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KSU - BIOL 201 - Study Guide - Midterm

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KSU - BIOL 201 - Study Guide - Midterm

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background image Study Guide Exam 5 
 
Updated April, 2016 
 
Algae and Allies (quizlet and slides) 
Meiosis: Where and how does the reduction of chromosome number occur, why 
is this necessary? Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid (2n) to 
haploid (n). All human somatic cells have a diploid chromosome number of 46, 
whereas the human gametes (sperm and ova) have a haploid chromosome 
number of 23. During fertilization, a haploid sperm cell and a haploid egg cell 
combine to form a diploid zygote. Each parent contributes 23 chromosomes to 
the offspring so that it has a total of 46 chromosomes. Hence, meiosis halves the 
chromosome number, but the diploid condition is restored during fertilization. If 
meiosis did not occur, the chromosome number would continue to double with 
each successive fertilization. In the absence of meiosis, a mating between two 
individuals with a diploid number of 46 would result in offspring with 92 
chromosomes! Each species has a characteristic chromosome number, and 
meiosis ensures that this chromosome number is maintained 
 
What are the advantages of sexual and asexual reproduction? Asexual: only one 
parent required to reproduce; quicker than sexual reproduction; there are many 
offspring in a short time; Sexual: there is genetic diversity; all individuals are 
genetically unique; survival characteristics are passed on, so species can adapt; if 
conditions change some may die but some may survive 
 
Describe alternation of generations; pivot points; cell divisions; cell fusions; 
ploidy levels; and production of gametes and spores! 
   
Chlorophyll character evolution in the groups of algae and plants. 
 
What makes red algae red; what unites them as a group? Phycobilins  
 
What are the photosynthetic pigments in Rhodophyta? Chlorophylls A and 
sometimes d 
 
background image Why are red algae important to humans; to (clinical) microbiology? Amazing 
anti-oxidant 
 
Where do red algae occur? warmer and deep waters 
 
Polysiphonia life cycle – what produces haploid plants, what do these plants 
produce, where does the zygote reside, what tissues come from the zygote, how 
do these behave? There are a lot of specific terms for structures, I am not going to 
expect you to memorize those. Instead use terms haploid spores, haploid 
male/female gametophyte, male/female gametangia, egg, sperm, zygote, 
diploid spore, diploid sporophyte, diploid sporangia, sporocyte.  
 
It consists of a sequence of a gametangial, 
carposporangial and tetrasporangial phases. 
Male (haploid) plants produce spermatia and 
the female plants produce the carpogonium 
which remains attached to the parent female 
plant. After fertilization the diploid nucleus 
migrates and fuses with an auxiliary cell. A 
complex series of fusions and developments 
follow as the diploid zygote develops to 
become the carposporophyte, this is a 
separate phase of the life-cycle and is entirely 
parasitic on the female, it is surrounded by the 
haploid pericarp of the parent female plant. The diploid carpospores produced in 
the carposporangium when released are non-motile, they settle and grow to form 
filamentous diploid plants similar to the gametophyte. This diploid plant is the 
tetrasporophyte which when adult produced spores in fours after meiosis. These 
spores settle and grow to become the male and female plants thus completing the 
cycle 
 
Chlorophyta – what is it; what kinds of organisms belong to it (morphologically, 
taxonomically); what are the photosynthetic pigments in Chlorophyta?  
Green algae; unicellular, platelike colonies, netlike tubes, hollow spheres, lettuce-
like leaves; chlorophylls a and b; most have sexual and asexual reproduction; 
Contains mostly unicellular (some multicellular) organisms. Organisms include: 
Spirogyra (watersilk), Ulva (Sea Lettuce), and Genus Oedogonium.  
Chlorophyta contain chlorophylls a and b, although the major pigment is 
chlorophyll b 
 
Where does one find Cholorophyta? Freshwater (lake, ponds, streams), some tree 
bark, animal fur, snowbanks, in flatworms or sponges; floating in masses on the 
surface of quiet freshwater 
background image  
What is Chlamydomonas – what does its lifecycle look like; what induces sex; what 
is the importance of resting zygote?  
Sex is induced by lack of Nitrogen (-N); resting zygote makes it more resistant to 
harsh environments (winter, drought, etc.); zygotes are sticky and they adhere to 
feet of waterfowl for dispersal; Chlamydomonas is a genus of green algae 
consisting of unicellular flagellates, found in stagnant water and on damp soil, in 
freshwater, seawater, and even in snow; vegetative cycle and sexual cycle are 
isogamous 
 (unicellular, 2 flagella, red eye spot)       
Anisogamy vs. isogamy- what does this mean? Isogamy= same sized gametes-- 
form of sexual reproduction that involves gametes of similar morphology 
(similar shape and size), differing in general only in allele expression in one or 
more mating-type regions; Anisogamy=unequal sized gametes (true eggs and 
sperm) --refers to a form of sexual reproduction involving the union or fusion of 
two dissimilar gametes 
 
