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Earth Science Exam

by: Vani Singh

Earth Science Exam ESCI 1101 - 002

Vani Singh
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

This is the study guide for the exam.
Earth Science - Geog
Terry Ray Shirley
Study Guide
EARTH, Science, Coastlines, oceans, Streams, Hydrology
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vani Singh on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ESCI 1101 - 002 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Terry Ray Shirley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Earth Science - Geog in Earth Science at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.

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Date Created: 04/16/16
Earth Science Exam Study Guide 1. Difference between tundra, icecap, and ice sheet climate. Tundra: below freezing majority of the year (ex. Canada) Ice Caps: form on mountain tops Ice sheets: always below freezing (Antarctica, Greenland, & North Pole) 2. How are a desert and steppe defined? Total amount of precipitation                                    Desert: < 10 in of rain                                    Steppe: 10 – 20 in of rain 3. Two primary pathways for surface water: infiltration (soil) and percolation 4. Infiltration: water soaks into the ground through the soil Percolation: once in the ground, the water continues to trickle underground  5. The 3 types of soil moisture and how are they different? Hygroscopic: not enough water, tiny veins (plants can’t use this water) Gravitational: saturated & plants can use                                                         Soil Moisture Capillary: in between & plants can use as well 6. Zone of Aeration: pore spaces in the ground that are filled with air Zone of Saturation: pore spaces within the ground filled by water 7. Permeable Layer: materials are able to travel through the layers (soil) Impermeable Layer: cannot get through the layer at all (bedrock) 8. An aquifer is a permeable underground water storage and an aquiclude is impermeable bedrock beneath the water table. 9. 10. Water Table: level below which the ground is saturated with H2O 11. An effluent stream is a source of the water from groundwater.  Influent Stream: losing or disappearing stream, loses water as it flows downstream 12. Instream Water Usage: not removing the water from the source, but still using it (swimming, water skiing, navigation)  Non­consumptive (withdrawal): use the water and then immediately put back (rare)             Ex. Power plants, factories Consumptive: use water & don’t return it  dominant type 13. Which sector uses the most water in the U.S.? Industry & Manufacturing; The world? Farming 14.  Hydrology: study of water; Fluvial Processes: river processes 15. Ultimate Base Level: sea level 16. Drainage Divide: a mountain; Watershed: where water ends up being collected 17. Internal Drainage: water in rivers evaporates or sinks into the ground; dry areas 18. Base Flow: average natural flow Bankfull: maximum amount of water flow, anymore and flooding occurs 19. Perennial Streams: all year long flow Ephemeral Streams: seasonal flow 20.  Sources of stream water: groundwater, precipitation  water & ice, springs 21. Dissolved Load: salt in water, chemicals & minerals Suspended Load (gives water its color): dirt & debris, leaves, tree branches, cars Bed load: rocks, riverbed (downstream) 22. Nickpoint: when the topography of a land drops off, rocks (waterfall) – abrupt change Friction between the wind & the ocean surface generates undulations of water  waves Stormy area at Sea is called a ‘generating region’ Wave Interference: waves interacting with each other and waves that align create much larger waves and produce killer waves because the clashing of the energy from both or multiple waves Wave Refraction: the bending of waves and over time with erosion, the waves try to straighten the coastline out (Coastal Straightening)  Types of Coastline:  Erosional: typically rugged, high relief (vertical elevation difference – between altitude of places), tectonically active  Depositional (east coast): gentle relief, sediments from different areas are deposited & available ­ Barrier Spits: deposits build up in areas that jut out into the ocean (don’t last very long)  ­ Bay Barrier: body of water trapped by sand deposits (lagoon) ­ Tombolo: sand bridge, enough sand accumulates between island and land Jetty: a breakwater constructed to protect or defend a harbor, stretch of coast, or riverbank            (Cred to Google for definition) ­ Groins: smaller versions of Jetty Beach: sediment (depositional material) in motion and an average picture of how big a beach is about 16 feet over tide Barrier Islands: long, narrow, depositional features; generally made of sand Coral Reefs (biological processes): simple marine animals with small bodies – related to many invertebrates ­ Largest Coral Reef is over a 1000 miles in length and 90 miles in width near Australia ­ Coral reefs need warm waters which are located near the equator and shallow water, so they form near land (sunlight)


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