Management 3080 Final Exam Study Guide
Management 3080 Final Exam Study Guide MGMT3080
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Isabelle Hue on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGMT3080 at University of Cincinnati taught by Heather Vough in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.
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Date Created: 04/16/16
FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE (be sure to go over class slides as well) CHAPTER 4 JOB SATISFACTION JOB SATISFACTION job satisfaction- A pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or j ob experiences. • It represents how a person feels and thinks about his or her job • moderate positive relationship with job performance • strong positive relationship with organizational commitment • strong positive relationship with life satisfaction values-Things that people consciously or sub/ unconsciously want to seek or attain • according to value percept theory, job satisfaction depends on whether you perceive that your job supplies those things that you value VALUE FULFILLMENT value-percept theory- A theory that argues that job satisfaction depends on whether the employe e perceives that his or her job supplies those things that he or she values, FACETS OF CONSIDERATION FOR EVALUATING JOB SATISFACTION (VALUE TYPES) 1. pay satisfaction- Employees' feelings about the compensation for their jobs, 2. promotion satisfaction- Employees' feelings about how the company handles promotions, 3. supervision satisfaction-Employees' feelings about their boss, including his or her competency, communication, and personality 4. coworker satisfaction-Employees' feelings about their coworkers, including their abilities and personalities, 5. satisfaction with the work itself- employees' feelings about their actual work tasks, **changes in emotion through out the day can change job satisfaction at any point in time VIA moods 1. meaningfulness of work- A psychological state reﬂecting one's feelings about work tasks, goals, and purposes, and the degree to which they contribute to society and fulﬁll one's id eals and passions, 2. responsibility for outcomes- A psychological state indicating the degree to which employees feel they are key drivers of the quality of work output, 3. knowledge of results- A psychological state indicating the extent to which employees are a ware of how well or how poorly they are doing,< JOB CHARACTERISTICS THEORY job characteristics theory- A theory that argues that ﬁve core characteristics (variety, identity, signiﬁc ance, autonomy, and feedback) combine to result in high levels of satisfact ion with the work itself. Job Characteristics—5 1. variety- The degree to which a job requires diﬀerent activities and skills, 2. identity-The degree to which a job oﬀers completion of a whole, identiﬁable piece of work, 3. signiﬁcance- The degree to which a job really matters and impacts society as a w hole 4. autonomy - The degree to which a job allows individual freedom and discretion r egarding how the work is to be done 5. feedback-In job characteristics theory, it refers to the degree to which the job itself provides information abo ut how well the job holder is doing. In goal setting theory, it refers to progress updates on work goals 2 other variables (total 7) 1. knowledge and skill- The degree to which employees have the aptitude and competence needed to succeed on their job, 2. growth need strength- The degree to which employees desire to develop themselves further **increase core job characteristics level through • job enrichment - When job duties and responsibilities are expanded to provide increas ed levels of core job characteristics, • job crafting - Proactively shaping and molding the characteristics contained within one's job MOODS/EMOTIONS moods-States of feeling that are mild in intensity, last for an extended period of time, and are not directed at anything. pleasantness- The degree to which an employee is in a good versus bad mood, activation-the degree to which moods are aroused and active, as opposed to unaroused and inactive ﬂow-A state in which employees feel a total immersion in the task at hand, sometimes losing track of how much time has passed, aﬀective events theory- A theory that describes how workplace events can generate emotional rea ctions that impact work behaviors emotions-Intense feelings, often lasting for a short duration, that are clearly directed at someone or some circumstance. positive emotions-Employees' feelings of joy, pride, relief, hope, love, and compassion negative emotions-Employees' feelings of fear, guilt, shame, sadness, envy, and disgust emotional labor- When employees manage their emotions to complete their job duties succ essfully, emotional contagion- The idea that emotions can be transferred from one person to another life satisfaction- The degree to which employees feel a sense of happiness with their lives i n general. CHAPTER 6 MOTIVATION motivation-A set of