How does anisogamy vs. isogamy compare to heterospory vs homospory? How 
is Volvocales an example for this? Make also a note of the Volvocales importance 
as a multicellular model… 
Anisogamy=unequal gamete size  
Isogamy=same gamete size (can't label as M/F) 
Heterospory=Like anisogamy (can be determined) 
Homospory=Isogamy (can't be labeled) 
 
What is Volvox – what does its lifecycle look like; what induces sex; what is the 
importance of resting zygote?  volox is colonial green algae held together in a 
secretion of gelatinous material. It participates in asexual or sexual reproduction; 
sex induced by high Volvox concentrations, stress, etc. 
 
What is Oedogonium – what does its lifecycle look like (note particularly the 
location and development of the zygote)?  
Oedogonium are filamentous green algae with holdfast, they are large netlike 
chloroplast with pyrenoids at intersections. They have both asexual and sexual 
reproduction. Asexual- by zoospores that are produced at the cells tips of 
filaments. Sexual-Occurs in Oogonium 
 
background image    
What is Spirogyra –  what does its lifecycle look like (note particularly the 
location fertilization and development of the zygote)? Spirogyra (watersilk) have 
filaments of cylindrical cells, frequently floats in masse on the surface of 
freshwater, and chloroplast ribbon-like spiral wrapped around vacuole, with 
pyrenoids at regular intervals. --assexual reproduction by fragmentation in 
filaments, sexual reproduction by conjugation. 
 
Why are the Charopyceae important in the evolutionary history of plants? 
Transitional to terrestrial plants 
 
What is oogamy? when one gamete is motile, while the other is large and 
stationary 
 
What is a red tide? The marine phenomenon that results in the water becoming 
temporarily tinged with red due to sudden proliferation of certain dinoflagellates 
that produce substances poisonous to animal life and humans; bloom of 
unicellular dinoflagellates 
 
What is Stramenopila? A phylum containing yellow-green algae 
 
What are Xanthophycaceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Phaeophyceae? 
Xanthophycaceae are green-yellow algae, Bacillariophyceae are the diatoms, and 
Phaeophyceae are brown algae 
 
Vaucheria and Elysia interaction – how is this an example of novel endosymbiosis; 
what does serial endosymbiosis mean? Vaucheria are consumed by the sea slug 
Elysia, but are only partially digested by them in order to retain the 
photosynthetic chloroplasts in a process called kleptoplasty. The sea slug feeds 
background image on V. litorea, retaining the chloroplasts in storage in cells along the slug's 
digestive tract; the origin of nucleated eukaryotic cells by a merging (not 
ramming) of archaebacterial and eubacterial cells 
 
How do algae and dinoflagellates affect human and fish health? Algae provide 
important commodities to humans 
- Diatoms : toothpaste, pool filters, metal polishes 
- Algin : commercially produced ice cream, salad dressing, beer, jelly beans 
The Red Tide (dinoflagellates) kill millions of fish by O2 consumption when 
decaying in fresh water 
- some produce neurotoxins that are transferred to humans through shellfish 
- some lodge into the fish gills 
 
Bacillariophyceae – what are they and where do we find them; note the 
photosynthetic pigments.  
Bacillariophyceae are the Diatoms. They are unicellular, found in fresh and salt 
water and are abundant in cold marine habitats. Can also be found on damp 
cliffs, tree bark and buildings 
 
Describe the unique cell division and daughter cell size distribution in 
Bacillariophyceae. Asexual reproduction results in half of cells becoming smaller. 
Original cell size restored through sexual reproduction 
 
Where do you find Phaeophyceae? Mostly in marine environments in cold, 
shallow water 
 
What are the photosynthetic pigments in Phaeophyceae? Chloropylls a and c, 
Fucoxanthin 
 
Fucus – what is it and what does its lifecycle look like? Fucus is a common 
rockweed. It uses sexual reproduction are the tips of branches 
 
How do algae relate to the rest of the organisms phylogenetically? Haploid 
dominate; base aquatic food chains; meiosis immediately follows fertilization 
except with focus on brown algae; uses up all nutrients, dies and decays leaving 
foul odors 
 
background image  
Why is water necessary for the fertilization and survival of the algal zygote? 
-water is necessary for sexual reproduction 
-Flagellated gametes 
-Zygote is free living 
 
