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Mass Media Final Exam Study Guide/Note Compilation

by: Jocelyn

Mass Media Final Exam Study Guide/Note Compilation MMC2604

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Chapter 8, 9,10,11, 12, 14, Social media (Ryan Morejon’s lecture), Julie Liebach’s lecture, and How to Get a Media Job
Mass Media and You
Darlena Cunha and Steve Orlando
Study Guide
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This 36 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jocelyn on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MMC2604 at University of Florida taught by Darlena Cunha and Steve Orlando in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Mass Media and You in Communication at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 04/16/16
Saturday, April 16, 2016 Mass Media Final Exam Study Guide/Note Compilation - Exam 2 • In the same room • Bring No. 2 pencil • Chapter 8, 9,10,11, 12, 14, Social media (Ryan Morejon’s lecture), Julie Liebach’s lecture, and How to Get a Media Job Chapter 8: Newspapers: The Rise and Decline of Modern Journalism - 1690: First North American Newspaper • Published in Boston and lasted for one issue because they were critical of the British government started by Benjamin Harris • Publick Occurrences, Both Foreign and Domestic - 1704: first regularly published newspaper in the American colonies • Boston News-Letter by John Campbell - 1734: First Precedent for libel and press freedom • Establishes the freedom of the press and newspapers’ right to criticize the government - 1808: First US Based Spanish Paper • New Orleans’ El Misisipi - 1827: First African-American Newspaper called Freedom’s Journal - 1828: First Native-American Newspaper • The Cherokee Phoenix in Georgia - 1833: Penny Press • Benjamin Day found the New York Sun with the price at one cent - 1848: AP (Associate Press) is formed, wire services are born 1 Saturday, April 16, 2016 • Instead of competing, they shared content to reach a broader audience. The technology that allowed them to do this was the telegraph. - 1860s: Inverted pyramid is born • Top to bottom: - Most important, less important, and least important - They wanted to make sure the most important stuff got through first during the Civil War. - 1883: Yellow Journalism • Pulitzer vs Hearst - Mid 1890s: 1st comic strip, The Yellow Kid, is born - 1898: Adolph Ochs buys the NY Times. Modern objective journalism is born. • The idea of presenting all sides of these story and not taking a side - 1900s: The Muckrakers • Upton Sinclair, The Jungle (The meat packing industry) • Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities (political corruption) Ida Tarbell, The History of the Standard Oil Company (monopolies) • • First investigative journalists that revealed wrongs in society • Empowered by Teddy Roosevelt who was a Progressive reform - 1933: Catholic Worker founded by Dorothy Day - 1948: Biggest newspaper blunder ever • Truman v.s Dewey election • Truman actually won but the newspapers said otherwise and the Chicago Daily Tribune ran incorrect headlines that Dewey won - 1955: 1st underground newspaper, the Village Voice, is born - 1960s: Literary journalism known as “New Journalism” is born, Tom Wolfe. - The real father of the New Journalism: Clay Felker - 1970s: Nixon and Watergate Scandal 2 Saturday, April 16, 2016 - 1972: Woodward and Bernstein uncover the Watergate break-in - August 9, 1974: Nixon resigns - 1980: 1st online newspaper is published, the Columbus Dispatch - 1982: USA Today is born, 1st newspaper modeled after TV - 1990s: The decline gains: Blogs are born - 1995: Craigslist is born - 2000s: Citizen journalism is born • Refers to people, amateurs and concerned citizens rather than professionals, who use blogs and the Internet to disseminate news and information • 2001: Top 10 of newspapers chains control more than 50% of the nation’s total newspaper circulation - 2000s: The declines accelerates - 2007: ProPublica is born - 2009: A number of newspapers go online only - 2010: Paywalls are born Newspapers begin charging readers for access to all or part of their Websites • - 2013: Jeff Bezos buys Washington Post - Will newspaper survive? Newspapers: The rise and decline of modern journalism cont’d - Ad Revenue • Television: 39% • Digital: 25% • Print: 10% • The problem is the ad model no longer works as it did. We've forgotten were providing content, not paper. • Remember Blockbuster and Netflix? 3 Saturday, April 16, 2016 - 1883: The Penny Press - 1848: The AP Wire—a commercial organization that relayed news sties and information around the country and the world. Started with six New York papers forming a cooperative to improve gains over competition any get the content out. - 1880s: Yellow Journalism—sensationalized, dramatic stories • Campaigned against monopolies, worked for labor laws and women’s wrights • Made up news, staged events Yellow press provided a legacy for investigative journalism: news reports that • hunt out and expose corruption, particularly in business and government - Joseph Pulitzer: The Post-Dispatch specializing in “Sex and Sin”. The New York World, plain writing, and maps to appeal to immigrant and working-class readers. - 1917: Pulitzer Prize started - William Randolph Hearst: New York Journal, focused on lurid sensationalism. Made