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BIO 201 Study Guide Exam 5

by: Sarah Martin

BIO 201 Study Guide Exam 5 BIOL 201

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Study guide for next exam; includes pictures, question and answers from lectures, and terms.
Organismic Biology
Dr. Ari Jumpponen
Study Guide
Bio, 201, botany, Gymnosperms, angiosperms, Bryophytes, algae
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This 71 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Martin on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 201 at Kansas State University taught by Dr. Ari Jumpponen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 244 views. For similar materials see Organismic Biology in Biology at Kansas State University.


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Date Created: 04/16/16
Study Guide Exam 5 Updated April, 2016 Algae and Allies (quizlet and slides) Meiosis: Where and how does the reduction of chromosome number occur, why is this necessary? Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid (2n) to haploid (n). All human somatic cells have a diploid chromosome number of 46, whereas the human gametes (sperm and ova) have a haploid chromosome number of 23. During fertilization, a haploid sperm cell and a haploid egg cell combine to form a diploid zygote. Each parent contributes 23 chromosomes to the offspring so that it has a total of 46 chromosomes. Hence, meiosis halves the chromosome number, but the diploid condition is restored during fertilization. If meiosis did not occur, the chromosome number would continue to double with each successive fertilization. In the absence of meiosis, a mating between two individuals with a diploid number of 46 would result in offspring with 92 chromosomes! Each species has a characteristic chromosome number, and meiosis ensures that this chromosome number is maintained What are the advantages of sexual and asexual reproduction? Asexual: only one parent required to reproduce; quicker than sexual reproduction; there are many offspring in a short time; Sexual: there is genetic diversity; all individuals are genetically unique; survival characteristics are passed on, so species can adapt; if conditions change some may die but some may survive Describe alternation of generations; pivot points; cell divisions; cell fusions; ploidy levels; and production of gametes and spores! Chlorophyll character evolution in the groups of algae and plants. What makes red algae red; what unites them as a group? Phycobilins What are the photosynthetic pigments in Rhodophyta? Chlorophylls A and sometimes d Why are red algae important to humans; to (clinical) microbiology? Amazing anti-oxidant Where do red algae occur? warmer and deep waters Polysiphonia life cycle – what produces haploid plants, what do these plants produce, where does the zygote reside, what tissues come from the zygote, how do these behave? There are a lot of specific terms for structures, I am not going to expect you to memorize those. Instead use terms haploid spores, haploid male/female gametophyte, male/female gametangia, egg, sperm, zygote, diploid spore, diploid sporophyte, diploid sporangia, sporocyte. It consists of a sequence of a gametangial, carposporangial and tetrasporangial phases. Male (haploid) plants produce spermatia and the female plants produce the carpogonium which remains attached to the parent female plant. After fertilization the diploid nucleus migrates and fuses with an auxiliary cell. A complex series of fusions and developments follow as the diploid zygote develops to become the carposporophyte, this is a separate phase of the life-cycle and is entirely parasitic on the female, it is surrounded by the haploid pericarp of the parent female plant. The diploid carpospores produced in the carposporangium when released are non-motile, they settle and grow to form filamentous diploid plants similar to the gametophyte. This diploid plant is the tetrasporophyte which when adult produced spores in fours after meiosis. These spores settle and grow to become the male and female plants thus completing the cycle Chlorophyta – what is it; what kinds of organisms belong to it (morphologically, taxonomically); what are the photosynthetic pigments in Chlorophyta? Green algae; unicellular, platelike colonies, netlike tubes, hollow spheres, lettuce- like leaves; chlorophylls a and b; most have sexual and asexual reproduction; Contains mostly unicellular (some multicellular) organisms. Organisms include: Spirogyra (watersilk), Ulva (Sea Lettuce), and Genus Oedogonium. Chlorophyta contain chlorophylls a and b, although the major pigment is chlorophyll b Where does one find Cholorophyta? Freshwater (lake, ponds, streams), some tree bark, animal fur, snowbanks, in flatworms or sponges; floating in masses on the surface of quiet freshwater What is Chlamydomonas – what does its lifecycle look like; what induces sex; what is the importance of resting zygote? Sex is induced by lack of Nitrogen (-N); resting zygote makes it more resistant to harsh environments (winter, drought, etc.); zygotes are sticky and they adhere to feet of waterfowl for dispersal; Chlamydomonas is a genus of green algae consisting of unicellular flagellates, found in stagnant water and on damp soil, in freshwater, seawater, and even in snow; vegetative cycle and sexual cycle are isogamous (unicellular, 2 flagella, red eye spot) Anisogamy vs. isogamy- what does this mean? Isogamy= same sized gametes-- form of sexual reproduction that involves gametes of similar morphology (similar shape and size), differing in general only in allele expression in one or more mating-type regions; Anisogamy=unequal sized gametes (true eggs and sperm) --refers to a form of sexual reproduction involving the union or fusion of two dissimilar gametes How does anisogamy vs. isogamy compare to heterospory vs homospory? How is Volvocales an example for this? Make also a note of the Volvocales importance as a multicellular model… Anisogamy=unequal gamete size Isogamy=same gamete size (can't label as M/F) Heterospory=Like anisogamy (can be determined) Homospory=Isogamy (can't be labeled) What is Volvox – what does its lifecycle look like; what induces sex; what is the importance of resting zygote? volox is colonial green algae held together in a secretion of gelatinous material. It participates in asexual or sexual reproduction; sex induced by high Volvox concentrations, stress, etc. What is Oedogonium – what does its lifecycle look like (note particularly the location and development of the zygote)? Oedogonium are filamentous green algae with holdfast, they are large netlike chloroplast with pyrenoids at intersections. They have both asexual and sexual reproduction. Asexual- by zoospores that are produced at the cells tips of filaments. Sexual-Occurs in Oogonium What is Spirogyra – what does its lifecycle look like (note particularly the location fertilization and development of the zygote)? Spirogyra (watersilk) have filaments of cylindrical cells, frequently floats in masse on the surface of freshwater, and chloroplast ribbon-like spiral wrapped around vacuole, with pyrenoids at regular intervals. --assexual reproduction by fragmentation in filaments, sexual reproduction by conjugation. Why are the Charopyceae important in the evolutionary history of plants? Transitional to terrestrial plants What is oogamy? when one gamete is motile, while the other is large and stationary What is a red tide? The marine phenomenon that results in the water becoming