Bio Exams 1 and 2 Study Guides
Bio Exams 1 and 2 Study Guides BIOL 1362
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Simrat Kaur on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1362 at University of Houston taught by CHEEK in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Biology 2 in Biology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 04/16/16
Biodiversity – Chapters 24 - 27 List characteristics shared by Archaea & Bacteria, but not Eukarya o No nuclear envelope o No membrane bound organelles o One (1) circular chromosome List characteristics shared by Archaea & Eukarya, but not Bacteria o No peptidoglycan cell wall o More than 1 (>1) RNA polymerase o Initiator amino acid: methionine o No ribosome assembly sensitive to antibiotics List characteristics unique to each domain o Archaea Extremophiles: can live in harsh environments (salty, hot, freezing) Methanogens: producers, use CO to ox2dize H to CH 2 4 hydrothermal vents, cow and termite guts Growth at temperatures greater than 100°C Bacteria Peptidoglycan cell wall One (1) RNA polymerase No introns or histones Eukaryotes Nuclear envelope No circular Membrane bound chromosomes organelles Many introns One histone IMPO RTAN Bact A Euk T nuclear envelope 0 0 1 membran ebound 0 0 1 organelle s circular chromos 1 1 0 ome peptidogl ycan cell 1 0 0 wall RNA polymera 1 > >1 se initiator aa for M Met Ribosome assembly sense to 1 0 0 antibiotics growth at > 100°C 0 1 0 membran e lipids unb s unb introns rare s ma histones 0 0 1 Name the 5 kingdoms within Domain Bacteria and be able to draw a phylogenetic tree showing relationships among the 5 kingdoms o Proteobacteria Salmonella - Vibrio - Helicobacteria pylori - Rhizobium Chlamydia Spiro- parasitic Barrelia burgdorferi Treponema pallidum Cyano=parasitic lichen Gram-Positive - Streptomyces - Bacillus antrhacis - Clostridium botulinum Know the kingdom for each species of bacteria listed in lecture Know characteristic that differentiates gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and which kingdoms belong to which category o Gram-positive No additional membrane covering cell wall thick layer of peptidoglycan dark stained Pathogenic vs. Nonpathogenic Gram-negative Proteobacteria Cell wall, thin layer of peptidoglycan, with additional membrane Autotrophs (chemo and photo) vs. Heterotrophs can be pathogenic vs. nonpathogenic Pathogenic vs nonpathogenic Name the 4 supergroups within Domain Eukarya and be able to draw a phylogenetic tree showing relationships among the supergroups Animalia Plant Fungi Charophyte algae Know the supergroup to which each single-celled eukaryote listed in lecture belongs Explain what the branching pattern on a phylogenetic tree indicates about evolutionary relationships o The branch point represents a pattern of divergence o unknown shared traits Compare phylogenetic trees to see if they represent the same or different relationships between groups Use a phylogenetic tree to identify which groups descend from a more recent or more ancient common ancestor Define the ancestral characteristics that unite the Archaeplastida o Shared with green algae: chlorophyll a and b Define the shared derived traits that unite the plant kingdom o Alternation of generations-fertilization o Sporangia-multicellular organs that produce desiccation resistant spores o Gametangia-embryo o Apical meristem- cell division at the tip of the root Draw the cycle of alternation of generations – name each generation, indicate ploidy (1n or 2n) and type of cell division that produces the single cells that develop into the next generation Name the 7 phyla within Kingdom Plantae and be able to match the name of plants listed in lecture to the correct phylum o Liverworts o Hornworts o Mosses o Lycophytes o Monilophytes o Gymnosperms o Angiosperms o Draw a phylogenetic tree showing relationships among the 7 plant phyla o o o o o Draw a phylogenetic tree showing relationships among these animal phyla: Porifera, Cnidaria, Chordata, Mollusca, Annelida, Nematoda, Arthropoda o List and map shared derived characteristics of Eumetazoa, Bilateria, Deuterostomia, and the Protostomes onto a phylogenetic tree o Be able to indicate on the phylogenetic tree which groups are part of the Bilateria, Deuterostomia, Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o List ancestral characteristics common to all animals and choanoflagellates, distinguish animals from choanoflagellates by shared derived characteristic of animals o Genes encoding rRNA o Chaperone proteins o Tubulin o List the 4 