Up interview, faked pictures, encouraged conflicts. • Hearst hired thus and children to hawk his papers and paid them next to nothing • Went so far as to try to label journalism simply as dramatic storytelling. Ethics were not a thing yet - Journalism Models • Story driven model: dramatizing important events. Used by penny presses and yellow press. • Just the facts model: more impartial information. Use by six-cent papers. • Is there, in journalism, an ideal, attainable, objective model or foes the quest for objectivity actually conflict with journalists traditional role of raising important issues about potential abuses of power in a democratic society? - Objectivity • Adolph Ochs—bought the NY Times in 1896. Downplayed sensational stories and instead documented important events and issues. Went so far as to attack yellow journalism. 4 Saturday, April 16, 2016 • Object journalism: distinguishes factual reports from opinion columns, modern reporters strive to maintain a neutral attitude toward the issue of the event they cover, search for competing points of views among their courses • The inverted pyramid: Pro: Objective, Con: Boring • Advocacy journalism: one reporter actively promotes a particular cause or viewpoint • Precision journalism: attempts to make the new more scientifically accurate by using poll surveys and questionnaires - Journalism Forms • Interpretive Journalism aims to explain key issues or events and place them in a broader historical or social contest • The press should: 1) make a current record, 2)make a running analysis of it, 3) on the basis of 1 and 2 suggest plans • Literary Journalism (New Journalism) adapted fictional techniques such as descriptive details and settings and extensive character dialogue to nonfiction material. - Mixes the content of journalism with the form of fiction - Online journalism • USA Today: layout based on TV and the most popular newspaper in the country. Largest circulation • Online and mobile news sites, both traditional and new • Sped up news cycles. Stopped the daily cycle, made it immediate. - Drudge Report hijacked national agenda. Newsweek had delayed Clinton Lewinsky story. - Local newspaper roles • Consensus oriented journalism carries items on local schools, social events, town government property crimes and zoning issues. Partisan spirit can be owned by local business leaders or politicians. Small town, community 5 Saturday, April 16, 2016 • Conflict-oriented journalism, news defined as events, issues, or experiences that deviate from the social norm. Journalists roles as fact gatherers and also observers, monitoring city institutions and problems. Competing perspectives • Paper aimed at different readerships: between 1827-1865. 40 papers directed at Black readers opposed slavery and racism • Since 1827, 5,500 African Americans owned or edited papers have been circulated Average lifespan: 9 years • Currently, POC (people of color) are declining in news jobs. The make up just 12.4 percent of the workforce. They make up 37% of the population. • No new latino newspapers have started since 2004. - Latino workers, 4% - Asian workers, 3% - Native Americans, 0.4% - The Underground Press • Question mainstream political policies and conventional values, voicing radical opinions • Question official and reports distributed public relations agents, governments spokespeople and the convention press • Included marginalized voices of student, women, LGBTQ, minorities - Newspaper operations - News-hole: Space not taken up by ads in the paper. 35-50% of the paper - Owner, Published, Editor in Chief, Managing Editors, Editors, Assistant Editors ( run the different divisions: sports, features, opinion, etc.), Reporters • General Assignment reporters, speciality reporters (beats), bureau reporters • Online and print staff used to be separate, but now they are converging - Tribune publishing bought lots of papers, and shut them down to skeleton crew, investing their resources into other, more profitable venues - The workforce in daily us newsrooms declined by 11,000 jobs in 2008 and 2009 - So what do we do? 6 Saturday, April 16, 2016 • Syndicate, commercial outlets that contract with newspapers to provide work from the nation’s best political writers cartoonists, and columnists - Contract agreements: Other papers pay national papers to use their work. The national papers get the money. The writer gets paid once, from the national paper. - Wires: Paid-for services that provide breaking news to papers - Newspaper chains: companies that own several newspapers throughout the United States, For instance, Gainesville Sun was owned by NYT then owned by Gatehouse Media and now it’s owned by Halifax - SAM ZELL: real estate developer in 2007 bought Tribune Company and made it private in 2008, filed for bankruptcy, gutted the papers, laid off the workers - Joint-Operating Agreement: two competing papers keep separate news divisions while merging business and production operations for a period of years. - Next steps: • Paywalls: changing a fee for online access to news content. WSJ successful, 400,00 paid subscriptions. NYT metered paywall for loyal readers. 