British Lit Final Study Guide
British Lit Final Study Guide EH 203
Jacksonville State University
Popular in Survey of English Literature I
Popular in Foreign Language
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Burke on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EH 203 at Jacksonville State University taught by Dr. Gates in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Survey of English Literature I in Foreign Language at Jacksonville State University.
Reviews for British Lit Final Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/16/16
British Lit Final Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko • Aphra Behn o Long tradition of wildly fantasized plots o Claimed to earn her living by her pen – 1 to be able to support herself by writing o Sometimes called the 1 novelist § Novel – particularized to heroes & heroines § Romance – formulaic, predictable o Earliest to introduce the concept of royal slave – influenced discussion for resisting trafficking slaves o Contributions valued today: § Major playwright of the Restoration § Most popular work – The Rover § Behn’s fiction force re-evaluation of the origins of the English novel • Romance was formulaic; the novel particularized o Complications of acceptance § Plays are a challenge to read § Self-promotion, often seems to beg for reception • Influenced by Aphra Behn: o Maureen Duffy’s The Passionate Shepherdess o Angeline Goureau’s Reconstructing Aphra: A Social Biography of Aphra Behn o Janet Todd’s The Secret Like of Aphra Behn • Virginia Woolf’s Room of One’s Own mentions Aphra Behn & that she is buried in Westminster Abbey o Would have know: § Vita Sackville West’s biography, published in 1927: Aphra Behn – The Incomparable Astrea • Thomas Southern – playwright that wrote Oroonoko for the stage • Oroonoko – the first work known to: o Sympathetically portray African slaves & their mistreatment § Many aspects of the “voice” in the narrative § Narrator sides with Oroonoko yet is part of the white race that institutionalizes the abuse as a colonizing imperative o The aspects of the verisimilitude are striking o Indian feathers donated to the theatre for costum es o Arnie Sanders’ (at Goucher) class page • Characters o Narrator – has knowledge of Oroonoko’s past, very schizophrenic in concept of Royal Slave § Relatives present in Surinam: mother, brother, sister o Oroonoko – royal slave § Other names: Prince, Caesar, King, G randee Captain § Calls the author Great Mistress o Imoinda – Oroonoko’s lover, renamed Clemene o Aboan – Oroonoko’s closest friend in Africa, flatters & woos Onahal to get her to arrange a meeting between Oroonoko & Imoinda o Jamoan – enemy to Oroonoko, Oroonoko defeats his forces & treats him like a privileged slave or equal companion § Invited onto the English captain’s ship with the Frenchman, his friend, & 100 other youths o Trefry – overseer who is sympathetic to Oroonoko, in terested in Imoinda before Oroonoko’s arrival o Banister – most sinister, introduced as “wild Irishman,” entrusted by “governor” to arrange to decoy Trefry & torture Oroonoko by dismembering him o Colonel Martin – sympathetic to Oroonoko, first introduced as the brother of a well-known supporter of Oliver Cromwell, helps Oroonoko after he is wounded, Behn writes of basing a character is one of her plays on him o Byam – deputy governor known for his arrogance & severity, presumably Behn refers to him as governor at some points, Oroonoko seeks revenge against him o Francis Lord Willoughby – owner of Parham o Tuscan – 1 of 3 named African in Surinam, supports Oroonoko in leading a revolt, sounded in the arm trying to stop Oroonoko from killing himself o Frenchman – tutor to Oroonoko known only by his nationality, captured on the ship with Oroonoko but is not enslaved, released in Surinam o King of Coramantien – early in the story, Oroonoko’s grandfather o General – foster father o Onahal – Aboan’s lover o Otan – name for Heren • Proves she went to the land by saying she gave feathers to the people to use in their play - What truth she can give a work of fiction • Like Othello – tragedy, made to believe wife is cheating, true love/bound for life • Evaluates slave roles, tragic end • Tragic outcome – kills lover b/c she’s pregnant & he doesn’t want the child to grow up in slavery • Behn feels powerless b/c she couldn’t help • Oroonoko as a hero: o Comes out of is grief, revives his troops, & leads them into battle o 2 incidents of bravery against f ierce tigers o Behn’s party depends upon Oroonoko when they travel up river among the remoter native Indian populations who were known to have dismembered previous Dutch settlers • Verisimilitude – terms used to describe a device used in narrative to pretend o r convince the truth/reality of a narrative o Behn, Swift, & Defoe employ this in their writing John Gay - Beggar’s Opera • John Gay tried to get a sequel called Polly • The success of this play started a craze that lasted about 10 years & got racier o Gov’t officials blatantly slandered o Caused the creation of Licenser of Plays (censor for plays) • Beggar’s Opera is a Newgate Pastoral • Characters o Beggar – author of the opera, convinces Macheath to perform, introduces the piece with Player, reappears in last scene to discuss & revise the ending o Crook-Finger’d Jack – criminal in Macheath’s gang o Filch – Peachum’s errand boy, confidant of Polly & Mrs. Peachum, does not keep secrets well, Mrs. Peachum rewards him for getting information about Polly o Jemmy Twitcher – criminal in Macheath’s gang o Lockit – Lucy’s father, manager of Newgate prison, Peachum’s partner § Tries to get Peachum drunk to get information – “The dog is leaky in his liquor, so I’ll ply him that way.” o Lucy Lockit – Macheath’s jilted ex -lover, hates Macheath for ruining her without marrying her, keeps trying to win him back at Polly’s expense , tries to poison Polly o Macheath – ladies’ man, highway robber, marries Polly Peachum before the play begins, not faithful, modeled after Jack Shephard, fathered 4 children by 4 women, sings several well-known tunes while awaiting his fate § Sings with Polly & Lucy before his hanging & they express their desire to die with him o Matt of the Mint - criminal in Macheath’s gang, closest to Macheath, gives a rousing speech about the relationship between thieving & redistribution of wealth, sings “fill every glass” § Character Macheath confides that he wants Lockit & Peachum hanged o Peachum – Polly’s father, runs a criminal h ighwayman syndicate, Lockit’s partner, sends men to gallows for reward money § Character modeled after Jonathan Wild o Mrs. Peachum – Peachum’s wife, Polly’s mother, needs to force Filch to giver her information about Polly, one who introduces what they may n eed to do to Macheath to turn in for reward o Mrs. Coaxer - one of the women in Peachum’s gang, companion to Macheath, Macheath is a client of hers § Objects to Suky & Jenny keeping all of the money from Peachum o Mrs. Diana Trapes – one of the women in Peachum’s gang, companion to Macheath, top of the female gang hierarchy, smart § Arrives in 1 scene to purchase “blacks” b/c her customers have a craving for mourning clothes; says that she knows a famous highwayman o Mrs. Slammerkin - one of the women in Peachum’s gang, companion to Macheath o Mrs. Vixen - one of the women in Peachum’s gang, companion to Macheath o Jenny Diver - one of the women in Peachum’s gang, companion to Macheath, conspires with Suky Tawdry & Peachum to entrap Macheath, turns Macheath in o Player – Beggar’s friend & proponent, helps introduce the play, reappears to discuss & revise the ending, objects to the Opera ending in Macheath’s death o Polly Peachum – Macheath’s wife, lovesick, devoted to M acheath, naïve & self-obsessed o Suky Tawdry - one of the women in Peachum’s gang, companion to Macheath, conspires with Jenny Div er & Peachum to entrap Macheath, character who takes Macheath’s 2ndpistol • Real People o Nell Gwyn – mistress of King Charles II, Restoration actress o Arabella Fermor – starred in Alexander Pope’s The Rape of the Lock, her fiancé broke off their engagement by stealing a lock of her hair st o Robert Walpole – 1 Earl of Oxford, prominent head of government whose behavior is indirectly referenced o John (Jack) Sheppard – thief, caused the decline of Wild, model for Macheath § Speech tag = notorious highwayman o Jack Ketch – real hangman referenced in the play o Jonathan Wild – model for Peachum, “Thief -taker General of Great Britain & Ireland” o William Hogarth – famous illustration of Beggar’s Opera on stage • Definitions o Cart – to be carried away