick so he can get a wife to give him an heir  Anne says that Richard is sleepless & keeps her up at night – dreams o Richard wants to marry his niece young Elizabeth  She actually marries Richmond (Henry VII) in the end  Hastings raises objection & pisses Richard off – shows how mean he can be o Richard: “Off with his head” o Richard attacks Hastings  Parallel to Buckingham (helps Richard consolidate power)  Strangles the princes, but hesitates when Richard gives the orders  Margaret – 2 scenes – widow of Henry VI o Act 1, scene 3 – prophecy  Supposed to be exiled to France  Vehemently against line of Tudors  Vs. Act 4, scene 4 – I told you so, should have listened o Shows how bad Richard is o Prophecy are recalled by people who become Richard’s victims o Act 4, scene 4  Rhetorically patterned, listing  Margaret precursor for how witches function  Act 4, scene 4 o Margaret watches destruction happen o Grieving mothers o Line 40 – people Richard has killed o Line 49 – Richard has been deformed since he was in the womb, blackening of his character o Line 124 – credit Margaret, wants to be taught how to curse enemies o Encouragement to curse Richard – full of bad things to say o Stichomythia – Richard asking for Queen Elizabeth’s daughter o Line 431 – Richard’s 1-line soliloquy o Richard thinking about future (new wife & kids) – realizes he has to act faster  Ghost scene - Sequence of ghosts appear to Richard to curse him & bring good news to Richmond o People who appear: King Henry VI, Lady Anne, George, Vaughan, Edward Warwick, Prince Edward/Edward V, Richard Duke of York, Buckingham, Hastings, Grey, Rivers  Act 5, scene 3 – sequence of Richard’s victims o Hastings dies before princes o We don’t see Anne die o Buckingham gives speech on the way to hanging  Last action of the play is Richmond’s promise to consolidate the houses of York & Lancaster & bring an end to civil wars  Dreams o Clarence dreams he is killed by Richard o Clarence dreams that Richard pushes him overboard o Stanley sends a messenger to Hastings that he has dreamt of the boar/Richard o Lady Anne says she has not slept since marrying Richard b/c of his dreaming o Richard & Richmond are visited by the ghosts of Richard’s victims  Lady Anne references to a creature – basilisk o Name she calls her husband by Plantagenet (people associated with Henry VI)  Difference between 1 executioner & 2 ndexecutioner o 1 feels remorse; 2 ndcalls 1 a coward  Henry wants Lord Stanley’s son to stay behind o Fears that Stanley will go over to Richmond’s side o 1 time we see Stanley is with Richmond  Duchess of York vs. Margaret o Duchess – mother to Clarence, Richard, & Edward IV; widow of Richard, Duke of York  Matriarch still connected to power o Margaret – widow to past king, disconnected  Richard killed Henry, harsh to Richard  Deaths by Richard o “Off with his head!” – Lord Hastings o “I wish the bastards dead.” – Prince Richard & Edward o “But sirs, be sudden in the execution . . . do not hear him plead.” - George o “Hath any well-advised friend proclaime’d/ Reward to him that brings the traitor in?” - Buckingham o Give out that __ is sick, and like to die.” - Anne o “The son of Clarence have I put up close,/ His daughter have I meanly match’d in marriage.” – Edward Plantagenet & Margaret Plantagenet  Soliloquies o 1) Introduces War of the Roses background info & Richard as deformed villain o 2) Richard has spoken to Clarence about going to the tower, Richard reveals his plot to kill Clarence  Richard – brief, effective, full plot revealed later o 3) blame Clarence’s death on King Edward, marry Anne scheme/plot, arrogance & selfish motive revealed later o 4) mocking self-importance, ‘look what I got away with’ o 5) Queen Margaret cursed everyone, nothing would be happening if he wasn’t doing it, plan to frame Queen Elizabeth & her allies  Like Hamlet’s soliloquy – announcing plots o 7) 2nd murderer – total regret, biblical allusion to Pilot b/c senseless murder of Clarence o 8) 1 murderer – sneering at 2 ndmurderer for being hesitant  foreshadows that someone will realize that Richard had him kill Clarence o 9) Scrivener has indictment for Hastings  People turn their heads b/c they’re afraid of Richard  Shakespeare’s histories – present regal characters & commoners comment on action  Scrivener – commoner, copies official orders  Speeches that end in rhyming couplets o 10) plan to marry young Elizabeth, loosing allies, intelligent & ruthless, deep in blood o 11) Richard’s