668,000 paid subscriptions. • Internet only papers like Politico (WP reporters) Internet buys papers (amazon’s Jeff Bezos bought WP in 2013) • • Internet makes its own papers (yahoo) • Citizen journalism amateurs who use the Internet and blogs to disseminate news and information. iReports? They are trying to corral citizen journalists as an inexpensive way to make up for journalists lose to newsroom “downsizing”. Chapter 9: Magazines The Age of Specialization - Magazine History • Comes from the French word: magasin—storehouse • Original definition: writing and reports usually taken from newspapers 7 Saturday, April 16, 2016 • Today’s definition: collections of articles, stories, and advertisements appearing in nondairy periodicals that are published in the smaller tabloid style rather than the larger broadsheet style • First Magazine: The Review by Daniel Defoe, 1704-1713 First publication to use the word magazine was Gentleman’s Magazine, 1731 in • London Overview - 1741: Colonial Magazines: reprint material from newspapers. Unsuccessful - 1821: National Magazines: The Saturday Evening Post, first women’s magazine. Longest running magazine in US history. - 1850s: Illustrations begin in magazines - 1879: Postal Act of 1897: Post and railroad costs plummet, allowing magazine distribution to increase - 1903: Ladies’ Home Journal reaches circulation of 1 million - 1922: Reader’s Digest reprints elections from other publications and becomes the leading magazine in the nation - 1923: TIME packages news reporting in a narrative form - 1936: LIFE started with photojournalism and fashion trends • Pass-along readership: the total number of people who come into contact with a single copy of a magazine—of more than seventeen million, rivaling the ratings of popular national radio - 1953: TV Guide: starts publishing TV schedules ahead of newspapers - 1972: LIFE closes: cannot compete with television - 1974: People: first successful mass market magazine in decades - 1995/6: Salon and Slate launch as first online only magazines - 2010: iPad: gives magazine subscriptions new life - 2014: AARP magazine has highest circulation of any magazine in US 8 Saturday, April 16, 2016 - 1800: 12 mags, 1825: 100 mags, 1850: 600 mags, 1870: 1,200 mags, 1890: 4,500 mags, 1905: 6,000 mags Types of Magazines - Specialty: Gun Magazines, Nature Machines, Agriculture Magazines, Health Magazines - General Interest Magazines: Saturday Evening Post, Reader’s Digest (most widely circulated), TIME, Life - 1950: Magazines began folding even with high circulation due to : • Changing consumer tastes • Rising postal costs • Failing ad revenues Television • - Photojournalism • Wood cutting: 1800s • Dot patterned screen • Photography opens to middle class, 1880s, George Eastman • Photojournalism: 1900s, Jacob Riis - The use of photos to document the rhythms of every day life • 1923: TIME: photojournalistic magazine • 1924: Life: Margaret Bourke White • TV Photojournalism: - Kennedy Assassination: 1963: procession - Vietnam: Eddie Adams - Why Saturday Evening Post, Life, and Look Expire • To maintain these high circulation figures, their publishers were selling the magazines for far less than the cost of production 9 Saturday, April 16, 2016 • The national advertising revenue pie that helped make up the cost differences now had to be shared with television • Dramatic increases in postal rates had a negative effect on oversized publications - Webzines: like Salon and Slate, are magazines that appear exclusively online and pioneers in making the Web a legitimate site for breaking news and discussing culture/politics - Online Magazines • Wired Popular Mechanics • • The Atlantic • Salon • State • People • Men’s Health - Types of Magazines • By advertiser - Consumer magazines (O, Cosmo) - Trade Magazines (Advertising Age, Gun Magazine, PC World) - Farm Magazines (Modern Farmer, Dakota Farmer, Garden and Gun) By audience • - Women’s Magazines (Redbook, Glamour, Marie Claire) - Men’s Magazines (Men’s Journal Esquire, GQ) • Both: Playboy undermined the conventional values of pre WWII America and emphasized previously taboo subject matters - Elite Magazines (Harper’s, The New Yorker, The Atlantic, Vanity Fair) - Children’s (Highlights, Ranger Rick, Tiger Beat) - Minorities (Root, Essence, Latina, The Crisis, The Advocate) 10 Saturday, April 16, 2016 - Age: Seventeen, Maxim, AARP The Magazine • By speciality (Sports and Leisure) - National Geographic, Sports Illustrated, Smithsonian - Tabloids • Supermarket tabloids push the limits of both decency and credibility - Began with National Enquirer • Evergreen subscriptions are those that automatically renew on a credit card account unless subscribers request that the automatic renewal be stopped and controlled circulations, providing readers with eh magazines at no charge by targeting captive audiences such as airline passengers or association members - Major Magazine Chains • Many major publishers, including Hearst, Meredith, Time, and Rodale, also generate additional revenue through custom publishing divisions, producing limited- distribution publications, sometimes called magalogs which combine glossy magazine style with the sales pitch of retail catalogs. - Used to market goods or services to customers or employees - Alternative Voices • Zines is a term used to describe self-published magazines - How Magazines Work • Editorial Department produces all content except advertising • Publisher —> Editor in Chief —> Magazine Editor —> Sub-editors - Subeditors oversee photography, illustrations, reporting, writing, design, layout, print, and multi media • Contributing staff writers, finance writers • Most magazines reject 95% of unsolicited pitches and submissions - Production and Technology Department: maintains the computer and printing hardware necessary for mass market production. Printing is offsite. 