to hanging o Peach – to inform someone, turn informer, to inform against o Reprieve – to hold back, to postpone punishment, grant temporary relief from danger/pain • Characterized as the most successful subversive drama in English • Contains a veiled political critique • Other examples: A Game of Chess (1620s) by Thomas Middleton, Macbird (LBJ & Ladybird as the Macbeths) o Burlesque parodies, other formats • The tune is well known; lyrics are newly written to adapt to the situation within the play o Example: Menopause the Musical, Sesame Street’s Stars and Stripes • Polly & Macheath have an affair, but Macheath has had plenty of affairs before • Jenny wants the reward for turning Macheath in; Peachum is trying to turn him in • Macheath has past affair with Lucy – causes rivalry, one tries to poison the other • Highway men represent hijacks in society • Rogue behavior celebrated Jonathan Swift - Gulliver’s Travels • Political satire • Gulliver is fascinated with never dying – working to get to the land where he can have conversation with Sophocles & others • Book 1 – Lilliput o Egg debate – political satire o The citizens who obey the laws are rewarded o Gulliver is granted limited freedom by Emperor o Gulliver spares 6 soldiers who fired at him o Individuals compete in rope dance for government positions o Class division is high & low heels o The people measure time by moons o Gulliver is carted to the capital against his will o Emperor wanted Gulliver to bring people to be slaves & he refused o Gulliver is accused of treason o Gulliver’s hat washes up on the shore o Gulliver becomes a surgeon on boat called Swallow o Gulliver used as political & military object o Gulliver is so large the children play hide -and-seek in his hair o Abandon ship, the boat capsizes o Gulliver uses his urine to put out a fire o Gulliver is exiled from Lilliput o Name of the ship he arrives on - Antelope o Gulliver returns to England & makes a profit displaying mini farm animals o People buried upside down o The Lilliputians are well educated, but their writing system is odd to Gulliver, who jokes that they write not left to right like the Europeans or top to bottom like the Chinese, but from one corner of the page to the other, “like the ladies in England.” • Book 2 – Brobdingnab o Gulliver has close encounter with reaper o Gulliver leaves England on a boat called the Adventure o Gulliver is exploited for money o The queen pays 1000 gold pieces for Gulliver o The queen’s dwarf hates Gulliver b/c the dwarf used to be the smallest & favored o Gulliver is renamed Gildrig by the farmer’s daughter/ his “little nurse” o Inhabitants are 12x Gulliver’s size o Gulliver: “I owe my preservation to this country,” grateful for his “little nurse” Glumda9-year-old little girl) o Gulliver is disgusted to see li ce crawling on people o Gulliver is declared a freak of nature by scholars o Gulliver is thrown into a bowl of cream o Gulliver is taken in by a family of giants who are the first people he meets o Inhabitants characterized as unintelligent agrarians • Book 3 – Laputa – floating island o Pirates attack Gulliver’s ship head to West Indies o Residents love math, Astrology, & music – criticize England o Gulliver visits the academy o Gulliver is wacked in the ear with a flapper o Professors are also attempting to alter the communication of Balnibarbi by doing away with language altogether . o At the end of this part, Gulliver is punished by the captain & sent off in a row boat with 4 days of food o Gulliver converses with scholars like Homer & Aristotle o Gulliver sets sail on a ship called Hopewell o Gulliver is surprised to discover flaws of being immortal o Gulliver is surprised to find more mercy in a heathen Japanese pirate than an English pirate o Gulliver travels from Japan to England o Land where people are obsessed with math & no one has peace o Luggnagg- nation where people are born seemingly normal but are immortal o Struldbruggs – people who live in Luggnagg , differentiated by a red dot above their left eyebrow § Normal until 30; legally dead after 80 • Book 4 – Houyhnhnms (horse-like) & Yahoos (beast-like, human shaped) o Houyhnhnms have a perfect society but have slaves, sense of propriety o Gulliver is determined to be a 2 legged beast creature o Gulliver’s sailors hallucinate