Study guide one
Study guide one POLS1500
Popular in Themes in Global Politics
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Political Science
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melina McDonald on Thursday February 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POLS1500 at Ohio University taught by Professor Cady in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see Themes in Global Politics in Political Science at Ohio University.
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Lectures notes?? Yes please! Looking forward to the next set!
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Date Created: 02/12/15
FDR s 4 freedoms freedom of speech expression religion economic hardship and fear Universal Declaration of Human Rights universal rights entitled to all humankind Sanctions punishments or penalites imposed on one or more states by another state group of states or global community Economic sanctions designed to limit or freeze a states trade investments or nancing Diplomatic and political sanctions designed to isolate and embarrass a state on a political level Cultural sanctions seek to limit cultural exchanges tourism sports and other interactions with a sanctioned state Unilateral sanctions sanctions imposed by only one country Multilateral sanctions imposed by more than one country State legal and political unit that must be internationally recognized be politically organized and be populated geographic area that has sovereignty Nation group of people who identify as a political community based on common territory culture and other similar bonds Human security concept of security that deals with the everyday challenges human s face that doesn t involve military issues focuses on 7 categories of threats economic personal food community environmental and political security 1 International legal sovereignty which focuses on recognition of a state s independence by other states and respect territorial boundades 2 Westphalian sovereignty which focuses on exclusion of other states form the affairs of the government that exists within a given territory 3 Internal or domestic sovereignty refers to rights of government or formal organization if political and other activites within its borders Interdependence sovereignty which re ects the realities of globalization It is concerned with the ability of government to control or regulate ow of people money trade environmental hazards information and ideas across national boundanes European union redifying sovereignty relinquishing some of their sovereignty to achieve political and economic objectives EU added 12 additional countries most former communist bloc countnes Europe now has population of 491 milion and worlds largest economy Europeans believed excessive sovereignty and nationalism leading causes of wars France and Germany two principal antagonist combine coal and steel production 1957 france Germany Italy Belgium Netherlands and luxemobourg signed treaty to creation of coal and steel community Treaty of rome signed in 1957 established European economic community as economic alliance Non Gonvernmental organization NGO organizations that are not part of a government Example exonomic organizations such as transnational corporations advocacy organizations such as Greenpeace and Amnesty international service organizations such as red cross transnational terrorist organizations that seek to undermine governments transnational criminal organizations focus on pro ting form illegal activities NGO s play 4 main roles 1 setting agendas NGOs often force national policymakers to include certain issues on their agendas 2 Negotiating outcomes NGOs work with governments and business groups to solve global problems 3 Conferring legitimacy organizations such as the World Bank and transnational corporations derive legitimacy from the support or approval of various NGOs 4 Making solutions work many governments and intergovernmental organizations rely on NGOs to implement their decisions in areas such as humanitarian relief and economic development Two of oldest and most signi cant non state actors are catholic church and transnational coorperations Challenges facing catholic church Lateran treaty compromise between Vatican and the Italian government Popes no longer ruling countries Transnational corperations organized as a global entity ex british east india company lnterdependence political and economic situation in which two states are simultaneously dependent on each other for their well being Globalization integration of markets politics values and environmental concerns across borders Causes of globalization inseparable from the human desire to explore to gain greater physical and economic security to be creative and curious and move from place to place advances in military and medical technologies Cold war hostile relations between 2 super powers the US and the soviet union from 19451990 Major causes of globalization nancial market expansion which is global expansion of national markets Forms of globalization 1 Economic and trade globalization free trade open markets and competition in world economy Also movement of people and exchange of ideas Financial globalization four basic developments 1 Consolidation of nancial institutions most banks were largely locally owned and operated 2 Globalization or operations banking conglomerates extend their reach by forming strategic alliances with similar institutions in different countries 3 New technologies 4 Universalization of banking growin companies in nancial markets increase national borders making complex relationships among businesses Bretton woods system post WWII arrangement for managing world economy main components are world bank and the international monetary fund World bank gave US signi cant in uence over international money supply World bank UN agency that deals with monetary aid transfers to developing nations usually via a loan program varying from nation to nation International monetary fund MF established in 1944 to prevent countries from defaulting on their loans and to make nancing available Eurodollar process of European banks accepting dollars and not changing them into national currency Organization of petroleum exporting countries OPEC formed by major oil producing nations in response to control of the world oil market by 7 major oil companies Political Globalization proliferation of international and regional organizations composed of states and spread of nonstate political actors multiatera institutions orgnaizations composed of many states pursuing common objectives poicy interdependence national policies of one country are intertwined with those of other countries international regimesinternational institutions designed to regualate the behavior of their members goba governance collective actions taken to establish international institutions and norms to deal with national and global issues Military globalization Networks of military force that operate internationally demonstrated by several developments in modern history 1 competition among European powers and territorial expansion that resulted in colonization of asia Africa and the Americas 2 emergence of international alliances and international security regimes such as concert of Europe and NATO 3 Proliferation of weapons and military technologies worldwide and 4 Creation of global insitiutions to deal with military issues such as nuclear nonproliferation regime 5 Cultural Globalization spread of one culture across national borders 6 Environmental Globalization interdependence of countries work together to solve environmental problems 7 Criminal globalization intercontinental spread of global crime and its impact on government EX drugs terrorist etc Periods of globalization 1st old human civilazatiojn 2nCI western European conquest dependency period of globalization as being profoundly