11 Saturday, April 16, 2016 - Advertising and Sales Department secures clients, arranges promotions, and places ads • Top glossies can charge $300,000 or more for a full-page ad. However, most allow a 25-50% discount on that rate • Average magazine is 55% content and 45% advertising • Digital ads: Display (traditional picture ad), audio, video, reveal, panoramic - Display: $5,000. Premium: $25,000 - A few magazines abandoned the ad model and use only subscriptions: • Highlights, Ms., Consumer Reports, etc. Types of Editions Regional Editions: National magazines who content is tailored tot he interests of different geographic areas. Ex. Sports Illustrated Split run Editions: The editorial content remains the same but the magazine includes a few pages of ads purchased by local or regional companies Ex. TIME and Sports Illustrated Demographic Editions: editions of magazines targeted at a particular group of consumers, using occupation, class and/or zip code. Ex. TIME How Magazines Work: - Circulation and Distribution Department: monitors single-copy and subscription sales. • In 1950: Newsstand sales = 43%, Subscriptions = 57% • Today: Newsstand sales = 9%, Subscriptions = 91% - Tactics: Have subscribers renew well before their subscription is up and bet that advanced money in the budget. Have evergreen subscriptions that automatically renew. Use controlled circulation, providing free magazines to captive audiences (such as those on a flight) - Digital is saving magazine subscriptions (but so far killing advertising). iPads largest app. The Kindle Fire, Nexus 7 and Samsung Galaxy Tab Who owns the magazines? 12 Saturday, April 16, 2016 TIME Inc HEARST CONDE NAST MEREDITH Chapter 10: Books and the Power of Print - 2400 BC: Papyrus - 1000 BC: The Chinese make book like objects from bamboo and wood - 350 AD: First book made by the Romans who cut and sewed sheets of parchment and bound with thin pieces of wood covered in leather - 600 AD: Priests and monks throughout Europe make illuminated manuscripts, featuring colorful designs on each page - 1000 AD: The Chinese started using movable type by assigning a separate piece of wood or metal to each character - 1453: The Printing Press: Johannes Gutenberg turned a wine press into a printing press. The Bible is the first mass produced book. - 1640: First colonial book: Stephen Daye printed a collection of biblical psalms - 1751:Encyclopedias - 1800: Publishing houses - 1836: Textbooks - 1870s: Mass market paperbacks - 1880: Linotype and Offset Lithography: cheaper printing techniques - 1926: Book club - 1960: Professional books: books for separate types of industries - 1971: Borders - 1995: Amazon developed in Ann Arbor as the first bookstore chain - 2007: Kindle as the first e read and e bookstore 13 Saturday, April 16, 2016 - 2010: iPad helped drop price of e readers to below $200 - 2012: Google Books deemed fair use by US Court of appeals - Manuscript culture: a period in which books were painstakingly lettered, decorated, and bound by hand. This period also marks the entrepreneurial stage in the evolution of books - Illuminated manuscripts: many books from the Middle Ages the featured decorative, colorful designs and illustrations on each page, often made for chutes or wealthy clients. - Block printing: a technique in which sheets of paper were applied to blocks of inked wood with raised surfaces depicting hand-carved letters and illustrations - Printing press: Gutenberg used the principles of moving type to develop this - Vellum: the Gutenberg bible was printed on this fine-calfskin based parchment - Pulp fiction: 1/3 of all books in 1885 were identified as pulp fiction, referencing cheap, machine made pulp printed paper that they were printed on - Linotype machines: enabled printers to save time by setting type mechanically using a type writer style keyboard - Offset lithography: allowed books to be printed from photographic plates rather than from metal casts, greatly reducing the cost of color and illustrations and accelerating book production Types of Books - Trade books : aimed at general readers and sold at commercial retail outlets Adult • Juvenile • • Comics/graphic novels - Professional books: target occupational groups - Textbooks: improve literacy and public education - Mass market paperbacks: sold on racks in drugstores and supermarkets. Low cost 14 Saturday, April 16, 2016 - Audio books: on tape, CD, or MP3 - E-Book: a digital book read on a computer or digital reading device - Religious books: Bible and other book studying or opening about religion - Reference books: dictionaries, encyclopedias, atlases, almanacs, legal casebooks, medical manuals - University Press books: scholarly works for small groups of readers interested in intellectually specialized areas Banned Books - Books have been banned to: • Prohibit a population from learning about other cultures or regions • Not expose radical ideas the challenged conventional authority - Book Challenge: Formal request to remove a book from a public school/library • Sexually explicit • Offensive