temporarily tinged with red due to sudden proliferation of certain dinoflagellates that produce substances poisonous to animal life and humans; bloom of unicellular dinoflagellates What is Stramenopila? A phylum containing yellow-green algae What are Xanthophycaceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Phaeophyceae? Xanthophycaceae are green-yellow algae, Bacillariophyceae are the diatoms, and Phaeophyceae are brown algae Vaucheria and Elysia interaction – how is this an example of novel endosymbiosis; what does serial endosymbiosis mean? Vaucheria are consumed by the sea slug Elysia, but are only partially digested by them in order to retain the photosynthetic chloroplasts in a process called kleptoplasty. The sea slug feeds on V. litorea, retaining the chloroplasts in storage in cells along the slug's digestive tract; the origin of nucleated eukaryotic cells by a merging (not ramming) of archaebacterial and eubacterial cells How do algae and dinoflagellates affect human and fish health? Algae provide important commodities to humans - Diatoms : toothpaste, pool filters, metal polishes - Algin : commercially produced ice cream, salad dressing, beer, jelly beans The Red Tide (dinoflagellates) kill millions of fish by O2 consumption when decaying in fresh water - some produce neurotoxins that are transferred to humans through shellfish - some lodge into the fish gills Bacillariophyceae – what are they and where do we find them; note the photosynthetic pigments. Bacillariophyceae are the Diatoms. They are unicellular, found in fresh and salt water and are abundant in cold marine habitats. Can also be found on damp cliffs, tree bark and buildings Describe the unique cell division and daughter cell size distribution in Bacillariophyceae. Asexual reproduction results in half of cells becoming smaller. Original cell size restored through sexual reproduction Where do you find Phaeophyceae? Mostly in marine environments in cold, shallow water What are the photosynthetic pigments in Phaeophyceae? Chloropylls a and c, Fucoxanthin Fucus – what is it and what does its lifecycle look like? Fucus is a common rockweed. It uses sexual reproduction are the tips of branches How do algae relate to the rest of the organisms phylogenetically? Haploid dominate; base aquatic food chains; meiosis immediately follows fertilization except with focus on brown algae; uses up all nutrients, dies and decays leaving foul odors Why is water necessary for the fertilization and survival of the algal zygote? -water is necessary for sexual reproduction -Flagellated gametes -Zygote is free living Do algae have alternation of generations? Yes Questions from the PowerPoint: The key difference between asexual (mitosis) and sexual reproduction (meiosis) is… B. Crossing over Which of the following is unicellular green algae? A. Chlamydomonas Algae are… E. None of the following: monophyletic, a kingdom in Bidlack, group where cyanobacteria belong, or group where most plants belong Bryophytes Alternation of generations! Doesn’t happen in animals, and does in plants (some algae); after the evolution of ferns, there is a diploid dominant phase; meiosis in diploid sporocyte; mitosis between spores and gametophyte; mitosis from gametophyte to produce gametes; fertilization; all bryophytes and higher plants have a clear Alt of Gen What are vascular and non-vascular plants? Vascular= contains xylem and phloem; non-vascular does not How do bryophytes relate to the rest of the organisms? (Hint look into a phylogenetic tree; map the character evolution into it). What are the grand challenges in moving to terrestrial ecosystem for plants; how do bryophytes solve these issues?  Drying out – cuticle, gametangia and sporangia became multicellular and surrounded by sterile cells, zygotes develop into multicellular embryos within parental tissues  Source of nutrition  Resist intense sunlight (no longer able to swim deeper to avoid such light)  Require a different method for obtaining CO2  Higher concentrations of oxygen than in water What are the main groups of bryophytes? Phylum Hepaticophyta (liverworts); Phylum Bryophyta (Mosses); Phylum Anthocerophyta (hornworts) What are the general characteristics of bryophytes? Non-vascular (or very primitive), thought of as algae that colonized land, flagellated sperm, chlorophylls a and b, starch as storage, cellulose-rich cell wall; no lignin; no roots but rhizoids (only anchors, no nutrient absorption) How do the evolutionary traits map into the phylogenetic tree of plants and bryophytes? Which bryophytes have stomata, are these functional (have guard cells that close)? Mosses and hornworts have stomata, but they don’t function Which bryophytes have vascular tissues; do they work as well as the xylem and phloem? None or very primitive vascular tissues (hydroids and leptoids) Which bryophytes have roots; are they capable of absorption of water/nutrients from soil? None; absorption through plant body; they have rhizoids as anchors How are the life cycles of bryophytes different from lifecycles of alga? Bryophyte life cycle: asexual reproduction by gametophyte fragmentation; gametophyte is dominant; gametophyte is nutritionally independent; sporophytes usually not photosynthetic (hornworts are the exception); Alt of Gen (in mosses, leafy plant is major part of gametophyte generation) Algae life cycle: What is the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fossils from 460mya? Fossils of spores; > 400 million yrs ago is when the first land plants appeared, and it is thought that the ancestor progressed from aquatic to land before that; 1st terrestrial plants were similar to bryophytes (no vascular tissue or roots) What is a sporophyte/gametophyte? Gametophytes produce gametes; Sporophytes produce spores What are the morphological/lifecycle features that make bryophytes better fit for terrestrial environment than algae? (Note – Compare algal and bryophyte life cycles and identify similarities and differences.) Asexual reproduction by gametophyte fragmentation; Gametophyte is the dominant generation; gametophyte nutritionally independent; Sporophyte (usually) non-photosynthetic, parasitic (?) on the gametophyte; In algae, sporophyte and gametophyte both free-living and often isomorphic (hornworts exception) What is the purpose of Marchantia pores? The pores open into a chamber that help take in air and play a role in asexual reproduction How does asexual dispersal occur in Marchantia? Gemmae are tiny, lens-shaped pieces of tissue that become detached from thallus; they are produced in gemmae cups that are scattered all over the thallus What does sexual reproduction look like in Marchantia (describe its life cycle)? Which is the dominant part of Marchantia life cycle; what does this mean? Haploid; spends most of its time as a thallus Which parts of the reproduction require water? Asexual gemmae cups need water to reach the soil and develop How does asexual dispersal occur in mosses? Spores are dispersed What does sexual reproduction look like in mosses (describe their life cycle)? Which is the dominant part of life cycle; what does this mean? Haploid; they spend most of the time as a gametophyte What is Embryophyta and what does it mean in terms of plant evolution? Questions: In Alt of Gen… gametophytes are haploid and they produce gametes, but they do not go through mitosis (trick question, no right answer) Bryophyte gametophytes … D Vascular tissues and seedless vascular plants Character evolution in the terrestrial plants - where in the evolutionary history do the pivotal characters emerge? Emergence of roots, bryophytes had rhizomes Megaphyllous leaves (branched system of veins) compare with microphyll (single unbranched vein) Trichomes (epidermal extensions) What is the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in the transition to terrestrial environment? They had no vascular tissue or roots so the mutualistic relationship helped in the transition once they got to land What are the vascular plants? Plants with xylem and Phloem What are the seedless vascular plants, what are the seed plants? Seedless: ferns, club mosses, horsetails, whisk ferns; Seed: gymnosperms, angiosperms What are the central functions of vascular tissues? 