complete consumption of power o 12) killers are remorseful, Richmond is interested in Elizabeth but Richard needs to marry her to right his wrongs  Tyrell didn’t complete the murder – Villains he hired to murder feel guilty  Pure language, slaughter of innocence o 13) looking back & forward, “a jolly thriving warrior,” bridge to next wooing, Richmond is rival wooer o 14) bragging that everyone is getting what they deserve, mourning lost men  Next scene – power from listening when they don’t know she’s there  Tells audience ‘told you so’ first o 15) King Richard’s true reaction to Queen Elizabeth, contrast to soliloquy 4, rapid fire conversation of bad military news o 16) Psychological high point – ghosts, prayer-like, confident tone, Richmond is reinforced as good guy o In between 16 & 17 is significant – realize Richard’s downfall o 17) real pangs of conscience, Richmond is being given good words is part of Richard’s nightmare – fears Richmond is taking the throne Shakespeare – As You Like It  Characters o Duke Senior – father of Rosalind & rightful ruler of Dukedom, banished by his brother Duke Frederick, lives in exile in Forest of Ardenne with loyal men (including Amiens & Jacques), kind & fair  Befriends Orlando b/c knows Orlando’s father o Jacques – accompanies Duke Senior into exile, stock figure, decides to become monk, cynical character  Lectures Touchstone about marrying quickly & regretting it & on marrying a loose woman  Leaves Corin without a function in the play  Critical of those in the forest who kill deer for sport or meat  Approves of what is reported that Frederick has done to change his life, vows to seek him out o Lord Amiens – goes into exile with Duke Senior, loves to sing o Rosalind – daughter of Duke Senior, disguises as Ganymede, loves Orlando  Dresses as man for protection & to not be discovered by Orlando  Gets Orlando to practice wooing her to check the match & determine if he’s a worthy suitor, power to choose her own mater  Gives the Epilogue – makes reference to “her” status as a boy actor o Duke Frederick – Duke Senior’s brother, usurper of throne, banishes Duke Senior & Rosalind, meets old religious man in the woods & changes his ways, becomes a monk & returns throne to Duke Senior o Celia – daughter to Duke Frederick, Rosalind’s friend & cousin, follows Rosalind into exile, disguises herself as shepherdess named Aliena, marries Oliver, agrees to marry before Rosalind o Sir Rowland de Bois – Orlando & Oliver’s father, friend to Duke Senior, enemy to Duke Frederick o Oliver – Sir Rowland de Bois’ oldest son, inheritor of de Bois estate, doesn’t let Orlando get a gentleman’s education, hates Orlando, becomes a better person after Orlando saves him, loves Celia  Meets Celia when he is bringing Orlando’s bloody handkerchief to Ganymede/Rosalind; love at first sight o Jacque – middle son to Rowland de Bois, plot device, mentioned briefly in the beginning of the play as off at school, has a single scene o Orlando – youngest son of Sir Rowland de Bois, Oliver’s brother, wins battle against Charles, cares for Adam in the forest, saves Oliver from lioness, loves Rosalind  Angry at Oliver for depriving him of what he is due  Goes to the woods b/c Adam warns him of people trying to burn the house down o Adam – elderly former servant of Sir Rowland de Bois, accompanies Orlando into exile & funds the journey with his life savings  Cannot continue in the forest with Orlando b/c he is famished & unable to go on o Phoebe – young & suffering shepherd, ignores Silvius, falls in love with Ganymede/Rosalind, tricked by Rosalind into marrying Silvius o Charles – professional wrestler in Duke Frederick’s court, asks Oliver to convince Orlando to not fight him  Has 2 single entrances/scenes in the play o Corin – shepherd, attempts to council Silvius about love o Touchstone – court clown, accompanies Rosalind & Celia, echoes with innuendos  Gives very sophisticated lecture on lies 7 times removed  Steals Audrey from William  Meets Jacques in the forest  Accompanies Rosalind & Celia out of his element into the forest, being comic for Duke Senior brings him back into his element  Makes fun of Corin’s sheep-handling logic & reasoning by showing how useless it would be at court o Audrey – simpleminded goatherd, agrees to marry Touchstone o William – young country boy, loves Audrey, does not defend his right to marry Audrey o Oliver Martext – marries characters, fudges things o Hymen – god of marriages, supposedly