protostome phyla discussed in lecture o Ecdysozoa o Cnidaria o Lophotrochozoa o Deuterostomes o List shared derived characteristics of Lophotrochozoa and list 2 phyla that belong to this group o Spiral cleavage pattern of embryonic cells o Hox genes o Annelida and Mollusca List shared derived characteristics of Ecdysozoa and 2 phyla that belong to this group o Shedding exoskeleton to grow larger o Invertebrates o Arthropoda and Nematoda o List the 4 classes of arthropods and be able to match the name of arthropods listed in class (and in the Life video) to the correct class o Chelicerata o Crustacea o Myriapoda o Insecta o o Darwin and Natural Selection: Chapter 19 Describe Lyell’s ideas about geologic processes and inferences about Earth’s age o Lyell believed that geologic processes operate today at the same rate as in the past. o Compare & contrast Lamarck’s ideas vs Darwin’s idea regarding mechanisms of change in living organisms o Lamarck Species can change into new species Use and disuse Inheritance of acquired characteristics Darwin Adaptation Species are changing due to natural selection Survival of the fittest Descent with modification: all species descend from a common ancestor Artificial Selection o Define descent with modification o All living spp descended from one ancestor o List and recognize examples of descent with modification in living organisms, both within and between species, and fossil organisms o Define 2 conditions necessary for natural selection and give examples that satisfy each condition o Variation in inherited traits o More offspring than environment can support o Evaluate conditions under which natural selection could occur Reproduction Heredity variation in fitness or organisms Variation in individual characters among members of the population. Understand that natural selection acts on individuals, but causes changes in populations o Compare and contrast natural selection and artificial selection: conditions necessary, selection pressure, result o Both: variation in heritable trait o Artificial selection o - trait desired by humans o - desired trait increases o Natural selection o - selection pressure o - trait desired by environment o - favorable trait increases o o Chapters 11: Heredity Define Mendel’s Law of segregation o Principles that governs heredity o Define Mendel’s Law of independent assortment o When two or more characteristics are inherited, individual hereditary factors assort independently during gamete production, giving different traits an equal opportunity of occurring together. o Monohybrid cross – use Punnett square to detail possible genotype of gametes and progeny and indicate progeny phenotypes o Two individuals- two or multiple alleles for a single locus. o Dihybrid cross – use Punnett square to show possible genotypes of gametes and progeny and indicate progeny phenotype o Cross between two different lines (varieties, strains) that differ in two observed traits. Identify dominant or recessive modes of inheritance from the notation (example: A is the dominant allele, a is the recessive allele) o Analyze a pedigree to determine whether a trait is dominant or recessive o http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~genetics/units/instructions/instr uctions-PBA.pdf Dominance- whether disease alleles are dominant or recessive; (2) Linkage- whether disease alleles are X-linked or autosomal Autosomal chromosomes - The 22 chromosome pairs other than the XX (female) or XY (male) sex chromosomes. Allele - A version of a gene. Humans have 2 alleles of all their autosomal genes; females have 2 alleles of X- linked genes; males have one allele of X-linked genes (and one allele of Y-linked genes). Recessive-if any affected individual has 2 unaffected parents. Dominant- if every affected child of non-founding parents has an affected parent. o Use information in a pedigree to determine genotype and calculate the probability of a dominant or recessive trait being inherited by a son or daughter o Use a Punnett square to figure out possible gamete genotype and progeny genotypes for autosomal traits o Use genotype and phenotype of parents to figure out genotype and phenotype of offspring (and vice versa) o Use correct notation for dominant, recessive, co-dominant, wild-type, mutant, sex-linked o co-dominant- relationship between two versions of a gene. o wild-type- characteristic that prevails among individuals in natural conditions, as distinct from an atypical mutant type. o mutant- organism or a new genetic character arising or resulting from