1) Conduct commodities: water (capillary forces, cohesion, evapotranspiration suction/ tension [negative pressure]), photosynthates (cytoplasmic transport in sieve cells) 2) Support body: evolution of lignified support structures (stronger than cellulose) How is the water conducted within the plants? Water flows through both tracheids and sieve plates in vessel elements Why is lignin important for evolution of land plants; which plants have lignin? When the plants were in the water, they didn’t need as much support so cellulose was fine, but land plants need lignin to be bigger because it is harder than cellulose; big, tall plants have lignin What are tracheids and vessel elements, and how do they differ functionally? Tracheids: primitive; ferns and gymnosperms (conifers); water flows through pits Vessel elements: advanced flowering plants; water flows through sieve plates How does xylem function, or does it? tracheids and vessel elements are elongated calls with thick secondary walls; if something is dead then it has no cytoplasm, cells are dead at maturity but they function chemically; Vessel element function: xylem fluid KCI concentration rapidly and reversibly alters vessel conductivity by a lot; this controls the diameter of the xylem which controls the flow rate much like stomata What is phloem, how does it function? 1) sieve cells 2) sieve tube members: companion cell which regulates carb flow and have sclerenchyma for support; both are long, tapered, and continuous tubes with overlapping ends, alive at maturity but lack nuclei and vacuoles; cytoplasmic transport through continuous cytoplasm of adjacent cells by active transport What are the main differences and similarities among bryophytes and seedless vascular plants? Seedless vascular plants have what many bryophytes don’t: True conducting tissues (not just leptoids, hydroids); True functional stomata (non-functional in mosses, hornworts); Cuticle (in some mosses and liverworts); Lignin biosynthesis - lignin strengthened the secondary cell walls How does evolution of vascular tissue explain further invasion of the terrestrial environment? How does it explain complex canopy architecture and more complete capture of resources (energy in particular)? How did vascular plants solve the problems of gas exchange, water loss, and desiccation? Stomata, cuticle, embryo retention In character evolution among the land plants, what are the key traits that emerge in the seedless vascular plants? True conducting tissues (not just leptoids, hydroids); true functional stomata (non-functional in mosses, hornworts); cuticle (in some mosses and liverworts); lignin biosynthesis - lignin strengthened the secondary cell walls What are the phyla of seedless vascular plants? Psilophyta (whisk ferns); Lycophyta (club mosses); Equisetophyta (horsetails); Polypodiophyta (ferns) What are the characteristics of Psilotum? seedless vascular plant assumed similar to the ancestral primitive ferns; lacks leaves (but enations) and roots in sporophyte; photosynthetic stems and central star-shaped xylem, surrounded by phloem Psilotum lifecyle – where does it need water? Requires water for fertilization What is the evolutionary advantage of the heterospory? Produces micro and megaspores How do Lycopodium and Selaginella lifecycles differ? What is the functional difference between carinal and vallecular canal? Carinal canals with xylem and phloem; vallecular canals outside carinal canals contain air Equisetum lifecycle – where does it need water? fertilization Fern lifecycle – where does it need water? reproduction Which seedless vascular plants have roots, which true leaves? Bryophytes and lower don’t have roots or true leaves; ferns and allies and higher have roots and true leaves What are megaphyllous and microphyllous leaves and how do they differ? Microphyll = leaf with single unbranched vein; no leaf gap Megaphyll = leaf with often branching veins always associated with leaf gap What are the main differences and similarities among seedless vascular plants and bryophytes? Bryophytes: Hydroids, leptoids; Stomata (not closing); No lignin Seedless vascular plants: Roots; Megaphyllous leaves; Trichomes What are the dominant parts of the life cycle, how do these differ among bryophytes and seedless vascular plants? (Note – In ferns it turns.) Diploid; bryophytes are haploid How is heterospory a major trajectory in the evolution of land plants? evolution of true roots and root hairs How do heterosporous and homosporous plants differ; what do the megaspores and microspores produce? the spores produced develop into pollen and embryo sac What are the major groups of seedless vascular plants? See the phylum below What are the main differences/similarities among Lycophyta, Equisetophyta, Psilophyta, Polypodiophyta? (Hint: see your lab manual for helpful tables). Which seedless vascular plants have roots, which true leaves? Seedless vascular plants are vascular plants and therefore have true roots, stems, and leaves Be prepared to illustrate the alternation of generations in seedless vascular plants! Questions in lecture: This sporophyte is found on specimens that belong to the Phylum _____ The structure under the pointer is haploid or diploid? (refer to the picture on the right) B assuming that it is pointing to elaters or the sporocyte (Ari said this was a bad question) Character evolution in plants involves… E all of the following: retention of embryo in the parental tissues, evolution of vascular tissues, evolution of seed, evolution of a flower Cells in xylem... A are dead and contain no cytoplasm; B dead and possess no activity (correct answer for B is: depends on the activity); C dead but may possess chemical activity; E is correct (A and C) Cells in phloem… not A alive but contain no cytoplasm, seems true B alive but contain no nuclei, C alive and consume energy to transport photosynthates, E B and C All seedless vascular plants... no A require water for spore dispersal, no B transport water in phloem, yes lower plants up until gymnosperms C require water for fertilizations Evolutionary discoveries in ferns include… no A first lignin synthesis, no B first rhizoids, no C first stomata, no D first cuticle, E first seed (extinct though) Microsporangia contain… E microsporocytes and microspores, not microphylls Gymnosperms What defines the group that we call the gymnosperms? The biggest plant evolutionary advancement since the plastid; plants with naked seeds, heterosporous, megaphyllous Why are gymnosperms important? They produce seeds; Construction materials; Paper; Americans use 200,000 tons of paper per day. Flavoring from conifer resins (Restsina); Ephedra- weight loss remedy; recently found to increase risk for strokes and heart attacks; Ginkgo- antioxidant What are the main advantages of the seed? Plants can live in a drier environment