that the water is green fields & jump ship o Gulliver is stranded & rescued by a Portuguese sailor Don Pedro o Gulliver would rather not go home b/c he longs for the people’s culture o Gulliver visits a community of horse -like people o Arrangement of dwellings – a house = village for Houyhnhnms o Gulliver is mistaken as creature of servitude o Gulliver is returned to his family but dismisses th em as Yahoos o Way Houyhnhnms die – prepare gently, no one makes a fuss o Gulliver’s attitude shifts away from 2 legged beasts o Female’s are frequently medicated for imaginary illnesses o Mutiny from Buccaneers in Barbados o Gulliver buys horses to converse with when he return s to England o Gulliver accidentally hires pirates to replace ill crew members o Horse-like creatures save Gulliver from Yahoos, teach him to write o People dig in the earth Dates • 1066 – Normands populate France, French -speaking ruling class st • 1375-1575 - Year range of 1 record of performances of Mystery plays at York & date by which the religious dramas are suppressed • Written in 1377, published in 1500s, uprising manuscript 1381 - Year of publication of Piers Plowman • 1400 – Year of Chaucer’s death • 1480s – Chaucer’s tales published • 1480s - Approximate decade for the 1book William Caxton published in England, Morte Darthur, followed by 1t publication of Canterbury Tales • After 1485 – Everyman; 1530 – printed text o The last 2 or 3 decades = recent verse translations of Beowul f • 1558 – start of Elizabethan Age/Queen Elizabeth to throne • 1564 - Year of Marlowe & Shakes peare’s birth • 1603 – Elizabeth dies, James VI of Scotland à King James I • 1604 & 1616 – alternate texts of Faustus • 1616 – Shakespeare’s death • 1621 – Countess of Montgomery’s Urania - Wroth • 1623 – Shakespeare’s works published in the Folio • 1642 - Closing of the theatre • 1660 – transition of power, restored monarchy – The Restoration • 1667, 1674 – publication dates for Paradise Lost • 1670-1 printed edition; Expanded version = larger text – 30 years later – Julian of Norwich • 1688 - Oroonoko st • 1726 - 1 Gulliver’s • 1728 - Beggar’s Opera • 1731 - Discovered after fire in Sir Bruce Cotton’s private library - Beowulf • 1735 - 2ndGulliver’s • 1839 – 1 publication date – Sir Gawain • 1903 - Year of publication of Second Shepherd ’s Play from Townley, MS • 1934, translated in 1996 - Year ascribed to date of discovery of the Book of Margery Kempe Terms • Anagnorisis – recognition, discovery • Aside – character remark intended for the audience & not other characters • Catharsis – emotional even though you know the outcome • Hamartia – trait, overly translated as tragic flaw, not being able to figure out what is right – ex) hubris/excessive pride • Soliloquy – characters speaking thoughts aloud • Alliteration – repetition of the first consonant sound • Conceit – elaborate comparison • Enjambment - the continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line, couplet, or stanza. • Epic Simile – aka heroic simile, detailed comparison in the form of a simile that is many lines in length. • Iambic - poetic verse that is made up of iambs, which are metrical "feet" with two syllables. In certain types of iambic poetry, each line consists of one or more iambs – component of blank verse • Pentameter - a line of verse consisting of five metrical feet, or (in Greek and Latin verse) of two halves each of two feet and a long syllable – component of blank verse • In Media Res – in the middle • Metaphor – comparison between two dissimilar things • Oxymoron – contradicting consecutive words, condensed version of a paradox • Petrarchan Sonnet – Howard & Wyatt – octave & sestet • English Sonnet – 3 quatrains, ends in a rhyming couplet • Spenserian Sonnet - lines are grouped into three interlocked quatrains and a couplet and the rhyme scheme is abab, bcbc c Adapters/Performers • John Rich – American film & television director • Roger Daltry – Macheath in BBC’s Beggar’s Opera th • Laurence Olivier – famous 20 century actor, known for his Shakespeare roles • Benjamin Britten – English composer & pianist, revised Beggar’s Opera • Thomas Southern – wrote Oroonoko for the stage • Peter Brook – director of Beggar’s Opera movie with Laurence Olivier, famous Shakespeare di rector Possible Discussion Questions • In which