energetic forces that determine the direction, intensity, and persistence of an employee's work eﬀort. • originates within ◦ sense of purpose or conﬁdence • outside an employee ◦ goals and incentives an employee is given • initiates work related eﬀort • determines what employees will do at a given moment —the direction in which their eﬀort is channeled ◦ its friday 3pm are you sending emails or are you still working on your task ◦ once direction is decided motivation continues and determines how hard an employee works—the intensity of eﬀort-and for how long-the persistence of eﬀort from latin word for movement movere engagement- A term commonly used in the contemporary workplace to summarize moti vation levels—synonomous with high levels of intensity and persistence • outwardly engaged put a lot of eﬀort into work and getting the job done • inwardly engaged focus hard and sometimes get lost in details • studies show that only 30% of workers are engaged, it is a major focus in companies today to increase engagement levels by improving employee motivation expectancy theory- A theory that describes the cognitive process employees go through to ma ke choices among diﬀerent voluntary responses. —what makes you decide to partake in citizenship behaviors, what makes you waste time — employee behavior is directed toward pleasure, or rather toward certain outcomes and away from others • eﬀort is directed toward behaviors when eﬀort is believed to result in performance (expectancy), performance is believed to result in outcomes (instrumentality) and those outcomes are anticipated to be valuable (valence). OUR CHOICES depend on 3 speciﬁc beliefs that are based n our past learning and experience— 1. expectancy 2. instrumentality, 3. valence 1. expectency- The belief that exerting a high level of eﬀort will result in successful perfor mance on some task—expectancy is a subjective probability ranging from 0 (no chance) to 1 ( a mortal lock) a speciﬁc amount of eﬀort will result in a speciﬁc level of performance E—>P ◦ ex. you may not choose to write poetry b/c no matter how hard your eﬀort, you will believe/know you will not produce a good poem ◦ basically we gauge what tasks to perform based on our assessment of how good of a product our eﬀort will produce Factors that shape our expectancy • self eﬃcacy - The belief that a person has the capabilities needed to perform the b ehaviors required on some task, ◦ a kind of self conﬁdence or task speciﬁc version of self esteem ◦ feeling more eﬃcacious (conﬁdent) leads to higher levels of expectancy —and therefore more likely to choose to exert a good deal of eﬀort ◦ Factors of inﬂuence on self eﬃcacy ▪ past accomplishments- The level of success or failure with similar job tasks in the past, ▪ vicarious experiences - Observations of and discussions with others who have p erformed some work task, ▪ verbal persuasion- Pep talks that lead employees to believe that they can “g et the job done,” ▪ emotional cues- Positive or negative feelings that can help or hinder task accomplishment, 2. instrumentality- The belief that successful performance will result in the attainment of som e outcomes performance to outcome P—>O, PO • frozen pay example in book pg 171-172 3. valence- The anticipated value of the outcomes associated with successful perform ance, • can be + (id rather have outcome X to not having it) ◦ ex. positively valenced outcomes = salary increases, bonuses, other rewards • can be — (id rather not have outcome X to having it) ◦ disciplinary actions, demotions, and terminations=neg valenced outcomes • can be 0 (I’m bored are we still talking about outcome X) needs- Groupings or clusters of outcomes viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences, • factor that helps determine why some outcomes are more positive than others • outcomes are more attractive when they satisfy needs extrinsic motivation- Desire to put forth work eﬀort due to some contingency that depends on t ask performance, • praise intrinsic motivation- Desire to put forth work eﬀort due to the sense that task performance serv es as its own reward, • performance serves as its own reward • enjoyment • interestingness • personal expression total motivation level=extrinsic + intrinsic meaning of money- The idea that money can have symbolic value (e.g, achievement, respect, f reedom) in addition to economic value,—people diﬀer in the degree to which they view the meaning of money • men more so than women view money as repping achievement freedom and respect • old more so than young" • higher salary=higher value placed on symbolic meaning of money Motivational Force • the direction of eﬀort is determined by three beliefs • expectancy (E—>P); instrumentality (P—>O); valence (V) • any one of the 3 = to 0 results in 0 motivational force GOAL SETTING THEORY goal setting theory- A theory that views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of eﬀort. • goals become strong drivers of motivation and performance when they are