because they don’t require a moist environment anymore; seeds can disperse and lay dormant (delay growth) until optimal conditions What are the seed plants, what are the seedless plants? Seed plants: angiosperms, gymnosperms; seed: bryophytes and lower plants What are the major evolutionary changes that are present in the Gymnosperms but absent in the seedless vascular plants? Heterospory (Lycopodium vs. Selaginella); Retention of the female gametophyte on the sporophyte (note dispersal though); Development of the seed coat or testa; Adaptations to deliver the male gametophyte to a receptive female gametophyte (pollination) What are the main reasons for the success of the gymnosperms over the ferns and fern allies? (Hint: Think of herbivory and climatic events.) Reduced male and female gametophytes; better adaption to terrestrial environment; water not necessary for fertilization; seeds with food supply for embryo (nucellus: endosperm in angiosperms); embryo is able to grow/develop before it is dispersed What are the main characteristics that place Ginkgophyta and Cycadophyta at the base of seed plant evolutionary tree? How does fertilization occur in Ginkgo? Flagellated sperm; pollen (microgametophyte) delivers sperm to the ovule (no sperm tube development), where the sperm makes the rest of the trek – egg then engulfs the sperm cell Distinguish between monoecious-dioecious and monosporangiate and bisporangiate! What is a seed fern? Progymnosperm; pteridosperm; the first seed plants: trees with fern-like foliage and secondary wood What is Archaeopteris what does it have in common with modern Gymnosperms? It reproduced like a fern (spores, no seed), grows like a gymnosperm (modern, woody); they grow tall (trunks 1m across); foliage webbed leaflets and fertile branches intermixed on the same axis; Lateral buds and branches; bi-directional (bifacial) cambium (a feature found in all seed plants) that makes a ring of growing tissue that produces xylem (wood) toward the center and phloem away from the center; it was a long lived, perennial tree that dominated the forests worldwide for 15 Million years What is the importance of the bifacial cambium? Found in all seed plants; makes a ring of growing tissue that produces xylem (wood) toward the center and phloem away from the center How do the microgametophytes and megagametophytes develop in Pinophyta? How about the seed? What goes to the pollen grain, what to megagametophyte, and ultimately to the seed? Male/female (micro- and megagametophyte) gametophytes in separate male/female cones (strobili); Micro-/megaspore mother cell (2n) goes through meiosis resulting in 4 micro- /megaspores (1n); The 4 micro- /megaspores develop into the micro-/megagametophytes; Megasporocyte is retained within the megasporangium, enclosed in an integument (future seed coat); Megasporangium is called nucellus, encloses the megasporocyte, resultant megaspore(s) and the future megagametophyte; Together, megasporangium and integuments form the ovule; In the megasporangium, after meiosis, three megaspore nuclei are aborted; only one develops into the megagametophyte; This remaining functional megaspore undergoes mitotic divisions, which are not immediately followed by cytokinesis - free-nuclear gametophyte, i.e., multinucleate megagametophyte that is not divided into cells by cell walls; In the megasporangium, cell walls form later around each 1n nucleus: resulting megagametophyte is multicellular; After this, 2 or more archegonia develop in the micropyle end of the ovule; Each archegonium contains an egg, which may be fertilized + develop into an embryo How does the pollination occur in Pinophyta? Microgametophyte sticks to the pollination droplet and is sucked into contact with the nucellus; directly to ovule, not to stigma (Angiosperms); Pollen tube digests the nucellus tissue to reach the egg; One of the two sperms fertilizes each egg; diploid zygote (compare the sperm with Angiosperms), another sperm disintegrates; Zygote develops into a seed with seed coat (former integuments), embryo with apical meristems, cotyledons, and hypocotyl; Meiosis occurs in the male and female cones in late winter; Pollination occurs in May and the development of the female gametophyte is slow….9 months!!; Fertilization occurs in February and in pines and some other conifers that seed will not be mature the for another year How do different groups of gymnosperms differ from each other? Pay also attention to the different destinies of sperm cells. All gymnosperm phyla have similar life cycles and produce seeds from exposed ovules; Some gymnosperm sperm is flagellated (Ginko- and Cycadophyta), not Gneto- and Pinophyta; It takes almost 2 years to produce a mature pine seed. Other gymnosperms are faster What are the characteristics that place Gnetophytes closest to the flowering plants? Double fertilization; vessel elements How are Gymnosperms better adapted to terrestrial environment than seedless vascular plants? Heterospory; seeds; They don't need water for reproduction; they have roots, stems, and leaves What are the drought adaptations of Pinophyta? Small leaves - minimize heating + evapotranspiration; Thick cuticles; Sunken stomata; Veins in the center of the leaves What is double fertilization? One sperm cell fertilizes the egg, another fuses with another megagametophyte cell which disintegrates What are the main events of the gymnosperm lifecycle? Contrast the lifecycles of Gymnosperms and angiosperms… See above for gymnosperm lifecycle How do humans use Gymnosperms? 1. LUMBER – primary use. Eastern white pine stems were used as masts for sailing vessels and for crates, furniture, flooring, paneling and matchsticks. Western white pine and Douglas firs are the source of most lumber. 2. Pine resin consists of turpentine and rosin. Turpentine is used as a solvent, and rosin is used by musicians and by baseball players. 3. White spruce is the chief source of newsprint. 4. Coastal redwoods are prized for their wood, which is resistant to fungi and insects. 5. Ginkgo seeds are edible, and Ginkgo plant extracts are used to improve blood circulation. Ephedra (Mormon tea, ma huang, or joint fir) produces Ephedrine - a powerful stimulant. 6. Eastern white cedar’s wood was used for canoes. Yew wood is used for making bows, and an extract (taxol) is used for the treatment of human ovarian cancer Questions from PowerPoint: All gymnosperms… no E monoecious; no D dioecious; no C deciduous (leaves fall every year); no B evergreen; YES, A! produce lignin Megasporocyte … Angiosperms I What are the characteristics that place Gnetophytes/Cycadeoids closest to the flowering plants? What makes flowering plants better adapted to the terrestrial environment than the Gymnosperms? Double fertilization; also see above for differences that help angiosperms better adapt; easier (more attractive) for insects to pollinate What is Welwitchia mirabilis? is a desert gymnosperm; Almost no rain, but frequent fog; Welwitschia absorbs moisture through fog (Almost fern or bryophyte like); dioecious Why is Welwitchia mirabilis potentially similar to the Angiosperm ancestors? this is much like the Angiosperm double fertilization, the second cell disintegrates and does not produce the typical triploid endosperm; Welwitschia may represent an intermediate species during the evolution of Double Fertilization What makes Welwitchia so unique among the extant gymnosperms? Basal meristem that produces only two leaves during the 100-yr life span of the plant; unlike other gymnosperms and like