an instance of mutation, which is a base-pair sequence change within DNA or chromosome o sex-linked- trait associated with gene that is carried only by male or female parent. o Define gene, locus, and allele. Know how many alleles an individual diploid organism can have for each locus. o Gene: the biological code of all traits o Locus: location on a chromosome where a gene sits o Allele: version of gene that codes for specific version of a character o An individual can have 2 alleles, one from each parent, in each locus. o Explain why the number of alleles per gene in an individual can be different from the number of alleles per gene in a population o An individual has one allele per gene in each chromosome, meaning the individual exhibits only one trait. o Vocabulary Phylogenetic tree- branching diagram representing the evolutionary history, group of organisms Archaea- unicellular prokaryotes distinguished by cell walls made of certain polysaccharides not found in bacterial or eukaryotic cell walls o plasma membranes composed of unique isoprene-containing phospholipids, o ribosomes and RNA polymerase similar to those of eukaryotes Bacteria- consisting of unicellular prokaryotes distinguished by cell walls o composed largely of peptidoglycan, o plasma membranes similar to those of eukaryotic cells, o ribosomes and RNA polymerase that differ from those in archaeans or eukaryotes. Eukarya- unicellular to multicellular organisms that have a membrane-bound nucleus containing several chromosomes. Sexual reproduction is common. Cyanobacteria- unicellular organisms o photosynthetic o oldest fossil autotroph o ancestor of chloroplast o form soil crust o forms a symbiotic relationship with fungi resulting in lichen o early cyanobacteria began releasing oxygen into the Earth’s atmosphere. With this rising concentration of atmospheric O2, several prokaryotic groups went extinct Excavata- Feeding groove along one side of cell o mitochondria that do not use O2 o many are heterotrophs and many are parasites o Giardia Intestinalis- intestinal parasite in mammals, transmitted by infected feces o Trypanosoma - parasite that causes sleeping sickness in mammals; transmitted by tsetse fly bites. Stramenopile unicellular diatoms o 2part silicon dioxide wall o Photosynthetic Alveolate- Dinoflagellates o Photosynthetic o Some are symbiotic with corals (ex. Cnidaria) o Red tide o Some are bioluminescent Plastid- organelle surrounded by multiple organelles Diatom- unicellular, major group of algae Dinoflagellate- Photosynthetic o Some are symbiotic with corals (ex. Cnidaria) o Red tide o Some are bioluminescent Giardia- intestinal parasite in mammals, transmitted by feces Trypanosoma- parasite that causes sleeping sickness in mammals, transmitted by tsetse fly bites Plasmodium- causes malaria Autotroph- able to make its own food and energy Heterotroph- Consumes other organisms for energy Saprotroph- acquiring energy by absorbing nutrients from the environment Archaeplastida- land plants Ancestral characteristic- shared by the ancestral and current descendants Shared- derived trait shared by descendants Apical meristem- cell division at roots Sporangia- multicellular organs that produce desiccation-resistant spores Gametangia- either makes eggs OR sperm Sporophyte- is dominant generation, spores develops into a microscopic gametophyte within the parent sporophyte Gametophyte- produces sperm or egg Sporopollenin- resistant polymer that prevents spore from drying out or being crushed Unikonta- Fungi/Animalia Metazoa- Animalia Eumetazoa- eukaryotic clad in Kingdom Animalia that contains most major groups Bilateria- two-sided symmetry Lophotrochozoa- Spiral cleavage pattern of embryonic cells o Hox genes o Annelida and Mollusca Ecdysozoa- shedding of the exoskeleton to grow larger Gastrulation- tissue formation Mycorrhizae- symbiotic relationship between fungus and plant roots Adaptation-inherited trait that enhances survival and reproduction in the envi Natural selection- Darwin o mechanism of descent with modification o Individuals that inherit certain traits will survive better and produce more offspring in current local environment Artificial selection- intentional reproduction of individuals to have certain traits Evolution- theory that individuals descend from a common ancestor into better and more diverse forms Homology- existence of shared characteristics between structures or genes in different species. Analogy- similarity of function and resemblance of structures that have different origins Biogeography- study of