CSD 1080 Exam 1 Study Guide
CSD 1080 Exam 1 Study Guide CSD 1080
Popular in Intro to Communication Science Disorders
Popular in Communication
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Allis on Thursday February 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CSD 1080 at Ohio University taught by Dr. McCarthy in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 420 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communication Science Disorders in Communication at Ohio University.
Reviews for CSD 1080 Exam 1 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/12/15
CSD 1080 Exam 1 Study Guide The Profession of SLP and Audiology Communication Disorders Communication disorder impairs the ability to both receive and send and also process and comprehend concepts or verbal nonverbal and graphic information 0 Can affect hearing language and or speech according to the American Speech Language Hearing Association ASHA Speech disorder atypical production of speech sounds interruption in the ow of speaking or abnormal production and or absences of voice quality including pitch loudness resonance and or duration Language disorder impairment in comprehension and or use of spoken written and or other symbol systems Hearing disorder impaired sensitivity of the auditory or hearing system 0 May include central auditory processing disorders or deficits in the processing of information from audible signals Communication disorders DO NOT include dialectical differences 0 Argumentative alternative communication systems attempts often taught by speechlanguage pathologists SLPs to compensate and facilitate on a temporary or permanent basis for impaired or disabled communication disorders Audiologists Audiologists specialists who measure hearing ability and identify assess manage and prevent disorders of hearing and balance 0 Audiologists evaluate and assist individuals with auditory processing disorders APD and select fit and dispense hearing aids or other devices and provide guidance in their care and use 0 Credentials I 35 years of graduate school beyond BA I Audiology Doctorate AuD I Doctor of Philosophy Degree in audiology PhD I Doctor of Education Degree in audiology PhD I Certificate of Clinical Competence in Audiology CCCA awarded by ASHA 0 Prevention in Audiology public awareness of noiseinduced hearing loss SpeechLanguage Pathologists SpeechLanguage Pathologists professionals who provide an assortment of services related to communicative disorders o SLP s distinguishing role is to identify assess treat and prevent communication disorders in all modalities including spoken written pictorial and manual both receptively and expressively 0 Also provides services for disorders of swallowing and dialect modifying o Credentials I Public school certification BA degree although in most states a Master s degree is required but vary from state to state I If Master s or Doctorate degree is earned ASHA issues Certificate of Clinical Competence in SpeechLanguage Pathology CCCSLP I State license is needed if engaging in private practice or in a hospital clinic or other setting aside from public school CCC SLP required 0 Prevention in SLP Information provision and counseling uency vocal hygiene articulation Speech Language and Hearing Scientists Speech scientists are involved in basic research exploring the anatomy physiology and physics of speechsound production 0 Investigate into causes prevention and treatment of speech impairments using different technologies Language Scientists investigate ways in which 0 Children learn their native tongue 0 Studies similarities and differences of different languages 0 Study the nature of language disorders in children and adults Hearing Scientists investigate the nature of sound noise and hearing 0 Develop equipment to use in hearing assessment 0 Develop techniques to test infants or those with severe physical or physiological impairments 0 Develop and improve listening devices Credentials Doctorate degree PhD or EdD typically employed by government agencies universities or industry or research centers Majority of SLPs work 66 of the time in direct care 1014 program administration and management 56 screening prevention supervision and consultation Professional Aides Individuals who work closely with SLPs or audiologists o SLP assistants SLPAs participate in routine therapy tasks clerical tasks or assist an SLP in the preparation of assessment and treatment materials 0 Audiology assistants may conduct screenings participate in calibration of audiological instrumentation or engage in a variety of clerical tasks under direction of an audiologist Related Professions A Team Approach Specialists in communication disorders work closely with family members educators psychologists social workers doctors or occupational physical and or music therapists Service Through the Lifespan 1 in 5 people have a disability from birth to old age 17 Infants maybe screened for hearing loss or other disabilities soon after birth Babies and toddlers may exhibit developmental delay or have physical problems involving movement hearing and vision Preschoolers with communication difficulties must be identified and helped professionals can assist the family in addressing the child s needs Schoolage children with communication difficulties can experience academic or social difficulties young adults can continue to receive services up until they are 21 years old Communication services can be needed later in life after occurrences such as brain injuries causing problems with cognitive or motor skills or the ability to communicate and eat Those over age 65 can experience stroke neurological disorders or dementia that can interfere with effective communication