other Gnetophytes: one sperm cell fertilizes the egg and another fuses with another cell within the female gametophyte What is double fertilization? *see previous definition Character evolution that lead to Angiosperms. What are the important traits? What are two of the present hypotheses on reasons that lead to the dominance of Angiosperms over Gymnosperms at the end of Mesozoic era? Dinosaurs: The large herbivores in Jurassic mysteriously were replaced by smaller ones during the Cretaceous; different feeding patterns resulted in difficulty of completing gymnosperm life cycle; faster reproducing angiosperms replaced gymnosperms Insect pollination: Greater accuracy in pollen delivery, greater energy conservation What are Cycadeoids? What is so special about them? An extinct group of seed plants; became extinct around the end of Cretaceous (about the same as dino extinction); protected reproduction – bisporangiate (almost flower-like) What are the two competing hypotheses on the origin of the Angiosperms? How do these differ timewise? Also, what are the proposed times for divergence of Angiosperms according to these two hypotheses? the first assumes that the last divergence gave rise to angiospersma and Gnetophytes; the other suggests that angiosperm divergence preceded cycadeoid-gnetophyte lineage; timing “issue” is that angiosperms preceded cycadeoids, but angiosperms may have been around at 200mya, not 100mya What was the ancestral Angiosperm like? How did this emerge from the proposed common seedfern ancestor? Red parts are microsporangia-bearing, yellowish brown megasporangia-bearing; Ceratophyllum possibly resembles the earliest flowering plants (because of the bisporangiate strobilus of the cycadeoids from a monoecious “seed-fern” origin): aquatic plant; the dogma stated that angiosperms emerged in cool, drier upland environments How do we propose the carpel emerged, i.e., how do you make a carpel from an open ovulate megasporophyll? Ceratophyllum is simple and has a single-chambered carpel When did the Angiosperms emerge? 125 mya Questions from lecture: Angiosperms are plants that… Angiosperms replaced gymnosperms because… Angiosperm ancestor likely occurred… Glossary Exam 5 Friday, April 8, 2016 This is your helpful glossary for the first exam. To make best use of the long list of words, write the definitions for each of the words and do not merely assume that you know the terms. Use your textbook glossary and index as well as the lecture notes to find words that you are not already familiar with. Yep, it has a lot of words, but most of these you should be familiar with anyways… Agar: gelatinous substance produced by certain red algae and a few brown algae; often used as a culture medium, particularly for bacteria Algin: gelatinous substance produced by certain brown algae; used in a wide variety of food substances and in pharmaceutical, industrial, household products Alternation of generations: alternation between a haploid gametophyte phase and a diploid sporophyte phase in the lifecycle of sexual reproduced organisms Angiosperm: plant whose seeds develop within ovaries that mature into fruits Anisogamous: (also called heterogamy) refers to a form of sexual reproduction involving the union or fusion of two dissimilar gametes (differing in size and/or form) Anther: pollen-bearing part of the stamen Antipodals (of the embryo sac): relating to or denoting cells formed at the chalazal end of the embryo sac Archaeopteris: A taxonomic genus within the family Archaeopteridaceae — known from fossils and widely accepted as the earliest and most primitive known tree, with wood similar to a conifer's, but producing spores like a fern Archegonium: multicellular female gametangium of bryophytes and most vascular plants other than angiosperms Bacillariophyceae: Diatoms are producers within the food chain. A unique feature of diatom cells is that they are enclosed within a cell wall made of silica (hydrated silicon dioxide) called a frustule. These frustules show a wide diversity in form, but are usually almost bilaterally symmetrical, hence the group name Biennial: plant that normally requires 2 seasons to complete its lifecycle, first growth is strictly vegetative Bifacial cambium: bifacial (vascular) cambium: having two "faces", i.e. a vascular cambium that produces cells on both sides; in seed plants phloem is produced to the outside and xylem to the inside Bisporangiate strobilus: Brevetoxin: (PbTx), or brevetoxins, are a suite of cyclic polyether compounds produced naturally by a species of dinoflagellate known as Karenia brevis Bryophyta: A division of small flowerless green plants which comprises the mosses and liverworts. They lack true roots and reproduce by spores released from a stalked capsule Calyptra: tissue from the enlarged archegonial wall of many mosses that forms a partial or complete cap over the capsule Cambium: meristem producing secondary tissues Capsule: dry fruit that splits in various ways at maturity, often long or between carpel margins; main part of the sporophyte in which different types of tissues develop Carpel: ovule-bearing unit that’s part of a pistil Central cell nuclei (of the embryo sac): nuclei, frequently 2, that unite with a sperm in an embryo sac, forming a primary endosperm nucleus Chlorophyta: (phylum) green algae; closest to plants because they invaded land from freshwater Chromophyta: (phylum) brown algae (or yellow-green); of algae ranging in size and complexity from unicellular flagellates to gigantic kelps; distinguished by the presence (in almost all) of chlorophyll c to complement chlorophyll a Companion cells: specialized cell derived from the same parent cell as the closely associated sieve tube member immediately adjacent to it (in angiosperm phloem) Conceptacle (Fucus): specialized cavities of marine and freshwater algae that contain the reproductive organs Cotyledon: embryo leaf (“seed leaf”) that usually either stores or absorbs food Cuticle: waxy or fatter layer of varying thickness on the outer walls of epidermal cells Cycadophyta: a division of extinct gymnosperms comprising the cycadophytes Cytokinesis: division of a cell, usually following mitosis Deciduous: shedding leaves annually Desiccation: process of removing moisture Dicotyledon: a flowering plant with an embryo that bears two cotyledons (seed leaves). Dicotyledons constitute the larger of the two great divisions of flowering plants, and typically have broad, stalked leaves with netlike veins (e.g., daisies, hawthorns, oaks) Dinoflagellate: a single-celled organism with two flagella, occurring in large numbers in marine plankton and also found in fresh water. Some produce toxins that can accumulate in shellfish, resulting in poisoning when eaten Dinophyta: (dinoflagellate): Any of numerous minute, chiefly marine protists of the phylum Dinoflagellata, characteristically having two flagella and a cellulose covering and forming one of the chief constituents of plankton. They include bioluminescent species, photosynthetic species, and species that produce red tide Dioecious: unisexual flowers or cones, with male flowers or cones confined to certain plants and the female flowers or cones of the same species confined to different plants Diploid: 2 sets of chromosomes in each cell; 2x chromosome number characteristic of the sporophyte generation Dormancy: period of growth inactivity in seeds, buds, bulbs, and other plant organs even when environmental conditions normally required for growth are met Double fertilization: event in angiosperms in