species in different environments Hutton- Earth’s physical features are changing Lyell- Geological process operate today at the same rate as the past Lamarck-Species can change into new species Cuvier- Species go extinct due to a catastrophe Extant- opposite of extinct Allele-alternative version of the gene Blending hypothesis-mixing of the two parents Particulate hypothesis-mixing of the particles Character-varies between individuals Trait- variant of character P generation- parent F1 generation- 1st offspring F2 generation- 2nd offspring Law of segregation- Alleles separate from each other in the formation of gametes Law of independent assortment- Individual hereditary factors assort independently, so it gives an equal chance of occurring together Genotype-Genetic makeup Phenotype- What they look like Dominant allele- is heterozygous for that trait, or possesses one of each allele, then the dominant trait is expressed. Recessive allele- is only expressed if an organism is homozygous for that trait, or possesses two recessive alleles. Heterozygous- having 2 different versions of hereditary particles for a character Homozygous- having the same version of hereditary particles for a character Punnett square- method to predict possible combinations of gametes and offspring Monohybrid cross- one mixture of traits o Dihybrid cross- mating between parents heterozygous for 2 characters o o o Chapters 9 & 1 Cell division Cell cycle: name the phases, describe the events in each phase, know relative length of each phase with the cycle Interphase 90% of the cell cycle, high metabolic activity. The cell grows by producing proteins and organelles, and chromosomes are replicated, Nucleoli are present G1 – o This is the portion of the cell cycle just after division, but before DNA synthesis. During this time the cell grows by producing proteins and organelles o S phase DNA synthesis (or replication) occurs during this phase. At the beginning of the phase, each chromosome is single. At the end, after DNA replication, each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids. most DNA from the cell cycle. # of chromosomes = 4, # of DNA =8) # of sister chromatids = 4? G2 growth and preparation for cell division o M phase Cell division occurs during this short phase, which generally involves two discrete processes: the contents of the nucleus evenly distributed to two daughter nuclei, and the cytoplasm divides in two. Mitosis division of chromosomes of the nucleus occurs. The chromosomes that have been replicated are distributed to two daughter nuclei. Prophase includes condensation of chromatin and dispersal of nucleoli Spindle forms Centrosomes begins to move away from each other Chromosomes become visible the chromatin fibers become discrete chromosome Prometaphase the attachment of spindle fibers to kinetochores. Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores Metaphase chromosomes align along the metaphase plate. Anaphase Centromeres divide and sister chromatids become fullfledged chromosome, sister chromatids separate and daughter chromosomes migrate to opposite poles. centromeres come apart, and sister chromatids become full fledged chromosomes, which migrate to opposite poles of the cell. Telophase both nuclear envelopes and nucleoli reform. Cytokinesis: plant vs animal Cytoplasm divides in two Cytokinesis in plant cells involves the formation of a cell plate. Cytokinesis in animal cells involves formation of a cleavage furrow. each one has: # of chromosomes = 4, # of DNA =8) o o ∙ Cell division: list the 3 main steps required, list the 3 major functions of cell division o Roles of Cell Division Reproduction (equal distribution of genetic material to two daughter cells) Growth; sexually reproducing organisms develop from a single cell Renewal and Repair: replacing cells that die from wear & tear or accidents o o ∙ Mitosis in eukaryotes: Identify the ploidy level at the beginning and end of cell division; Name the 5 phases and describe the events in each phase, including what happens to chromosomes, nucleus, and cytoskeleton o o ∙ Explain how chromosomes move along spindle & where spindle attaches o Motor proteins and the elongating and shortening of spindle attaches o o Identify organs in which mitosis occurs. every organ except the nervous system (brain and nerves) sex organs do have mitosis too, but they produce sex cells (sperm and ova) by meiosis. o o o o o o ∙ Define the terms: ploidy, haploid, and diploid Ploidy o number of sets of chromosomes in a cell. Usually a gamete(sperm or egg, which