swallowing or hearing loss Typical and Disordered Communication Human Communication Communication an exchange of ideas between senders and receivers Involves message transmission and response or feedback 0 3 components of communication I Form syntax arrangement of words in a sentence morphology structure of words phonology sound system on English I Content semantics content or meaning of language I Use pragmatics how language is used reasoning o Nonverbal communication nonvocal and nonlinguistic nonlanguage I Ex Body language kinesics o Verbal communication communication with voice and language I Ex I got an A on my Physics finalquot Language a socially shared code that is used to represent concepts that uses arbitrary symbols that are combined in rulegoverned ways 0 Language can be oral written or signed I Generative each utterance is freshly created present your own ideas I Dynamic language changes over time adding new words creating new meaning to existing words Speech the process of producing the acoustic representations of language 0 Difference between speech and language speech is the physical production of spoken language Hearing the process of perceiving sound 0 Acuity ability to perceive sound Classification of Communication Disorders Etiology cause of the problem 0 Organic neurological or physiological cause 0 Functional does not have a known organic cause Progression of the disorder 0 Progressive degenerative deteriorates overtime o Nonprogressive does not deteriorate overtime Assessment and Treatment Disorders Communication disorders affect any aspect of 0 Speech 0 Language I Including reading and writing I Including expressive and receptive 0 Hearing Assessment Procedures Assessment the process of identifying and describing a clinical problem 0 Through various means not just one test Purposes of Assessments 0 Determine if a problem exists 0 Describe the strengths 0 Describe areas of weakness 0 Describe severity Oralfacial examination examine the structure and function of the speech mechanism tongue teeth lips palate how these structures work together Opening interview 0 Learn more about the client 0 Explain procedures of evaluation 0 Answer any questions the client may have Put the person first recognize them as individuals real people 0 Person individual child with autism 0 NOT autistic childblind personretarded boy etc Intervention The main goal of intervention therapy is for the client to improve his her communication skills Set goals for client determined by 0 Client family needs 0 Client family wants 0 How it will generalize 0 Ease of mastery depending on client s needs don t always teach what is easy 0 Age appropriateness 65 adults should not be treated like children Behavioral objective statement that specifies a goal in an observable and measurable way Therapy approaches are based on o What we know about the disorder 0 What works best for an individual client 0 What works best for a particular family 0 Your personal belies perspective Intervention varies in structure 0 Highly structured use highly structured program to teach a child with challenging behaviors to behave more socially acceptable 0 Loosely structured play therapy to teach words to 2yearold o Somewhere in between role plays to teach pragmatic skills to an adult Intervention is not always about fixing the clientquot 0 Pullout therapy individual or small group therapy takes place in therapy room 0 Therapy in natural context takes place in the context in which the individual will need to use the skill o Consultative model 0 Teaching family members as part of tx 0 Typically need to use a combination Involving the family is just as important as therapy with the client 0 Carryover therapy homework 0 Family should be involved in setting goals When measuring effectiveness it is important to examine 0 Did the client meet his her goals 0 Have skills generalized to contexts outside of therapy 0 Has client maintained skills learned follow up testing family report Dialectical Differences Regional variations in a language are di erences NOT disorders 0 Examples I Boston pahk the cah I Pop vs soda I I might could go I She sing too loud I Kissing on each cheek European Communication Development Infants Physical Social and Intellectual Maturation Body proportions head is 11 of total body length Body movements twitches jerks random movements re exes Vision 0 Nearsighted o Able to distinguish some people and objects 0 Prefer objects that move and have sharp contours or have contrasts of light and dark Hearing 0 Able to distinguish loudness or intensity and duration of sound 0 Able to discriminate different meaningful sounds phenomes I ie quotpquot from quotbquot o Prefer sound of human voice First few weeks learn to coordinate vision and hearing First few months learn to coordinate vision and reaching Each developmental characteristic impacts communication development Infants Communication Speech Development Intentionality developed at about 89 months gestures accompanied by eye contact with the partner goaldirectedness Caregiver relationship cornerstone for social emotional and communication development Newborns can discriminate between speech sounds at 01 month Infants and Toddlers Language Babies typically produce their first meaningful words at around 12 months Attain about 50 words and begin to combine words at around 18 months Syntax early word combinations follow predictable wordorder patterns Phonology may simplify the sound patterns of adult words Preschoolers Communication Speech Primarily occurs with caregivers Gradually starts to discuss things in the here and nowquot 0 More abstract language Language learning is an active process 0 Maintains topic for 23 turns Large vocabulary growth 0 