which 1 sperm fertilizes the egg to produce a zygote and another sperm fertilizes the central cell to produce endosperm tissue Drupe: simple fleshy fruit whose single seed in enclosed within a hard endocarp Elater: strap-like appendage (usually occurs in pairs) attached to horsetail spore; somewhat spindle-shaped sterile cell occurring in large numbers in liverwort sporangia; both types of elaters facilitate spore dispersal Elysia chlorotica: common name the eastern emerald elysia, is a small-to-medium-sized species of green sea slug, a marine opisthobranch gastropod mollusk Embryo: immature sporophyte that develops from a zygote within an ovule or archegonium after fertilization Embryonic leaf: Upon germination, the cotyledon may become the embryonic first leaves of a seedling. The number of cotyledons present is one characteristic used by botanists to classify the flowering plants (angiosperms). Species with one cotyledon are called monocotyledonous ("monocots") Embryophyta: Embryophyta are the most familiar subkingdom of green plants that form vegetation on earth. Living embryophytes include hornworts, liverworts, mosses, ferns, lycophytes, gymnosperms and flowering plants, and emerged from Charophyte green algae Enation: one of the tiny, green leaf-like outgrowths on the stems of whisk ferns Endosperm: food-storage tissue that develops through divisions of the primary endosperm nucleus; digested by the sporophyte after germination in some species or before maturation of the seed in other species Epicotyl: part of the embryo or seedling above the attachment point of the cotyledons Epidermis: exterior tissue, usually 1 cell thick, of leaves, young stems, roots, and other parts of the plant Equisetophyta: Equisetum, the only living genus in this division; Most species have numerous whorled branches that lend the plant a plumed or feathery appearance; generally, grow in moist places, have roots and ribbed green stems; vascular; photosynthetic; the sperm swims to the egg through a film of water Evergreen: a plant that retains green leaves throughout the year Fertilization: formation of zygote through the fusion of 2 gametes Filament (of the stamen): thread-like body of certain bacteria, algae, fungi; stalk portion of a stamen Flagellum: fine, threadlike structure protruding from a motile unicellular organism or the motile cells produced by multicellular organisms; functions primarily in locomotion Flower: plant structure that contains reproductive organs and associated tissues Gametophyte: haploid gamete-producing phase of the lifecycle of an organism that exhibits Alt of Gen Gemmae cup: (gemma): small growth of tissue that becomes detached from the parent body and is capable of developing into a complete new plant or other organism; gemmae are produced in cup-like structures on liverwort thalli and are also produced by certain fungi Generative cell: cell of the male gametophyte of angiosperms that divides, producing 2 sperms; the cell of the male gametophyte of gymnosperms that divides, producing a sterile cell and a spermatogenous cell Ginkgophyta: plants having naked seeds not enclosed in an ovary; A division of trees comprising the ginkgos. In some systems it is classified as a class (Ginkgopsida) and in others as a subdivision (Ginkgophytina or Ginkgophyta); used in some classifications for one of five subdivisions of Gymnospermophyta Gnetophyta: a small but diverse phylum (Gnetophyta) of gymnosperm plants with some features similar to those of angiosperms, such as xylem with vessels, strobili resembling inflorescences, and the absence of archegonia Gymnosperm: plant whose seeds aren’t enclosed within an ovary during their development Haploid: 1 set of chromosomes per cell, as in gametophytes; referred to as having 1x chromosomes Herbivory: the eating of plants, especially ones that are still living Heterosporous: producing two different kinds of spores Heterospory: production of both microspores and megaspores Holdfast: attachment organ or cell at the base of the thallus or filament of certain algae Homosporous: Producing spores of one kind only that are not differentiated by sex. The spores of homosporous plants, such as horsetails and most ferns, grow into bisexual gametophytes (producing both male and female gametes) Homospory: the production of a single kind of spore, neither microspore nor megaspore Hydrofilm: reliable transparent adhesive film dressings that protect wounds from bacteria and water Hydroid: a coelenterate of an order that includes the hydras. They are distinguished by the dominance of the polyp phase Hypocotyl: portion of the embryo or seedling between the radicle and cotyledons Imbibition: absorption of water and subsequent swelling of organic materials because of the adhesion of the water molecules to the internal surfaces Integument: outermost layer of an ovule; usually develops into a seed coat; gymnosperm ovule usually has 1 integument; angiosperms normally have 2 Isogamous: (isogamy): sexual reproduction in certain algae and fungi having gametes that are alike in size Leaf Gap: parenchyma-filled interruption in a stem’s cylinder of vascular tissue immediately above the point at which a branch of vascular tissue leading to a leaf occurs Leptoid: a type of elongated food-conducting cell in the stems of some mosses, such as the family Polytrichaceae. They surround strands of water-conducting hydroids. They have some structural and developmental similarities to the sieve elements of seedless vascular plants Lignin: polymer with which certain cell walls become impregnated Lycophyta: tracheophyte subdivision of the Kingdom Plantae. It is the oldest extant (living) vascular plant division at around 410 million years’ old Megagametophyte: female gametophyte of angiosperms that most species have 8 nuclei Megaphyll: leaf having branching veins; associated with leaf gap Megasporangium: sporangium in which megaspores are formed Megaspore: spore that develops into a female gametophyte (megagametophyte) Megasporocyte: diploid cell that produces megaspores upon undergoing meiosis Megasporophyll: leaf, usually reduced in size, that produces megaspores following meiosis Meiosis: process of 2 successive nuclear divisions through which segregation of genes occurs and a single diploid cell becomes 4 haploid cells Meristem: region of undifferentiated cells in which new cells arise Microgametophyte: the male gametophyte produced by a microspore Microphyll: leaf having a single unbranched vein not associated with a leaf gap Micropyle: pore/opening in the integuments of an ovule through which a pollen tube gains access to an embryo sac or archegonium of a seed plant Microsporangium: sporangium in which micro spores are formed Microspore: spore that develops into a male gametophyte (microsporocyte) Microsporocyte: diploid cell that produces microspores upon undergoing meiosis Microsporophyll: leaf, usually reduced in size, on or within which microspores are produced Mitosis: nuclear division, usually accompanied by cytokinesis, during which the chromatids of the chromosomes separate and 2 genetically identical daughter nuclei are produced Monocotyledon: class of angiosperms whose seeds have a single cotyledon; abbreviated as monocot Monoecious: unisexual male flowers/ cones and unisexual female flowers/cones on the same plant Monophyletic: descended from a common evolutionary ancestor or ancestral group, especially one not shared with any other group Monosporangiate: Bearing or containing a monosporangium Multinucleate: (also called multinucleated