diﬃcult & speciﬁc ◦ d&s goals eﬀect performance by increasing self set goals and task strategies ◦ these eﬀects occur more often when ▪ employees receive feed back ▪ tasks are not too complex ▪ goal commitment is high speciﬁc and diﬃcult goals- oals that stretch an employee to perform at his or her maximum level while still staying within the boundaries of his or her ability. vague goals are bad • Q; why do d&s goals have such positive eﬀects? • A; d&s goals shape people’s self set goals, trigger the creation of task strategy ◦ self set goals- The internalized goals that people use to monitor their own pro gress, ◦ task strategies-Learning plans and problem- solving approaches used to achieve successful performance ◦ basically goals can motivate employees to work harder and smarter MODERATORS-3 variables that specify when assigned goals will have stronger or weaker eﬀects on task performance—these moderators eﬀect the strength of relationships b/t variables 1. feedback-In job characteristics theory, it refers to the degree to which the job itself provides information abo ut how well the job holder is doing. In goal setting theory, it refers to progress updates on work goals. 2. task complexity- The degree to which the information and actions needed to complet e a task are complicated, 3. goal commitment - The degree to which a person accepts a goal and is determined to re ach it, ◦ how to foster goal commitment see table 6-4 S.M.AR.T. goals-Acronym that stands for • Speciﬁc • Measurable • Achievable • Results-Based • Time-Sensitive goals EQUITY THEORY equity theory-a theory that suggests that employees create a mental ledger of the outcom es they receive for their job inputs, relative to some comparison other. ——acknowledges that motivation isn’t just determined by your own beliefs and circumstances but also by what happens to other people —ex in book re similar project but coworker gets play oﬀ tickets—thus you get pissed and check your email —employees create a mental ledger of of the outcomes or rewards they get from their job duties —employees create a mental ledger of inputs (contributions and investments) they put into their job duties —you compare your ledger/ratio of outcomes and inputs to the ratio of some comparison other • rewards are equitable when a person ratio of outcomes to inputs matches those of some relevant comparison other. • sense of inequity triggers equity distress • under-reward inequity results in lower levels of motivation or high counterproductive behavior • over-reward inequity results in cognitive distortion in which inputs are reevaluated in a more positive light comparison other - Another person who provides a frame of reference for judging equity equity distress- An internal tension that results from being overrewarded or underrewarded relative to some comparison other,— • any imbalance in ratio triggers this cognitive distortion- A reevaluation of the inputs an employee brings to a job, often occurring in response to equity distress internal comparisons- Comparing oneself to someone in the same company, external comparisons- Comparing oneself to someone in a diﬀerent company PHSYCOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT psychological empowerment- An energy rooted in the belief that tasks are contributing to some larger pu rpose. reps a form or intrinsic motivation • is fostered when ◦ work goals appeal to employees passions(meaningfulness), ◦ employees have a sense of choice regarding work tasks (self determination) ◦ employees feel capable of performing successfully (competence) ◦ employees feel they are making progress toward fulﬁlling their purpose (impact) meaningfulness- A psychological state reﬂecting one's feelings about work tasks, goals, and purposes, and the degree to which they contribute to society and fulﬁll one's ideals a nd passions, self determination- A sense of choice in the initiation and continuation of work tasks competence-The capability to perform work tasks successfully, impact-The sense that a person's actions “make a diﬀerence”— that progress is being made toward fulﬁlling some important purpose, ON JOB PERFORMANCE & COMMITMENT • motivation has a strong positive relationship with job performance • moderate positive relationship with organizational commitment • self eﬃcacy/competence (of all the energetic forces subsumed by motivation) has the strongest relationship with performance COMPETENCE PRACTICES **used to increase motivation, practices include 1. Individual Focused Elements ◦ piece-rate ◦ merit pay ◦ lump sum bonuses ◦ recognition awards 2. Unit Focused Elements ◦ gain sharing 3. Organization Focused Elements ◦ proﬁt sharing yahoo —>stacked ranking system—>application section of chapter CHAPTER 7 TRUST JUSTICE & ETHICS procedural justice only matters in the context of low distributive justice reputation- The prominence of an organization's brand in the minds of the public and t he perceived quality of its goods and services, trust- The willingness to be vulnerable to an authority based on positive expectat ions about the authority's actions and intentions justice-The perceived fairness of an authority's decision making. ethics- The degree to which the behaviors of an authority are in accordance with generally accepted moral norms. TRUST 1. disposition-based trust- Trust that is rooted in one's own personality, as opposed to a careful assessment of the trustee's trustworthiness, 2. cognition-based trust- Trust that is rooted in a rational assessment of the authority's trustw orthiness. 