delivers Rosalind to Orlando  Appears to bless the wedding but does not speak  Parody of pastoral romance, middle Shakespeare comedy o Pastoral concept – can recover your senses & live in laid back way o Written during 2 literary fashions: pastoral & Satire  Pastoral – glorification of supposedly “pure” country over the “wicked” city or court  Satire – Elizabethan satire was a criticism of contemporary manners & morals  Background o Source – battle scene interrupts marriages o Plot take from a pastoral romance – Thomas Lodge’s Rosalynde – published in 1590  Pastoral romance – long prose tale of love & adventure in which shepherds woo shepherdess in witty & sophisticated language  Developed the love pairs with lengthy courtship & love songs  Shakespeare – love at first sight instinct  More battles & deaths in the source than in Shakespeare  Shakespeare added characters: William, Audrey, Jaques, & Touchstone  Shakespeare – sudden change in evil characters o Court Fool  Jacques is impressed by Touchstone & wants to become a court fool  Can criticize whoever without fear of retaliation  Very often the fool is one of the sanest people in the play o Love convention – Petrarchan Love (celebrated in his love sonnets)  The lady is nobler & purer than her love. Lover has to prove worthy of his love.  The lover wrote love poems to the lady to describe how much her love was making him suffer  Pairs of characters end up married; agenda – celebration of multiple matings  Neither Le Beau nor Touchstone are present when Celia & Rosalind scheme to take the fool with them into the forest  Characters sing: Touchstone, Lord Amiens, Hymen, Pages  “All the world’s a stage” – speech about 7 stages of man o Building up to honorific way to introduce Adam o Welcome Adam with honor & feed him o Entrance of Adam undercuts what Jacques says  “sons” = without/lacking, Adam is restored (no more lines after revival)  Rosalind – in control of the matchmaking, promises Orlando his love will appear o Ready to give up her disguise but wants to remain in control of the reveal o Premonition of conditions that will be met – “if” statements (reverberation of As You Like It concept)  Rosalind makes promises that will be kept if conditions are met o Gives the same line to her father & her lover o References magicians in the woods – example of Shakespeare’s quick solution to plot hole  Act 5 o Counterfeit scene  Oliver brings Orlando’s bloody handkerchief to Ganymede/Rosalind  Rosalind faints at the sight of the blood, says it is counterfeit  Aliena/Celia falls in love with Oliver at first sight  Oliver wants to stay in the woods to live & die a shepherd with Aliena  Orlando is remorseful that Orlando found love first  5.2 – bitter think to look at happiness through another man’s eyes o 5.3 - Silvius explains what love is; Orlando slips & says “you” to Ganymede/Rosalind o 5.4 - Duke Senior says Ganymede reminds him of Rosalind o Hymen’s speech – brings Rosalind to the wedding o Jacque de Bois’ speech – announces that Duke Frederick has decided to become a monk & return the crown to Duke Senior Shakespeare – Twelfth Night  Characters o Orsino/Duke – mates with Viola, nobleman in Illyria, originally in love with Olivia  Knows the father of Viola & Sebastian o Valentine – in Orsino’s court, 1 of the carriers of letter to Olivia o Viola – Sebastian’s twin, disguises as man named Cesario, washes up on shores of Illyria after shipwreck, becomes Orsino’s page, falls in love with Orsino  Tries to get Olivia to back off being interested in her as Cesario  1 to expect that the other twin is alive  Promises to change clothes but can’t b/c another has the garments  Soliloquy – figures out what Malvolio means after he “returns” a ring o Sebastian – Viola’s twin lost in the shipwreck, arrives in Illyria with friend Antonio, people in Illyria claim to know him & Olivia wants to marry him  Friendship with Antonio is a mystery  Bloodies Sir Andrew & Sir Toby – but they think by Cesario  Soliloquy – thinks he is in a dream but embraces the state of being idolized o Antonio – rescues Sebastian, loves Sebastian & cares for him on the journey to Illyria o Olivia – in love with Cesario but ends up with Sebastian, wealthy noble or Illyria, courted by Orsino & Sir Andrew, mourning her brother & father, claims she will not marry for 7 years  Sends Malvolio with a ring to Cesario  Sees Sebastian, thinks its Cesario – her miracle seems to come true b/c Sebastian is clueless; sends