text – Behn, Swift, or Gay – do women get the shorter shift? In which text are their parts most developed or admirable? o Behn is kept from the torture scene but wants to help Oroonoko o Shorter shifts – subordinated to hardly no role, derogatory remarks • Heroes vs. Antiheroes o Anti-hero – protagonist/notable figure who is conspicuously lacking in heroic qualities – thinks of self as good but has raucous qualities • Prove with textual support that Gulliver has qualities of both the tragic hero Aphra Behn constructs in Oroonoko & has qualities of so-called anti-hero in Macheath o Gulliver thinks he’s heroic but does not see completely who he is – aspires for heroism • Beggar’s Opera o The play turns to celebrate a reprieve, talk about other scene with twists o Just as the play “turns” at the end to celebrate a reprieve (after preparing for Macheath’s hangin g), so do specific scenes have twists in them, most notable is the scene where Macheath is turned in b y Jenny & other women o Compare/contrast the strategies of undercutting or reversal in the last scene & one other o Look at Lucy trying to poison/drug Polly in Act 3, scenes 7 -10 • Contrast how Gay’s characters throw out derogatory language & Gulliver’s ugly top ics • Verisimilitude o Aphra Behn – do we want to read it factually & make it a heroic document • Compare/contrast sudden dark endings o Oroonoko is facing his death, Gulliver learns he must be expelled, Macheath is facing his hanging • Slavery References – Which is more enlightening on the rejection of values? o Gulliver seems to accept it & Behn treats it like it will continue o Veiled references to slavery in Gulliver’s Travels Book 4 § Houyhnhnms use brute Y ahoos o Slavery in Oroonoko • People can find lasting value in the se works, what would you caution other readers? • Guided by footnotes & Norton material, compare/contrast the works • Why is study of period literature challenging but rewarding? Old Material Review • Authors o Spenser – Faerie Queen, sonnet Sequence (Epithalian) o Sir Thomas Wyatt – introduced Petrarch’s sonnets to England, lived during reign of King Henry VIII, eulogized by a translator of Petrarch o Henry Howard - Last person Henry ordered to be executed b/c his associations with rest of Howard family , perfected English Sonnet form, Translator of Petrarch, Tudor writer, relative of Henry VIII’s later wife, translated The Aeneid into blank verse o John Milton – wrote a famous sonnet on his blindness, Paradise Lost, prominent in the Oliver Cromwell Administration, wrote political state papers favoring the execution of despots o William Shakespeare – genres: history, tragedy, comedy, & tragi -comedy; subjects: The Dark Lady, a rival poet, & a young man the writer aims to influence; wrote over 150 sonnets in 1609 o Sir Philip Sidney – sonnet sequence Amoretti shows direct evidence that he used his poetic skills as a courtship effort, known for perfection of a celebration of marriage poem “epithalamion” o Lady Mary Wroth – known for the longest “Crowne” of sonnets, attacked for revealing personalities of court figures, wrote The Countess of Montgomery ’s Urania o Amelia Lanyer – argued for fortunate fall of Eve, dark lady , considered one of the first female writers dated to 1611, her family came from Italy & are court musicians, likely married off when the lord she was mistress to got her pregnant o George Herbert – shape poetry, follower of Donne, deeply religious o John Donne – wrote sonnets, sermons, clever aubades (lovers who have to leave at sunrise), known for Holy Sonnets, conceit, & metaphor o John Webster – author of Renaissance tragedy set in Italy, wrote for the same theatrical company as Shakespeare, bases his most famous work on a family from Amalfi o Christopher Marlowe – Renaissance playwright, more educated than Shakespeare, blank verse, Doctor Faustus o Alexander Pope – translates the Iliad, perfected the rhyming couplet in long narrative poems, famous “Essays on Criticism” in verse form, known for mock epic Rape of the Lock • Shepherd from 2 ndShepherds play who disguises baby as a sheep – Mac • Name of sword that fails Beowulf – Hrunting • How does Beowulf continue to battle without the sword? – takes an ancient sword off the wall to kill Grendel
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'