3. aﬀect-based trust- Trust that depends on feelings toward the authority that go beyond r ational assessment. trust propensity -A general expectation that the words, promises, and statements of individuals can be relied upon, TRUSTWORTHINESS, & ITS 3 DIMENSION trustworthiness-Characteristics or attributes of a person that inspire trust, including competence, character, and benevolence, 1. ability- Relatively stable capabilities of people for performing a particular ran ge of related activities. 2. benevolence- The belief that an authority wants to do good for an employee, apart from any selﬁsh or proﬁt-centered motives, 3. integrity- The perception that an authority adheres to a set of acceptable value s and principles, FAIRNESS OF AUTHORITY’S DECISION MAKING 4 DIMENSIONS (judged along) 1. distributive justice-The perceived fairness of decision- making outcomes, 2. procedural justice-The perceived fairness of decision- making processes. 3. interpersonal justice- The perceived fairness of the interpersonal treatment received by em ployees from authorities, ◦ abusive supervision- The sustained display of hostile verbal and nonverbal behavior s on the part of supervisors, excluding physical contact, 4. informational justice- The perceived fairness of the communications provided to employee s from authorities ◦ whistle-blowing- When employees expose illegal actions by their employer,\ ETHICS four-component model- A model that argues that ethical behaviors result from the multistage sequ ence of moral awareness, moral judgment, moral intent, and ethical behavior 1. moral awareness- when an authority recognizes that a moral issue exists in a situation. 1. moral intensity - The degree to which an issue has ethical urgency, 1. slides 2. moral attentiveness- The degree to which people chronically perceive and consider i ssues of morality during their experiences, 2. moral judgement- When an authority can accurately identify the “right” course of action , 1. cognitive and moral development- As people age and mature, they move through several states of moral development, each more mature and sophisticated than the prior one, slides to see stages 2. moral principles- Prescriptive guides for making moral judgments, 3. moral intent- An authority's degree of commitment to the moral course of action 4. ethical behavior moral identity-- The degree to which a person views himself or herself as a moral person ability to focus- The degree to which employees can devote their attention to work, economic exchange- Work relationships that resemble a contractual agreement by which emplo yees fulﬁll job duties in exchange for ﬁnancial compensation, social exchange- Work relationships that are characterized by mutual investment, with employees willing to engage in “extra mile” sorts of behaviors becaus e they trust that their eﬀorts will eventually be rewarded, corporate social responsibility- A perspective that acknowledges that the responsibility of a business enco mpasses the economic, legal, ethical, and citizenship expectations of society, ETHICS- SLIDES —ethical decision Moral principals—slides these go into stages of four component model 4 guidelines for making ethical decision—slides 1. front page news 2. parent/child 3. good nights sleep 4. golden rule CHAPTER 8 LEARNING & DECISION MAKING learning- A relatively permanent change in an employee's knowledge or skill that res ults from experience • allows employees to make better decisions by making those decisions more quickly and by being able to generate a better set of alternative • moderate positive relationship with job performance • weak positive relationship with organizational commitment • related to expertise • 2 theories, reinforcement theory and social learning theory • true learning occurs when changes in behavior are relatively permanent decision making- The process of generating and choosing from a set of alternatives to solve a problem expertise-The knowledge and skills that distinguish experts from novices • employees gain both explicit and tacit knowledge as they build expertise • 10,000 hours to become an expert • explicit knowledge- Knowledge that is easily communicated and available to everyone, • tacit knowledge-- Knowledge that employees can only learn through experience, METHODS OF LEARNING EMPLOYEES LEARN KNEW KNOWLEDGE THROUGH REINFORCEMENT(reinforcement theory) & OBSERVATION OF OTHERS(social learning theory) **learning depends on whether employees