language • Occult themes Violence • • Homosexual themes • Promotion of religious views, nudity, or racism - Publishing companies • Pearson • Reed Elsevier • Thompson Reuters • Wolters Kluwer • Penguin Random House • Hachette Livre • Holtzbrinck 15 Saturday, April 16, 2016 • Groupo Planeta • Cengage • McGraw-Hill Education - Book Publishing • Acquisition editors: seek out and sign authors to contracts • Subsidiary rights: selling the rights to a book for use in other media Advance money: early payment that is subtracted from royalties earned through • book sales • Developmental editor: provides author with feedback, makes suggestions for improvement • Copy editor: attends to specific problems in writing or length • Design manager: works on the look of the book and makes decisions about the type of style, paper, cover design, and layout • E-publishing: has enabled authors to sidestep traditional publishers Chapter 11: Advertising and the Commercial Culture - What is advertising? • The act or practice of calling public attention to tone’s product, service, need, especially by paid announcements in newspapers and magazines, over radio or television, on billboards, etc. - Product placement: buying spaces for particular goods to appear in a TV show, movie, or music video. - Subliminal advertising: referred to hidden or disguised print and visual messages that allegedly register in the subconscious and fool people into buying products - Slogans: the phrase that attempts to sell a product by capturing its essence in words - Advertising Media: Traditional • Newspapers • TV 16 Saturday, April 16, 2016 • Magazines • Radio • Outdoor • Direct mail - Advertising Media: Online • Banner ads Websites • • Blogs • Texts - Worldwide ad spending 2014 • $529 billion dollars or the GDP of Sweden - TV still dominates • People spend more time with television than with any other major medium - Four top ad agencies • Interpublic • Omnicon • Publicis WPP • - Ad appeals: see slide - Best print ads ever • Misogyny in 1920s • Cadillac, 1915 • Listerine, 1920s • Volkswagen • Got milk? • Calvin 17 Saturday, April 16, 2016 • Absolut • iPod • It’s the hat (Germany) - Best Commercials Ever • Marlboro cigarettes, 1960s • Budweiser, 2000 Keep America Beautiful PSA, 1970s • • Partnership for a Drug-Free America, 1980s • Apple Macintosh, 1984 • Cinnamon Toast Crunch, 2015 • Wendy’s “Where’s the beef?” 1984 • Oscar Meyer, 1973 • Budweiser, 2015 • Apple vs PC, mid-2000s • Life Alert, 1980s • Joe Isuzu, 1980s • Squatty what? 2015 - Why did Google Glass fail? • Expensive • Funny looking • Privacy concerns - Ads are everywhere • Product placement • Deejay personalities • Prime-time tv (16 minutes per hour of commercial, 11 minutes of product placement) 18 Saturday, April 16, 2016 • Shelf space - History of ads • 1704: first newspapers appeared in the Boston newsletter, land deals and ship cargoes • 1841: Volney Palmer starts selling ad space in newspapers, Boston - Space brokers: First American ad agencies. Individuals who purchased space in newspapers and sold it to various merchants • 1869: First full service ad agency, N.W. Ayer & Son, Philadelphia • 1906: Federal Food and Drug Act— monitors misleading patent medicine claims • 1913: Better Business Bureau begins • 1914: Federal Trade Commission—monitors advertising abuses • 1940s: War Advertising Council—organizes war bond sales, blood donor drivers and food rationing - Eventually becomes the ad council • 1971: Cigarette ads banned from television - Does the Fairness Doctrine apply to climate change? - No, we removed the Fairness Doctrine in 2011 • 1988: Camel revives Joe Camel and teen smoking rises • 1989: Channel One: School kids get 10 min news, 2 min commercial 1990s: Budweiser accused of trying to appeal to underage viewers • • 1998: Tobacco billboards curbed • 2002: Mega agencies of Omicron, Interpublic, WPP, and Publicis have controlled more than 50% of the world’s ad revenues 2010: spam emails accounted for more than 85% of all email value • • 2010: Apple debuts iAd • 2012: TV Ad Time - 16 minutes of each hour of prime time network TV feature ads and promos 19 Saturday, April 16, 2016 • 2014: Google glass - Trademarking and packaging • Campbell Soup: 1869 • Levi Strauss: 1873 • Quaker Oats: 1877 • Iver Soap: 1879 Kodak: 1888 • - Types of Advertising • Subliminal: hidden • Another one: ppt - Types of ad agencies: • Mega-agencies: provide a full range of services, from advertising and public relations to operating their own in house radio and TV production studios • Boutique Agencies: devote their talents to only a handful of select clients to become closely identified with the look of certain ads. - Structure • Market research: assess the behaviors and attitudes of consumers toward particular products long before ads are created - Demographics: age, gender, occupation, ethnicity, education, income - Psychographics: attitudes, beliefs, interests, and motivations - Focus groups: small-group interview technique where a moderator lead a discussion about a product or issue - Values and Lifestyle Strategy: VALS Questionnaires that measure psychological factors and then divide consumers into • types - Innovators - Thinkers 20 Saturday, April 16, 2016 - Achievers - Experiencers - Believers - Strivers - Makers - Survivors - Structure • Storyboarding: a blueprint version of the potential