fuse into a single cell during the fertilization phase of sexual reproduction) carries a full set of chromosomes that includes a single copy of each chromosome haploid number(n) o number of chromosomes in a gamete. Two gametes form a diploid zygote with twice this number (2n, the zygotic or diploid number) o 2n= 1 chromosomes 2(23)=46 chromosomes o o ∙ Name the phases of meiosis I, describe the events of each phase, identify the ploidy level of cells at the end of meiosis I. o o ∙ Name the phases of meiosis II, describe the events of each phase, identify the ploidy level of cells at the end of meiosis II. o o ∙ Indicate when homologous chromosomes separate and when sister chromatids separate during meiosis. o o ∙ Explain what occurs during crossing over Crossing over is the process by which two chromosomes pair up and exchange sections of their DNA between nonsister chromatids. This often occurs during prophase 1 of meiosis in a process called synapsis. o o ∙ Name the products of meiosis and describe their chromosome content and their genetic makeup compared to each other o o ∙ Identify organs in which meiosis occurs o o ∙ Identify the key steps during meiosis that result in genetically different daughter cells from the same parent cell o o Compare and contrast mitosis, meiosis I and meiosis II. Fill in text descriptions in a chart similar to the one below. o o Mitosis o Meiosis I o Mei osis II o Ploidy o 2n=46 o 46 chromo o 23 level chromosom o 2n=46 BEFORE es o Homologous E division o 92 chromo =23 nd chromatid 23 o 46 o 2n cells =46 23 o 2n o 1st stag o o o prophase o 2nd stage o o o prometap hase o 3rd stage o o o metaphas e o 4th stage o Sister o o anaphase chromatids separate o 5th stage o o o telophase o Product – o 2 genetically o 2 daughter o 4(n) number of identical 2n cells dau cells cells=46 o 2n=23 ghte o Genetic sister chromo in r makeup each cell cells o 46 sister o N chromatids cells =23 chro mo o o ∙ Chapter 1 Heredity o Define Mendel’s Law of segregation & explain its physical basis in chromosome movement during Anaphase I o o ∙ Define Mendel’s Law of independent assortment & its physical basis in chromosome movement during Metaphase I o o Chapter 13: DNA structure & replication o Griffith, Avery et al, Hershey & Chase, Meselson & Stahl experiments for each experiment: o Hershey and Chase: T2 Phage and E. Coli 35 Sulfur coated the proteins and the 32p was for the DNA. They proved that DNA was the genetic material not proteins. Chargaff: different compositions of the nitrogenous bases Griffith: transformation, used streptococcus pneumoniae. Mouse thing with S cells and R cells and Heat Avery:DNA, RNA or protein from dead S cells was transforming R cells Watson and Crick: DNA replicationdouble helix (discovered by Rosalind Franklin) Meselson and Stahl: Used E. Coli, worked with the 3 models (dispersive, semiconservative, etc) o ∙ Explain the purpose of each treatment in the experimental design o o ∙ State the hypothesis (or hypotheses, if there is more than one) o o ∙ Predict the likely results if a hypothesis is true o o ∙ Evaluate whether results are consistent with or contrary to a hypothesis o o ∙ Apply Chargaff’s rule to calculate the percentage of the other 3 nucleotides when given the percentage of 1 of the 4 DNA nucleotides o o ∙ Apply complementary base pairing & antiparallel arrangement of the 2 DNA helices to predict the sequence of one DNA strand from the other o o ∙ List the observations about DNA structure that led to Watson & Crick’s hypothesis for DNA structure and replication o o ∙ State Watson & Crick’s description of DNA structure and their hypothesis for replication o o ∙ *Mechanics of DNA replication: Describe the molecules involved, the steps of the process on the leading strand and on the lagging strand o o o o o o o AMINO ACID STRUCTURE DNA STRUCTURE o o o o For each step, predict the outcome if a particular molecule were limited or inhibited: e.g. a shortage of nitrogenous bases, or inhibition of primase, DNA polymerase, DNA ligase, or helicase o Big picture: o Identify cellular process(es) that require DNA replication o Know when DNA replication occurs in life cycle of cell o o o Vocabulary o o Centrosome a structure that is present in the cytoplasm of animal cells that functions as a microtubule organizing center. Contains two centrioles o Centromere the region on each sister chromatid where they are most likely attached to each other by proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences, causes constriction in chromosome o Chromatid