are learning-oriented or performance-oriented Thorndikes Law of Eﬀect-behavior with favorable consequences tends to be repeated; behavior with unfavorable consequences tends to disappear • antecedent-behaviors have antecedents (conditions that precede behaviors/manager sets speciﬁc goals) • behavior-action performed by employee/employee meets assigned goal • consequence-result that occurs after behavior/employee receives a bonus • B.F. Skinner—rat basketball REINFORCEMENT THEORY contingencies of reinforcement- Four speciﬁc consequences used by organizations to modify employee be havior, 1. positive reinforcement- When a positive outcome follows a desired behavior, ◦ goal-increase desired behavior ◦ consequence added 2. negative reinforcement- An unwanted outcome is removed following a desired behavior ◦ goal-increase desired behavior ◦ take away negative thing to encourage desired behavior ◦ take you out of noisy cubicle ◦ remove consequence 3. punishment- When an unwanted outcome follows an unwanted behavior, ◦ goal-decrease undesired behavior ◦ dont confuse with negative reinforcement ◦ consequence added 4. extinction/omission- The removal of a positive outcome following an unwanted behavior, ◦ goal-decrease undesired behavior ◦ the book is wrong its not extinction ◦ consequence removed ◦ weird last example in slides of docked pay that seems like punishment positive reinforcement and extinction are the best ones, they get result without creating animosity TIMING OF REINFORCEMENT schedules of reinforcement- The timing of when contingencies are applied or removed—5 1. continuous reinforcement- A speciﬁc consequence follows each and every occurrence of a cert ain behavior 2. ﬁxed interval schedule- Reinforcement occurs at ﬁxed time periods,< 3. variable interval schedule- Reinforcement occurs at random periods of time 4. ﬁxed ration schedule- Reinforcement occurs following a ﬁxed number of desired behaviors, 5. variable ratio schedule- Behaviors are reinforced after a varying number of them have been e xhibited matrix from slides ^^^ interval-based on time ratio-based on events ﬁxed-every x period variable-random variable and ratio are more eﬀective—you don’t know when you’re going to be monitored so you’re more often on your A game SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY-LEARNING THROUGH OBSERVATION —expands on reinforcement theory social learning theory- Theory that argues that people in organizations learn by observing others, • behavioral modeling- When employees observe the actions of others, learn from what they observe, and then repeat the observed behavior • attention->retention->production->reinforcement GOAL ORIENTATION 1. learning orientation- A predisposition or attitude according to which building competence is deemed more important by an employee than demonstrating com petence, 2. performance-prove orientation- A predisposition or attitude by which employees focus on demonstra ting their competence so that others think favorably of them, 3. performance-avoid orientation- A predisposition or attitude by which employees focus on demonstra ting their competence so that others will not think poorly of them, ◦ higher levels of anxiety and less learning occurs METHODS OF DECISION MAKING 1. programmed decision- Decisions that are somewhat automatic because the decision maker' s knowledge allows him or her to recognize the situation and the cou rse of action to be taken, ◦ many task related decisions made by experts are programmed decisions ◦ intuition-An emotional judgment based on quick, unconscious, gut feelings, ▪ crisis situation--A change—sudden or evolving— that results in an urgent problem that must be addressed immediately, 2. nonprogrammed decision- Decisions made by employees when a problem is new, complex, or not recognized ◦ ideally such decisions are made by following the rational decision making model ◦ rational-decision making model-A step-by- step approach to making decisions that is designed to maximiz e outcomes by examining all available alternatives, PERCEPTIONS Perception-process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions to give meaning to their environment • inﬂuenced by ◦ senses ◦ cognitive processes and perceptual biases Attribution theory-is about how we explain our own and other’s actions and/ or outcomes. vough loves this theory BOOK IS WRONG Involves assessing blame Why did they do it? Why did that happen to me? • Internal attribution: due to some personality characteristic or attribute • External attribution: due to something that happened in the situation consensus— • high=external • low=internal Distinctiveness • high=external • low=internal Consistency its a WASH • high=nothing, can’t tell • low=nothing can’t tell Fundamental attribution error: (YOU) tendency when attributing behaviors to OTHERS, we tend to overestimate the impact of internal factors. • He aced the test because he is smart. • She got hit by that car because she wasn’t paying attention. Self-serving