Earth Science Exam
Earth Science Exam ESCI 1101 - 002
Popular in Earth Science - Geog
Popular in Earth Science
This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vani Singh on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ESCI 1101 - 002 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Terry Ray Shirley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Earth Science - Geog in Earth Science at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 04/16/16
Earth Science Exam Study Guide 1. Difference between tundra, icecap, and ice sheet climate. Tundra: below freezing majority of the year (ex. Canada) Ice Caps: form on mountain tops Ice sheets: always below freezing (Antarctica, Greenland, & North Pole) 2. How are a desert and steppe defined? Total amount of precipitation Desert: < 10 in of rain Steppe: 10 – 20 in of rain 3. Two primary pathways for surface water: infiltration (soil) and percolation 4. Infiltration: water soaks into the ground through the soil Percolation: once in the ground, the water continues to trickle underground 5. The 3 types of soil moisture and how are they different? Hygroscopic: not enough water, tiny veins (plants can’t use this water) Gravitational: saturated & plants can use Soil Moisture Capillary: in between & plants can use as well 6. Zone of Aeration: pore spaces in the ground that are filled with air Zone of Saturation: pore spaces within the ground filled by water 7. Permeable Layer: materials are able to travel through the layers (soil) Impermeable Layer: cannot get through the layer at all (bedrock) 8. An aquifer is a permeable underground water storage and an aquiclude is impermeable bedrock beneath the water table. 9. 10. Water Table: level below which the ground is saturated with H2O 11. An effluent stream is a source of the water from groundwater. Influent Stream: losing or disappearing stream, loses water as it flows downstream 12. Instream Water Usage: not removing the water from the source, but still using it (swimming, water skiing, navigation) Nonconsumptive (withdrawal): use the water and then immediately put back (rare) Ex. Power plants, factories Consumptive: use water & don’t return it dominant type 13. Which sector uses the most water in the U.S.? Industry & Manufacturing; The world? Farming 14. Hydrology: study of water; Fluvial Processes: river processes 15. Ultimate Base Level: sea level 16. Drainage Divide: a mountain; Watershed: where water ends up being collected 17. Internal Drainage: water in rivers evaporates or sinks into the ground; dry areas 18. Base Flow: average natural flow Bankfull: maximum amount of water flow, anymore and flooding occurs 19. Perennial Streams: all year long flow Ephemeral Streams: seasonal flow 20. Sources of stream water: groundwater, precipitation water & ice, springs 21. Dissolved Load: salt in water, chemicals & minerals Suspended Load (gives water its color): dirt & debris, leaves, tree branches, cars Bed load: rocks, riverbed (downstream) 22. Nickpoint: when the topography of a land drops off, rocks (waterfall) – abrupt change Friction between the wind & the ocean surface generates undulations of water waves Stormy area at Sea is called a ‘generating region’ Wave Interference: waves interacting with each other and waves that align create much larger waves and produce killer waves because the clashing of the energy from both or multiple waves Wave Refraction: the bending of waves and over time with erosion, the waves try to straighten the coastline out (Coastal Straightening) Types of Coastline: Erosional: typically rugged, high relief (vertical elevation difference – between altitude of places), tectonically active Depositional (east coast): gentle relief, sediments from different areas are deposited & available Barrier Spits: deposits build up in areas that jut out into the ocean (don’t last very long) Bay Barrier: body of water trapped by sand deposits (lagoon) Tombolo: sand bridge, enough sand accumulates between island and land Jetty: a breakwater constructed to protect or defend a harbor, stretch of coast, or riverbank (Cred to Google for definition) Groins: smaller versions of Jetty Beach: sediment (depositional material) in motion and an average picture of how big a beach is about 16 feet over tide Barrier Islands: long, narrow, depositional features; generally made of sand Coral Reefs (biological processes): simple marine animals with small bodies – related to many invertebrates Largest Coral Reef is over a 1000 miles in length and 90 miles in width near Australia Coral reefs need warm waters which are located near the equator and shallow water, so they form near land (sunlight)
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