Around 900 words by age 3 0 Around 1500 words by age 4 Acquire 90 of all syntax by age 5 Learning speech sounds is a gradual process not a quick one Consonant clusters two or more consonants together learned later Schoolage and Adolescents Metalinguistic skills ability to think about talk about and analyze language Form is not emphasized at this stage because written language becomes more complex than spoken language 0 Semantic and pragmatic development are emphasized Pragmatic skills conversational skills continue to develop adjusts language use depending on partner Vocabulary continues to grow learns multiple meanings of words All speech sounds are typically mastered by early elementary school Adults Continue to refine skills throughout life Uses variety of conversational styles has specialized vocabulary Written language continues to be more complex than spoken language Changes in speech sounds may occur with age voice quality rate Childhood Language Development and Childhood Language Impairments Disorder vs Delay Language disorder a true impairment 0 May or may not follow typical developmental patterns but are definitely behind in some areas of language 0 DO not necessarily catch up with sameage peers Language delay behind in development but catch up with sameage peers overtime o Follows normal course of development just at a slower rate 0 Eventually catches up with peers Language disorders are a heterogeneous group do not look the same May affect o Expressive language speaking and writing 0 Receptive language listening and reading SLI Specific language impairment all other possible causes for language disorder has been ruled out o Affects all areas of language form content use 0 Usually affects both expressive and receptive but not always Learning Disabilities Learning disabilities are difficulties in speaking reading writing reasoning or mathematical abilities 0 Male to female ratio 41 0 One type many have languagelearning disability I Difficulty learning and using symbols Language comprehension ability to understand language 0 Difficulties with past tense pronouns prepositions and articles Language expression ability to verbally express language 0 Speak more slowly slower wordretrieval frequent speech disruptions Cognitive Disabilities Cognitive disability significantly below average intellectual functioning Causes 0 Biological factors I Genetic and chromosomal abnormalities I Maternal infection during pregnancy I Nutritionalmetabolic I Extreme prematurely o SocioEnvironmental factors I Lack of stimulation I Poor nutrition 0 Unknown Early intervention is important because initial training may target presymbolic communicative skills and cognitive abilities Autism The cause for autism is unknown but genetics is a factor affects form content and use 0 Form I Varies on continuum from no expressive language to very good language form 0 Content I Some have limited vocabulary I Concrete definitions I Frequently use echolalia 0 Use most affected I Available language often not used for social communication I Pragmatic skills are greatly affected THE hallmark of autism I Poor eye contact Strength of individuals with autism strong visual skills Neglect and Abuse All aspects of language are affected with neglect and abuse 0 Pragmatics are the most affected less talkative fewer conversational skills Fetal Alcohol Syndrome The fetus is particularly vulnerable to FAS during the first trimester first 3 months of pregnancy Often have hyperactivity attention deficit ADDADHD or learning problems Brain Injuries The leading causes of brain injury are falls and auto accidents 0 Difficulties include memory reasoning attention problem solving Anatomy amp Physiology of the Vocal Mechanism 3 systems involved respiratory phonatory articulatory Respiratory System H as a P39iiiil39arlaig al cav y TjIL39 H 1 39 Reap dilr O nly have to know 1 I CE me r O D h Fa F39h3r39rquotl39iI E an mill 3 E E 1 p h 39 IJ E Tra Che a W quot quotquotEI Lungs F91 i g hi 532223quot3973quot Esophagus U n g E 3911 1 Ch i H earl Z39 l I lien T4 Pl U a quot quot Tl L E Czl E m m b ran 6 v D i at l lri lgl39l l 39 V 39 39 M U 3339 5 3 3xl 1 21 TD 21 i 3 h rag to The most important muscle for breathing is the diaphragm o Shaped like a dome o Sits at the oor of the rib cage thorax and separates stomach from the thorax Phonatory System Phonation the sound produced by vocal fold vibration The larynx is an air valve composed od cartilages muscles and other tissue 0 Its functions include being the soundproducing mechanism for speech and preventing substances from entering the trachea quot Cricoid cartilage Trachea The cricoid cartilage sits above the first tracheal ring The arytenoids cartilages are small pyramidshaped cartilages o Sits on top of cricoid at the back 0 Vocal folds are attached to them Epiglottis prevents food from entering larynx during swallowing o Leafshaped cartilage 0 Attached to thyroid cartilage Glottis the space between the vocal folds Abductors open folds Adductors brings the folds together Articulatory System Articulators shapes the air into particular speech sounds 0 law tongue teeth lips palate Hard palate V Soltnalale Upperlaw quotFquot 39 quotquot 39 39 AdellDKdS space Lower jaw V Epiglums Vocal fold Trachea Esophagus Soft palate also knows as the velum o Movable part of the palate that opens and closes the nasal cavity from the oral cavity 0 Elevates with pressure sounds pquot b o Lowers with nasalsounding resonance Articulation and Phonological Development and Disorders A phoneme is a speech sound 0 English has 26 letters but around 40 sounds Vowels are always voiced Price 4 sounds Chili 4 sounds Rice 3 sounds Cheap 3 sounds OOOO
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'