in uential on global politics and trade 3rCI began in 1870 decline 1914 4th 19451980 IMF WB 5th current period Resistance to globalization don t want to fall to western ideologies SHIFT IN BALANCE OF POWER ONUTSET COLD WAR to SCENARIOS FOR THE POST COLD WAR IN NOTES If you want me to sent you mine I will Hegemons leading country in an international system Measure economic power Gross national product GNP measures total market value of all goods and services produced by resources supplied by residents and businesses of a particular country regardless of where the residents and businesses are located Gross domestic product GDP measures the total market value of all goods and services produced within country Elements of power countries geographic area intelligence capabilities quality of national leadership level of educational and technological achievement openness of political system character of people transportation and communication capabilities ideology and appeal of country s culture Structural leadership possession of economic resources military power technology and other sources of power that enable a small group of countries to shape the international system Institutional leadership ability to determine rules principles procedures and practices that guide the behavior of members of the global community Situational leadership ability to seize opportunities to build or reorient the global system apart from the distribution of power and building of institutions Rise and fall of great powers Population pressures in uences rise of great powers uneven economic growth other countries enhance power as others get weaker factors that in uence rise and fall Urbanization different cultures and races get together promoting different ideas together Geography War Many decline because of hubris which means too much power and arrogance in the government thinking you are all powerful and nothing can stop you Lippmann Gap disparity between global ambitions of countries and their resources to ful ll ambitions Imperial overstretch disparity between global ambitions of countries and their resources to ful ll those ambitions Strategies for maintaining power build institutions to legitimize control offshore balancing balancing opposing stronger more threatening side of con ict build alliances containment prevent ambitious powers from expanding and destroying order and balance in the international system binding attempts to control rising states by embedding them in alliances Engagement efforts to minimize con ict with challengens America as a case study spends 700 billion on military Iraq and Afghanistan war weaken the image of American power 5 of world population but produces a quarter of worlds GDP worth 143 trillion dollars Challenging American hegemony China now viewed as major challenger to America s dominance of global systems using nancial power to acquire companies and gain access to much needed natural resources growing 10 every year 2011 china 26 trillion in foreign exchange reserves china building alliance with Russia Treaty of friendship and cooperation Chinese Russian alliance designed to challenge US framework for international security Threats to US power Emerging powers amp nonstate actors Emerging market economies such as China India and Brazil asymmetrical warfare strategy of counteracting the dominant power of a hegemon through unorthodox ways Terrorist organizations most potent non state challengers American dominance Will US remain dominant power Most likely to remain for foreseeable future OPEC group of oil exporting states that collaborate to elevate export power Challenges Facing China one dimensional power China economic growth closely tie with america s imports of chinese prducts Civil rights personal liberties such as freedom of speech though and religion Political rights right to vote voice political opinions and participate in political processes Social rights right to health care education and other social bene ts Four types of human rights claims 1 2 3 Accusation that governments are abusing individuals Demands by ethnic racial and religious communities for autonomy or independence Claims in what is generally regarded as private life including rights and obligations within families and demands for equality by minority groups with unconventional lifestyles and Demands by government for protection against powerful government and nonstate actors as well as right to economic development Globalization and human rights Telecommunicaitons trade migrations travel the weakening of national boundaries the decline of westphalian sovereignty and growing interdependence strengthened commitments to human rights Several other factors contributed expansion of and commitment to human rights agenda 1 creation of global institutions to protect human rights 2 a growing acceptance of the interdepence and indivisibility of rights violations of rights in one country have omplications for people in other countries 3 emphasis promoting democracy 4 view the respect for human rights facilitated market based economic development 5 effectiveness of nonstate actors Development of Human rights Universal rights freedoms to which all humans are automatically enUUed Utilitarianism theory contradicting idea that humans have natural rights Individuals determine what is good for them The universal declaration of human rights Antislavery society oldest global human rights international covenant on civil and political rights stressed negative rights and favored by US and international covenant on economic social and cultural rights Enforcing human rights globally extent which various goba actors and individuals are morally obligate to take action depends on 3 factors 1 Nature of the relationship with the rights being violated 2 Degree of effectiveness 3 Capacity Involves issues such as geographic economic cultural and political ties Humanitarian Intervention use of military force to protect human rights Regarded as collective goba responsibility falls into two basic categories consensual and imposed Consensual interventions interventions agreed upon by all states involved in con ict Imposed interventions conducted against wishes of occupied state territory Peacekeeping involves impartial monitors and lightly armed observers force used at last resort and only for self defense Peacemaking involves military force heavily armed well trained and prepared to ght Responding to genocide UN adopted Genocide convention Armenian genocide view prototype of subsequent genocides in 20th century Khmer Rouge communist government of Cambodia slaughtered over a million people in its rural paci cation programs Commission on the Responsibility of the Authors War and the Enforcement of Penalties established in Paris at peace conference in 1919 Srebrenica Bosnian town where over seven thousand unarmed muslim men and boys were executed in 1995 Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic prosecuted for war crimes International Criminal court ICC created to try to punish individuals responsible for crimes against humanity Homosexuals and human rights Dec 2010 UN passed resolution to protext human rights of gays issue right of privacy and right to be left alone 80 countries criminalize consensual homosexual sex but not done publicly no one really knows about Hutu extremist responsible for genocide committed against over a million Rwandans in early 905 This lead to creation of International Tribunal for Prosection of Persons Responsible for Genocide in Rwanda Crimes against humanity includes murder enslavement extermination and deportation Cultural relativism idea that culture determines the degree of human rights protections in each country UN commissions on human rights charge with responsibility of monitoring human rights globally and informing UN security council of violiation
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