colored stuff o Prophase the first stage of mitosis; chromatin condenses into discrete chromosomes; mitotic spindle forms, and nucleolus disappears o Spindle Array of microtubules o Prometaphase it the second stage of the mitosis. Nuclear envelope disappears. Chromosomes are now even more condensed and chromatids have kinetochores. o Kinetochore Protein structure that is attached to centromere, connects centromeres to spindle fibers. o Metaphase Centrosomes are now at the opposite poles of the cell and they align on an imaginary central line. o Anaphase the fourth stage of mitosis; chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles cell o Telophase two daughter nuclei form in cell. Nucleoli reappear. Mitotic division is now complete. o Cleavage furrow groove around the animal cell near the old metaphase plate o Traits Variant of a character o Gene specific sequence of DNA nucleotides of the molecule of a chromosome o Locus location of a gene on a chromosomes o Chromosome consists of one DNA molecule and are associated with protein molecules. Eukaryotes have multiple, linear chromosomes located in the nucleus. Prokaryotes have a single, circular chromosome located in the nucleoid. o Homologous chromosome same length and pattern, one from father and one for mother o Karyotype picture thing in our bio lab manual o Autosome a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome o Sex chromosome last pair on the karyotype picture, determine the sex o Haploid n gametes o Diploid 2n zygote o Meiosis reduces 2n to n o Meiosis I o Meiosis II Cell division that reduces a 2n(diploid) number of chromosomes to a haploid number. o Allele alternative versions of a gene that may produce distinguishable phenotypic effects o Chiasma A point where crossovers occur o Synaptonemal Complex Is a protein structure that forms between homologous chromosomes during meiosis and is thought to mediate chromosome pairing, synapsis and recombination. o Law of segregation Mendel's 1st law; 2 alleles separate (An)phase I o Law of independent assortment Mendel’s 2nd law; each pair of alleles assort independently of each other during gamete formation; genes for 2 characters may act as if on different chromosomes (Metaphase I) o Sexlinked gene a gene located on either sex chromosome o Carrier an individual who is heterozygous at any given locus for a recessive disorder. Can pass this gene onto offspring o Pyrimidine A and G o Purine U, T and C o 3’ end of nucleotide o 5’ end of nucleotide o Antiparallel referring to the arrangement of the sugarphosphate backbones in a DNA double helix; run opposite (3’ → 5’) o Rosalind Franklin discovered DNA double helix o James Watson & Francis Crick worked and experimented using the idea of a double helix o Replication fork the y shaped region, where the parental strand are being unwound o DNA polymerase enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA by the addition of nucleotides to the 3’ end of an existing chain. o Helicase enzymes that unwinds o Primer short pieces of complementary RNA, it starts replication o Leading strand the new complementary DNA strand synthesized continuously along the template strand toward the replication fork in a 5’ → 3’ direction o Lagging strand a discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates by means of Okazaki fragments, each synthesized in a 5’ → 3’ direction away from the replication fork o DNA ligase a linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3’ end of one DNA strand to the 5’ end of another o Nucleosome basic unit of DNA; consists of DNA wrapped around a protein core composed of two copies of each of the four types of histone o Histone small protein with high proportion of highly charged amino acids that binds to negatively charged DNA o o o o o o o o ∙ Assume a cell with 2n = 2. o o Draw the chromosomes at prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase of mitosis. o o o Draw the chromosomes at each stage of Meiosis I and Meiosis II. o ∙ Assume a cell with 2n = 6. Draw each stage of mitosis and each stage of meiosis. o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o ∙ Draw a DNA replication bubble showing the origin of replication, the replication fork, and the position of the RNA primer on the leading strand and on the lagging strand (more than 1 RNA primer). Be sure to show the leading strand and lagging strand for both parent strands of DNA (top and bottom of the bubble). Indicate the direction of elongation of the new DNA strand. o
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