ad • Viral marketing: short videos that marketers hope quickly gain widespread attention - Association principle: persuasion technique that associates a product with a positive cultural value or image, even if it has little connection to the product • Media buyers: people who chose and purchase the types of media that are best suited to carry a client’s ads, reach a targeted audience and measure the effectiveness of those ads • Account executives: responsible for bringing in new business and managing the accounts of established clients, including overseeing budgets and the research, creative , and media planning work done on their campaigns - Online ads • Banner • Display Search • • Pop-up • Niche/Selective • Interactive • Interstitials: pop up in new screen windows as a user clicks to a new web page • Spam: 85% of email messages 21 Saturday, April 16, 2016 - Ad Types • Celebrity testimonial: product is endorsed by a well known person • Plain folks pitch: associates the product with simplicity • Snob appeal: attempts to persuade consumers that using a product will maintain or elevate their social status • Bandwagon effect: points out in exaggerated claims the everyone is using a particular product Hidden fear approach: plays on consumers’ sense of insecurity to restore a person • to social acceptability • Irritation ads: creating product name recognition by being annoying or obnoxious • Political ads: the use of ad techniques to promote a candidate’s image and persuade the public to adopt a particular viewpoint - Advertising as Myth and Story • Myth analysis: provides insights into how ads work t a general cultural level - Ads incorporate myths in mini story form, featuring characters, settings, and plot - Most stories in ads involve conflicts, pitting one set of characters or social vales against another - Such conflicts are negotiated or resolved by the end of the ad, usually by applying or purchasing the product - Product placement: strategically placing ads or buying space in movies, tv shows, comic books, and most recently video games, blogs, and music videos, so product’s appear as part of a story’s set environment - Commercial Speech: any print or broadcast expression for which a fee is charged to organizations and individuals buying time or space in the mass media Ch:12 Public Relations and Framing the Message - What is public relations? • The professional maintenance of a favorable public image by a company or other organization or a famous person 22 Saturday, April 16, 2016 • The total communication strategy conducted by a person, a government, or an organization attempting to reach and persuade an audience to adopt a point of view. - 1860s: Railroads bribed reporters for positive stories - 1880s: P.T. Barnum • He knew that to get people to come to his circus, he had to go over the top • Without promotion, something terrible happens…nothing! • Nobody ever lost a dollar by underestimating the taste of the American public - Early 1900s: Ivy Lee, “Tell the truth.” Modern PR is born • With the birth of public relations came the birth of branding • Very selective with the information he wanted to reveal - 1920s: Edward Bernays, American Tobacco Company • He ironically forbade his wife to smoke although he promoted all other women to smoke • If we understand the mechanism and motives of the group mind, it is now possible to control and regiment the masses according to our will without them knowing it - 1922: Walter Lippmann published Public Opinion illustrating how slogans can affect public perception - 1923: First PR class taught at NYU by Edward Bernays - 1940s: P.R. as propaganda - 1948: PRSA is born • Created ethics and standards • If you are a pr practitioner, you must pass a test - 1965: Ralph Nader: “Unsafe at Any Speed,” consumer movement is born • About the American auto industry - 1982: Tylenol scare, tamper-resistant packaging is born • Someone had laced the tylenol with cyanide 23 Saturday, April 16, 2016 - 1989: Exxon Valdez accident, initial denials, slow response • Lacked transparency and the public hated them for it • Some people do not buy Exxon gas to this day - 1990s: Restoring Nixon’s image, Hill & Knowlton - 2005: FCC says broadcasters must disclose source of VNRs (Video News Releases) - 2010: BP oil spill - 2015: Chipotle - 2015: VW diesel scandal Public Relations Continued - Beyonce • Destiny’s child • Goldmember - Subversive • Dangerously in Love • B’day • Dreamgirls • I am.. Sasha Fierce • Cadillac Records • Sells L’Oreal, Pepsi, and Tommy Hilfiger • Has own clothing line and perfume • 2013 controversy, then fixed • Public Service PR History (Same thing but with Darlena) - 1840s: PR starts with P.T. Barnum - 1880s: Railroads bribe reporters for positive new stories 24 Saturday, April 16, 2016 - 1914: Ive Lee (father of PR) transforms Rockefeller from stingy curmudgeon to child- loving philanthropist - 1922: Public Opinion, Walter Lippman, first book on PR: How slogans, stereotypes and media messages can shape public opinion - 1923: Edward Bernay teaches first PR course at New York University - 1948: Public Relations Society of America starts (internal watchdog group to improve PR standing in industry) - 1965: Unsafe at Any Speed, Ralph Nader. Blasts GM and forces new PR customer relation strategies - 1982: Tylenol laced with cyanide and PR saved Johnson & Johnson - 2005: FCC mandates that source of Video News Releases must be clearly disclosed - 2010: BP Oil Spill Facts - More than 7,000 PR firms are in existence today - In past decade, PR is growing in universities - 2014: Public Relations Student Society of America had more than 11,000 members - Propaganda: communication strategically placed, either as advertising or as publicity to gain public support for a special issue, program or policy, such as a nation’s war effort - Press Releases: announcements written in the style of news reports that give new information about an individual, a company, or an organization, and pitch a story idea to the news media - Video News Releases : 30-90 second visual press releases designed to mimic the style of a broadcast news report. - Public Service Announcement: 15-30 second audio or video report that promotes government programs, educational projects, volunteer agencies, or social reform - Pseudo Event: any circumstance created for the sole purpose of gaining coverage in the media - Lobbying: the process of attempting to influence lawmakers to support and vote for an organization’s industry’s best interests 25 Saturday, April 16, 2016 - PRSA • Advocacy: serve public interest, voice in a marketplace of ideas • Honesty: highest standards of accuracy and truth • Expertise: acquire specialized knowledge and experience, credibility and relationships • Independence: objective counsel, accountability for actions • Loyalty: faithful to those represented while serving public interest • Fairness: with clients, employers, competitors, peers, vendors, the media and the general public Ch: 14 The Culture of Journalism - Why is journalism special? • Keeps democracy alive • Journalism is the only media enterprise that democracy absolutely requires—and the only media practice and business - First Amendment - Ethical issues to consider • Anonymous sources • Plagiarism • Undercover reporting • Freebies • Paying for stories • Taste/Offensive material • Conflict of interest - Anonymous sources • It worked once with Watergate. • Why? 26 Saturday, April 16, 2016 - Tells the readers where you got the information and why you think it;s relevant to use • Why not? - Undermines credibility - Risky—anonymous sources can turn out to be wrong, which leaves the newspaper slapping in the breeze - Plagiarism • Why not? - Complete breach of journalism ethics—could result in termination/firing - Internet = easier to do but easier to catch • Why? - Reporter can get a story they might not otherwise be able to get, uncovering social injustice, corruption • Why not? - Puts your news organization at risk of being sued; more importantly, it requires lying - Freebies • Why not? - The giver may (and likely will) expect a quid pro quo—something in return for the gift - Even if not, the possibility compromises the journalist’s objectivity and credibility - Paying for stories • Why not? - Opens door to influence, corruption, threat of exaggeration and deception - Leaves smaller news outlets that can’t pay at a disadvantage - It’s just wrong - Offensive content 27 Saturday, April 16, 2016 • Distasteful or shocking material • Advance warning of explicit or disturbing content • Offensive words may be partially obscured or bleeped • Potentially offensive image may be blurred or narrowly cropped • Description may be substituted for pictures - Conflict of interest • Happens when the reporter has a connection to the story subject, source or angle that influences how they write it - Money - Activity - Belief - News judgement • Who decided that was a story? - Conflict - Impact - Prominence - Proximity - Timeliness - Oddity - - Definitions: •  News: The process of gathering information and making narrative reporters, edited by individuals for news organizations, that offer selected frames of reference. News helps the public make sense of important events, political issues, cultural trends, prominent people and unusual happenings in everyday life. • Newsworthiness: Information most worthy of transformation into news stories. Timeliness, proximity, conflict, prominence, human interest, consequence, usefulness, novelty and deviance 28 Saturday, April 16, 2016 • Sound bite: part of a broadcast news report in which an expert, a celebrity, a victim, or a person in the street responds to some aspect of an event or issue. • Ethnocentrism: when reporters judge other countries and cultures on the basis of how they live up to or imitate American practices and values. • Underlying news values (in the US): • Responsible capitalism: journalists sometimes assume that businesspeople compete with on another not primarily to maximize profits but to create increased prosperity for all • Small town pastoralism: favoring the small over the large and rural over the urban • Individualism: the most prominent value in underpinning daily journalism because many reporters are attracted to the profession to reward the tenacity needed to confront and expose corruption Regardless of how neutral news attempts to be, all news is biased because it is primarily selective story telling, not objective science. Ethics: What NOT to do: • Use deception   (do not lie about who you are or what you are doing to get a story) • Invade privacy   (Responsibly weigh an individual’s right to privacy against the “public’s right to know” (which, by the way, is not a thing. The public, legally, does NOT have any right to know to which a journalist is beholden.)) • Put yourself in a position of a conflict of interest  (any situation in which journalists may stand to benefit personally from the stories they produce) How to be a good reporter: • Get a good story • Get the story first • Use expert opinion • Cover all sides • Balance the story conflict (give all sides equal coverage) • Act as a watchdog / adversary to settled leaders How to Get a Media Job - Internships 29 Saturday, April 16, 2016 - 10 tips for making it in the media world 10 - Get business cards - Create your website - Introduce yourself - Go to club events - Cold call - Anything to do to get your name out there 9 - Don’t be late. It’s rude, and you look silly. 