bias:(ME) tendency when attributing OUR OWN behaviors, to blame failures on external sources and successes on internal sources. • I aced the test because I am smart. • I got hit by the car because the driver wasn’t paying attention. Halo effect:transfer of judgment about an easily observed characteristic of a person (e.g. how they look), to beliefs about the person’s character. • you’re attractive, you’re probably cool, intelligent, better at everything Stereotyping:making assumptions about someone due their membership in a particular group • Typically relate to level of competence and warmth • Often based on ethnic or racial categories, but can also involve age, generation,gender, etc. pygmalion=conﬁrmation bias=self fullﬁlling prophecy DECISION MAKING PROBLEMS **employees are less able to translate their learning into accurate decisions when they struggle with.. • limited information • faulty perceptions • faulty attributions • escalation of commitment 1. Limited Information- • bounded rationality- The notion that people do not have the ability or resources to proces s all available information and alternatives when making a decision, • satisﬁcing- When a decision maker chooses the ﬁrst acceptable alternative cons idered, ◦ bounded rationality ◦ needle example—>rational model says ﬁnd the exact best needle, satisﬁcing suggests search till you ﬁnd one that works, ﬁnding the exact needle in a pile of 1000’s is a waste of time and resources 2. Faulty Perceptions- 1. selective perception- The tendency for people to see their environment only as it aﬀects th em and as it is consistent with their expectations 2. projection bias- The faulty perception by decision makers that others think, feel and act the same way as they do 3. social identity theory- A theory that people identify themselves based on the various group s to which they belong and judge others based on the groups they a ssociate with, 4. stereotype- Assumptions made about others based on their social group membe rship, 5. heuristics- Simple and eﬃcient rules of thumb that allow one to make decisions more easily, 6. availability bias- The tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is easier to recall, ◦ you think you’re gonna die of a plane rather than a car or by a murderer rather than cancer ◦ someone who makes sure the boss knows about his or her wins—>so during performance evaluation boss has no trouble recalling this guy 7. framing bias- ◦ cancer treatment example ◦ A 13 C, 12 13 14 8. representitiveness-tendency to asses the likelihood of an event by comparing it to a similar event and assuming it will be similar ◦ librarian example slides ◦ other examples slides 9. contrast eﬀect-changes in perception due to successive or simultaneous exposure to a stimulus of greater or lessor value 1. shapes, shadows 2. one professor sucks, but does he suck or are your other professors are super awesome 10. recency eﬀect-tendency to weigh recent events more heavily than earlier events 1. interviewer may remember last candidate more than earlier 2. there is also PRIMACY eﬀect (they remember the ﬁrst)—things in middle get lost BOTTOM LINE people are imperfect decision makers 3. Faulty Attributions-- • fundamental attribution error- The tendency for people to judge others' behaviors as being due to i nternal factors such as ability, motivation, or attitudes • self-serving bias- When one attributes one's own failures to external factors and succe ss to internal factors • consensus- Used by decision makers to attribute cause; whether other individual s behave the same way under similar circumstances, • distinctiveness- Used by decision makers to attribute cause; whether the person bein g judged acts in a similar fashion under diﬀerent circumstances • consistency- Used by decision makers to attribute cause; whether this individual h as behaved this way before under similar circumstances 4. Escalation of Commitment • escalation of commitment-A common decision- making error in which the decision maker continues to follow a failing course of action, APPLICATION: TRAINING **through various forms of training, companies can give employees more knowledge and a wider array of experiences that they can use to make decisions training- A systematic eﬀort by organizations to facilitate the learning of job- related knowledge and behavior • knowledge transfer- The exchange of knowledge between employees, • behavior modeling training- A formalized method of training in which employees observe and lear n from employees with signiﬁcant amounts of tacit knowledge, • communities of practice- Groups of employees who learn from one another through collaborat ion over an extended period of time • transfer or training- Occurs when employees retain and demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and behaviors required for their job after training ends • climate for transfer- An organizational environment that supports the use of new skills
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