for a priest, confused about which twin she married when they are on stage together  Soliloquy – speaks 2 couplets at end of scene to confirm her infatuation o Malvolio – head servant in Olivia’s household, cynical, others turn the tables on him for being too strict, too controlling, prude, puritan-like  Shows up in yellow garments with crossed garters b/c of the planted letter  Soliloquy – in prose he presumes Olivia likes his new look & attitude o Fabian – in Olivia’s household, wants to see Malvolio plot, scolded for arranging a bear baiting in Olivia’s home  Announces the success of Maria pulling off the trick that made Toby propose to Maria & turns the letter over to be read o Sir Toby – in Olivia’s household, Olivia’s uncle, part of Malvolio plot, mates with Maria, Olivia disapproves of his drinking & joking, sings b/c music supports that he is in love o Maria – gentlewoman in Olivia’s household, far back interest in Malvolio being put in his place  Marries Sir Toby in return for how cleverly she tricked Malvolio o Sir Andrew Augecheek - in Olivia’s household, friend of Sir Toby, comes with money, like Roderigo in Othello, promised access to Olivia o Feste/Clown - in Olivia’s household, sings for entertainment, suggests you can pay him for performing & will do more if you pay more, pure fool, given chance to sing, concluder of dialogue  Sir Topas a Cleric (disguise) – a priest that pretends to examine Malvolio & determines him to be insane  Soliloquy – sings to end the play o Priest – sent for by Olivia for her marriage o Captain – friend & savior to Viola; like Antonio is to Sebastian  C.L. Barber famously labeled this as Festive Comedy  Harold Bloom claims the play is dark & good b/c it doesn’t fit in any genre o Viola seems second only to Rosalind in his rating of female characters along his ranking of fully rounded humans rather than dramatic types  2ndtitle – What You Will – more accurate to the play than Twelfth Night o Twelfth Night as a festive holiday celebration  Feste/fool – points to festivity  12 days of Christmas were common performance dates for royalty  Nothing in the play references the title  Misrule & sorting out confusion is typical for holiday festivity  Festive includes taking on a role that violates one’s understood place in society  Characters in Shakespeare vs. Source o Main English source: Barnabe Riche’s novella of Apolonius & Silla, which has origins in Italian plots o Shakespeare – brother comes in for resolution, Apolonius & Silla are main characters o Not original to Shakespeare - Female disguised as male & mistaken, brother as resolution to disguise plot o Ancient Greek theory of four humours  Popularized & ironized by such playwrights as Ben Jonson  Aspects of the theory of humours may be tied to Shakespeare’s participation in the War of the Theatres or Poetomachia  Malvolio is akin to Jacques, but how he participates in the main  Feste is akin to Touchstone  2.5 - Entrapment of Malvolio – other characters in Olivia’s court play a trick on Malvolio o Characters in on the joke – Maria, Toby, Feste, Andrew, Fabian o Maria volunteers to write a letter in Olivia’s hand & dresses like Olivia o Malvolio falls for the letter left out for him to find – characters hiding to watch are Fabian, Sir Toby, & Sir Andrew  The letter tells him to dress funky  Malvolio is so engrossed in the letter, he has no idea others are on stage o Olivia is stupefied b/c she’s not in on the joke, thinks Malvolio is mad/sick o Malvolio misunderstands when Olivia tells him to go to bed – he thinks sex o Malvolio exposes the trick, Olivia feels sorry for him & punishes her servants  Last line – revenge, deserves to air grievances o Sir Toby hears Malvolio simulate a scolding or reprimanding of him for drinking  Always 1 character or more left out of comic resolution o Don Jon in Much Ado is sent to jail; Jacques in As You Like It choose to withdraw; Shylock in Merchant of Venice is forced to convert to Christianity  Dark humor – Malvolio’s torment, Sir Toby’s punishment  Olivia & Viola both lost brothers in a sense o Olivia keeps a household that preserved her mourning for her brother & father  ‘Woo for me’ – Olivia falls in love with Cesario as messenger for Orsino; Orsino has not made headway on his own & needed help  Act 1 o Shipwreck – 1 twin saved another, important but kind of corny  Subplot o What happens in Olivia’s household, servants ignore Malvolio


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