Do algae have alternation of generations? Yes 
 
Questions from the PowerPoint: 
The key difference between asexual (mitosis) and sexual reproduction (meiosis) 
is… B. Crossing over 
Which of the following is unicellular green algae? A. Chlamydomonas 
Algae are… E. None of the following: monophyletic, a kingdom in Bidlack, 
group where cyanobacteria belong, or group where most plants belong 
 
 
Bryophytes 
Alternation of generations!  
Doesn’t happen in animals, and does in 
plants (some algae); after the evolution of 
ferns, there is a diploid dominant phase; 
meiosis in diploid sporocyte; mitosis 
between spores and gametophyte; mitosis 
from gametophyte to produce gametes; 
fertilization; all bryophytes and higher 
plants have a clear Alt of Gen 
 
What are vascular and non-vascular plants? Vascular= contains xylem and 
phloem; non-vascular does not 
 
How do bryophytes relate to the rest of the organisms? (Hint look into a 
phylogenetic tree; map the character evolution into it).  
   
background image What are the grand challenges in moving to terrestrial ecosystem for plants; how 
do bryophytes solve these issues? 
  Drying out – cuticle, gametangia and sporangia became multicellular and  surrounded by sterile cells, zygotes develop into multicellular embryos within 
parental tissues 
  Source of nutrition    Resist intense sunlight (no longer able to swim deeper to avoid such light)    Require a different method for obtaining CO2    Higher concentrations of oxygen than in water   
What are the main groups of bryophytes? Phylum Hepaticophyta (liverworts); 
Phylum Bryophyta (Mosses); Phylum Anthocerophyta (hornworts) 
 
What are the general characteristics of bryophytes? Non-vascular (or very 
primitive), thought of as algae that colonized land, flagellated sperm, 
chlorophylls a and b, starch as storage, cellulose-rich cell wall; no lignin; no roots 
but rhizoids (only anchors, no nutrient absorption) 
 
How do the evolutionary traits map into the phylogenetic tree of plants and 
bryophytes? 
   
Which bryophytes have stomata, are these functional (have guard cells that 
close)? Mosses and hornworts have stomata, but they don’t function 
 
Which bryophytes have vascular tissues; do they work as well as the xylem and 
phloem? None or very primitive vascular tissues (hydroids and leptoids) 
 
Which bryophytes have roots; are they capable of absorption of water/nutrients 
from soil? None; absorption through plant body; they have rhizoids as anchors 
 
How are the life cycles of bryophytes different from lifecycles of alga? 
Bryophyte life cycle: asexual reproduction by gametophyte fragmentation; 
gametophyte is dominant; gametophyte is nutritionally independent; 
background image sporophytes usually not photosynthetic (hornworts are the exception); Alt of Gen 
(in mosses, leafy plant is major part of gametophyte generation) 
Algae life cycle:  
     
What is the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fossils from 460mya? 
Fossils of spores; > 400 million yrs ago is when the first land plants appeared, 
and it is thought that the ancestor progressed from aquatic to land before that; 
1st terrestrial plants were similar to bryophytes (no vascular tissue or roots) 
 
What is a sporophyte/gametophyte? 
Gametophytes produce gametes; Sporophytes produce spores 
 
What are the morphological/lifecycle features that make bryophytes better fit for 
terrestrial environment than algae? (Note – Compare algal and bryophyte life 
cycles and identify similarities and differences.) 
Asexual reproduction by gametophyte fragmentation; Gametophyte is the 
dominant generation; gametophyte nutritionally independent; Sporophyte 
(usually) non-photosynthetic, parasitic (?) on the gametophyte; In algae, 
sporophyte and gametophyte both free-living and often isomorphic (hornworts 
exception) 
 
What is the purpose of Marchantia pores?  
The pores open into a chamber that help take in air and play a role in asexual 
reproduction 
 
How does asexual dispersal occur in Marchantia?  
Gemmae are tiny, lens-shaped pieces of tissue that become detached from 
thallus; they are produced in gemmae cups that are scattered all over the thallus 

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School: Kansas State University
Department: Biology
Course: Organismic Biology
Professor: Ari Jumpponen
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Bio, 201, botany, Gymnosperms, angiosperms, Bryophytes, and algae
Name: BIO 201 Study Guide Exam 5
Description: Study guide for next exam; includes pictures, question and answers from lectures, and terms.
Uploaded: 04/16/2016
71 Pages 139 Views 111 Unlocks
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