8 - Get a big person email address 7 - Know thyself - Know what you are putting on your social media - Know what comes up when you Google yourself - Know what your 30 second elevator speech is 6 - Hustle your butt off - You’re in a really big pond with a lot of really big fish. Make yourself stand out from the crowd. 5 - Bridges = Good - Burning them = Bad 4 - Learn to be self-sufficient 30 Saturday, April 16, 2016 - Don’t ask stupid questions 3 - Write. A LOT. - People judge you by your writing ability - Practice writing with proper grammar, spelling and punctuation 2 - Read…everything 1 - Remember the Other Golden Rule: No BS 31 Saturday, April 16, 2016 - How to get a job in the media • Look on the internet • Keep copious records • Make sure they pay you • How to pitch: • Tell them: • What the story is • Why they want it • Why YOU should tell it • Why it’s important NOW • Keep it as short as possible Speakers Ted Spiker: Guess Speaker/Writer - Write not only just for people to read, but also for people to see • Be descriptive - Joe Hurly: criminal defense lawyer • Sent crazy, obscene letters to those he worked with - The Magazine: 6 Truths About the Science and Soul of Magazines • Truth 1: The Magazine is not dead • Statistics: - Decreasing: Paid subscriptions by 1.5% and single copy sales by 14.2% 32 Saturday, April 16, 2016 - Increasing: Verified circulation by 5%, Digital edition circa by 11%, and some categories and titles - 91% of adults read print or digital magazines - 40 minutes is the average amount of time a reader spends with each issue: engagement - Magazines are more about a brand that connects an audience • Truth 2: Magazines have always done what digital is now doing. That is, digital is about a “magazine POV.” - Magazine Vibe - POV - Lists - Marketing - The Four-Course Meal Approach to Content • Short, Big, Short • Appetizer, Meal, Dessert - Exquire Magazine: Frank Sinatra has a cold - Celebrity obsession - Food porn • Truth 3: Magazines commemorate cultural history perhaps better than any other medium. • Truth 4: Magazines can make news • Truth 5: Magazines are a place where substance and style collide, making it platform with seriousness and playfulness • Truth 6: Magazines give us the opportunity to slow down, digest and consume purposefully packaged content from and with like-minded people Social Media: Ryan Morejon - What is social media? 33 Saturday, April 16, 2016 • Old Media: one way • New Media: 24/7 - Constantly evolving - Why is it important to engage the audience? • Humanize the brand - Increase Word of Mouth Paid • - What we say in traditional and digital ads • Owned - What we say on website, Facebook, and twitter • Earned - What they say about us everywhere - Use social as a human • Discover what you like about it, and then do that as a brand • Be creative with your content • Take more showers - Dos and Dont’s for social Do: be awesome • • Don't: be an asshole Guest Speaker: Reggie Grant - How does mass media affect the evolution of language? - Mass Communication: when individuals and entities relay information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time - What is culture? Body language • 34 Saturday, April 16, 2016 • Culture is constructed and maintained through communication • The learned behavior, language, attitudes of a group of people - Language • Catfish: early origin - Christian stories • Tale of Faust, Mephistopheles Parable of the Leaven • - Cod Shipping in Europe and North America - Famous Movies Quotes Number 1 • Say hello to my little friend —Scarface - Famous Movies Quotes Number 2 • I’m the kind of the world - Famous Movies Quotes Number 3 • I’ll be back - Famous Movies Quotes Number 4 • Show me the money - Famous Movies Quotes Number 4 I see dead people • - Watergate: President Richard Nixon Words added to the dictionary - Muggle added to the dictionary - Meatspace: the physical world, as opposed to virtual world - Catch 22: a dilemma or difficult circumstance from which there is n escape because of mutually conflicting or depending conditions - Swagger: Henry IV - Bling bling: flashy jewelry worn especially as an indignation of wealth 35 Saturday, April 16, 2016 - Bootylicious - Crunk - Twerk - Bada bing - Doh - Mini-me - Bucket list - Selfie - Photobomb - LOL Guest Speaker: Managing Editor of Science Friday - Radio show 2-4 p.m. every Friday - Nominated for best science website - Science Journalism - Pacific Journalists Hold Scientists Accountable • Ethics in science journalism Rick Scott Video Experience - Ethics matter 36


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