or polynuclear cells) are eukaryotic cells that have more than one nucleus per cell, i.e., multiple nuclei share one common cytoplasm Mycorrhiza: symbiotic association between fungal hyphae and a plant root Nucellus: ovule tissue within which the embryo sac develops Oogamy: sexual reproduction in which the female gametophyte (egg) is non- motile and larger than the male gamete (sperm) which is motile Oogonium: female sex organ of certain algae and fungi; it consists of a single cell that contains one to several eggs Ovary: enlarged basal portion of a pistil that contains an ovule(s) and usually develops into a fruit Ovule: structure of seed plants that contains a female gametophyte and has the potential to develop into a seed Peduncle (of flower): stalk of a solitary flower or the main stalk of an inflorescence Phaeophyceae: or giant kelp, is a brown alga that is generally found in a costal, temperate, marine environment Phloem: food-conducting tissue of a vascular plant Photosynthate: a sugar or other substance made by photosynthesis Phragmoplast (and Cell Plate): complex of microtubules and endoplasmic reticulum that develops during telophase of mitosis Phycobilin: any of a group of red or blue photosynthetic pigments present in some algae Pinophyta: The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as division Coniferophyta or Coniferae, are one of 12 extant division-level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae (Viridiplantae) and 10 within the extant land plants. Pinophytes are gymnosperms, cone-bearing seed plants with vascular tissue Pollen: a fine powdery substance, typically yellow, consisting of microscopic grains discharged from the male part of a flower or from a male cone. Each grain contains a male gamete that can fertilize the female ovule, to which pollen is transported by the wind, insects, or other animals Pollen droplet: (pollen grain): structure derived from the microspore of seed plants that develop into a male gametophyte Pollination: transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma Pollination chamber: a chamber in which pollination occurs Polyphyletic: (of a group of organisms) derived from more than one common evolutionary ancestor or ancestral group and therefore not suitable for placing in the same taxon Polypodiophyta: any of numerous flowerless, seedless vascular plants that produce spores giving rise to free-living gametophytes and that often have dissected leaves Psilophyta: division of the plant kingdom that includes ferns, horsetails and clubmosses Psilotum: (whisk fern) is a genus of fern-like vascular plants, one of two genera in the family Psilotaceae, order Psilotales, and class Psilotopsida (the other being Tmesipteris). The name of the genus is from Greek psilos = bare, referring to the lack of the usual plant organs, such as leaves Pyrenoid: small body found on the chloroplasts of certain green algae and hornworts; associated with starch accumulation; may occur singly on a chloroplast or numerous Rhizoid: delicate root or root hair like structure of algae, fungi, gametophytes of bryophytes, and certain structures of a few vascular plants; functions in anchorage and absorption but has no xylem or phloem Rhizome: underground stem, usually horizontal, may be superficially root like in appearance but has nodes and internodes Rhodophyta: marine algae of the phylum Rhodophyta, in which the chlorophyll is masked by a red pigment Root: plant organ that functions in anchorage and absorption; most roots are produced underground Seed: mature ovule containing an embryo and bound by a protective seed coat Seed coat: outer boundary layer of the seed; developed from the integuments Seed dormancy: a state in which seeds are prevented from germinating even under environmental conditions normally favorable for germination Seed fern: another term for pteridosperm: an extinct plant that is intermediate between the ferns and seed-bearing plants, dying out in the Triassic period Selaginella: a creeping mosslike plant of a genus that includes the lesser club mosses Sieve cell: a sieve element of a primitive type present in ferns and gymnosperms, with narrow pores and no sieve plate Sieve element: an elongated cell in the phloem of a vascular plant, in which the primary wall is perforated by pores through which water is conducted Sieve plate: area of the wall of a sieve tube member that contains several perforations that permit cytoplasmic connections between similar adjacent cells, the cytoplasmic strands being larger than plasmodesmata Sieve tube members: single cell of a sieve tube Sorus: cluster of sporangia; typically, sporangia on ferns Sporangium: structure in which spores are produced; unicellular or multicellular Spore mother cell: A megaspore mother cell, or megasporocyte, is a diploid cell in plants in which meiosis will occur, resulting in the production of four megaspores, the spores that develop into female gametophytes Sporocyte: diploid cell that becomes 4 haploid spores or nuclei as a result of meiosis Sporophyll: modified leaf that bears a sporangium Sporophyte: diploid spore-producing phase of the lifecycle in the Alt of Gen Starch: an odorless tasteless white substance occurring widely in plant tissue and obtained chiefly from cereals and potatoes. It is a polysaccharide that functions as a carbohydrate store and is an important constituent of the human diet Stigma: pollen receptive area of a pistil Stomate: another term for stoma: any of the minute pores in the epidermis of the leaf or stem of a plant, forming a slit of variable width that allows movement of gases in and out of the intercellular spaces Stramenopila: any of numerous mostly aquatic organisms in the group Heterokonta, having zoospores or other swimming cells usually with a pair of flagella Strobilus: aggregation of sporophylls on a common axis; usually resembles a cone Symbiosis: intimate association between 2 dissimilar organisms that is mutualistic (both good) or parasitic (1 bad, 1 good) Synergids: part of the egg apparatus and are thought to help the pollen nucleus reach the egg cell for fertilization Thecae: a receptacle, sheath, or cell enclosing an organ, part, or structure, in particular Tracheid: xylem cell that’s tapered at the ends and has thick walls containing pits Trichome: a small hair or other outgrowth from the epidermis of a plant, typically unicellular and glandular Triploid: containing three homologous sets of chromosomes Tube cell: one of the two cells that is produced by division of the microspore nucleus in the development of the male gametophyte in higher plants and that functions in development of the pollen tube Ulvophyceae: alternative name for the class Chlorophyceae in some classifications Vascular tissue: the tissue in higher plants that constitutes the vascular system, consisting of phloem and xylem, by which water and nutrients are conducted throughout the plant Venter: site of the egg in the enlarged basal portion of the archegonium Vessel element: single cell of a vessel Welwitchia mirabilis: Welwitschia is a monotypic gymnosperm genus, comprising solely the distinctive Welwitschia mirabilis. The plant is commonly known simply aswelwitschia in English, but the name tree tumbo is also used Xanthophyceae: yellow-green algae which can be found in freshwater, marine, or soil environments Xylem: tissue through which most of the water and dissolved minerals utilized by a plant are conducted; it consists of several types of cells Zygote: product of the union of 2 gametes Study Guide Exam 5 Updated April, 2016 Algae and Allies (quizlet and slides) Meiosis: Where and how does the reduction of chromosome number occur, why  is this necessary? Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid (2n) to  haploid (n). All human somatic cells have a diploid chromosome number of 46,  whereas the human gametes (sperm and ova) have a haploid chromosome  number of 23. During fertilization, a haploid sperm cell and a haploid egg cell  combine to form a diploid zygote. Each parent contributes 23 chromosomes to  the offspring so that it has a total of 46 chromosomes. Hence, meiosis halves the  chromosome number, but the diploid condition is restored during fertilization. If meiosis did not occur, the chromosome number would continue to double with  each successive fertilization. In the absence of meiosis, a mating between two  individuals with a diploid number of 46 would result in offspring with 92  chromosomes! Each species has a characteristic chromosome number, and  meiosis ensures that this chromosome number is maintained What are the advantages of sexual and asexual reproduction? Asexual: only one  parent required to reproduce; quicker than sexual reproduction; there are many  offspring in a short time; Sexual: there is genetic diversity; all individuals are  genetically unique; survival characteristics are passed on, so species can adapt; if  conditions change some may die but some may survive Describe alternation of generations; pivot points; cell divisions; cell fusions;  ploidy levels; and production of gametes and spores! Chlorophyll character evolution in the groups of algae and plants. What makes red algae red; what unites them as a group? Phycobilins  What are the photosynthetic pigments in Rhodophyta? Chlorophylls A and  sometimes d Why are red algae important to humans; to (clinical) microbiology? Amazing  anti­oxidant Where do red algae occur? warmer and deep waters Polysiphonia life cycle – what produces haploid plants, what do these plants  produce, where does the zygote reside, what tissues come from the zygote, how  do these behave? There are a lot of specific terms for structures, I am not going to expect you to memorize those. Instead use terms haploid spores, haploid  male/female gametophyte, male/female gametangia, egg, sperm, zygote,  diploid spore, diploid sporophyte, diploid sporangia, sporocyte.  It consists of a sequence of a gametangial,  carposporangial and tetrasporangial phases.  Male (haploid) plants produce spermatia and  the female plants produce the carpogonium  which remains attached to the parent female  plant. After fertilization the diploid nucleus  migrates and fuses with an auxiliary cell. A  complex series of fusions and developments  follow as the diploid zygote develops to  become the carposporophyte, this is a  separate phase of the life­cycle and is entirely  parasitic on the female, it is surrounded by the haploid pericarp of the parent female plant. The diploid carpospores produced in the carposporangium when released are non­motile, they settle and grow to form filamentous diploid plants similar to the gametophyte. This diploid plant is the  tetrasporophyte which when adult produced spores in fours after meiosis. These  spores settle and grow to become the male and female plants thus completing the cycle Chlorophyta – what is it; what kinds of organisms belong to it (morphologically,  taxonomically); what are the photosynthetic pigments in Chlorophyta?  Green algae; unicellular, platelike colonies, netlike tubes, hollow spheres, lettuce­ like leaves; chlorophylls a and b; most have sexual and asexual reproduction;  Contains mostly unicellular (some multicellular) organisms. Organisms include:  Spirogyra (watersilk), Ulva (Sea Lettuce), and Genus Oedogonium.  Chlorophyta contain chlorophylls a and b, although the major pigment is  chlorophyll b Where does one find Cholorophyta? Freshwater (lake, ponds, streams), some tree bark, animal fur, snowbanks, in flatworms or sponges; floating in masses on the  surface of quiet freshwater What is Chlamydomonas – what does its lifecycle look like; what induces sex; what is the importance of resting zygote?  Sex is induced by lack of Nitrogen (­N); resting zygote makes it more resistant to  harsh environments (winter, drought, etc.); zygotes are sticky and they adhere to  feet of waterfowl for dispersal; Chlamydomonas is a genus of green algae  consisting of unicellular flagellates, found in stagnant water and on damp soil, in freshwater, seawater, and even in snow; vegetative cycle and sexual cycle are  isogamous  (unicellular, 2 flagella, red eye spot)  Anisogamy vs. isogamy­ what does this mean? Isogamy= same sized gametes­­  form of sexual reproduction that involves gametes of similar morphology  (similar shape and size), differing in general only in allele expression in one or  more mating­type regions; Anisogamy=unequal sized gametes (true eggs and  sperm) ­­refers to a form of sexual reproduction involving the union or fusion of  two dissimilar gametes How does anisogamy vs. isogamy compare to heterospory vs homospory? How  is Volvocales an example for this? Make also a note of the Volvocales importance  as a multicellular model… Anisogamy=unequal gamete size  Isogamy=same gamete size (can't label as M/F) Heterospory=Like anisogamy (can be determined) Homospory=Isogamy (can't be labeled) What is Volvox – what does its lifecycle look like; what induces sex; what is the  importance of resting zygote?  volox is colonial green algae held together in a  secretion of gelatinous material. It participates in asexual or sexual reproduction;  sex induced by high Volvox concentrations, stress, etc. What is Oedogonium – what does its lifecycle look like (note particularly the  location and development of the zygote)?  Oedogonium are filamentous green algae with holdfast, they are large netlike  chloroplast with pyrenoids at intersections. They have both asexual and sexual  reproduction. Asexual­ by zoospores that are produced at the cells tips of  filaments. Sexual­Occurs in Oogonium What is Spirogyra –  what does its lifecycle look like (note particularly the  location fertilization and development of the zygote)? Spirogyra (watersilk) have  filaments of cylindrical cells, frequently floats in masse on the surface of  freshwater, and chloroplast ribbon­like spiral wrapped around vacuole, with  pyrenoids at regular intervals. ­­assexual reproduction by fragmentation in  filaments, sexual reproduction by conjugation. Why are the Charopyceae important in the evolutionary history of plants?  Transitional to terrestrial plants What is oogamy? when one gamete is motile, while the other is large and  stationary What is a red tide? The marine phenomenon that results in the water becoming  temporarily tinged with red due to sudden proliferation of certain dinoflagellates that produce substances poisonous to animal life and humans; bloom of  unicellular dinoflagellates What is Stramenopila? A phylum containing yellow­green algae What are Xanthophycaceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Phaeophyceae?  Xanthophycaceae are green­yellow algae, Bacillariophyceae are the diatoms, and  Phaeophyceae are brown algae Vaucheria and Elysia interaction – how is this an example of novel endosymbiosis; what does serial endosymbiosis mean? Vaucheria are consumed by the sea slug  Elysia, but are only partially digested by them in order to retain the  photosynthet


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All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.