Exam_2_notecard.pdf SOC 101-006
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifersmith on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 101-006 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Jianjun Ji in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 04/16/16
Chapter 5 Quantitative research methods= research in which the A hypothesis predicts a relationship between or among emphasis is placed on precise measurement, the use of variables, according to predictions from a theory. A statistics and numbers. Qualitative research variable=a factor thought to be significant for human methods=research in which the emphasis is placed on behavior and varies from one case to another. Research observing, describing, interpreting people’s behavior. method=any of the six methods used to conduct social Chapter 6 research: survey, participant observation, secondary Society=consists of people who share a culture and a analysis, documents, unobtrusive measures, and territory. Hunting and gathering societies=societies with the fewest social divisions, the most egalitarian group of experiments. Reliability refers to the extent to which different studies come up with similar results. Random all societies, and the simplest society. Pastoral society- sample, everyone in the population has the same chance based on pasturing of animals and nomadic in nature. of being included in the study. A correlation coefficient Horticultural society=based on cultivation of plants leading to permanent settlement. Agricultural measures the strength of the relationship between two society=invention of the plow, creation of surplus food, variables. A spurious correlation=a relationship between dawn of civilization. Industrial society=invention of variables is explained away by a third variable. steam engine, manual labor placed by machines, Operational definition=the actual indicator used in a inequality increases. Postindustrial society-invention of measured hypothesis. Validity=the extent to which an the microchips, featuring in technology, information, and operational definition measures what it was intended to services. Four revolutions accompany 5 types of measure. Reliability= the extent to which research societies- domestication, plow, steam engine, microchips. produces consistent results. Surveys=collecting data by Group= members having something in common and believe that what they have in common makes a asking people a series of questions. Participant observation=collecting data by watching people’s difference. Aggregates=individuals temporarily share behavior. Secondary analysis=analyzing data collected by same physical space (drivers in a traffic jam). others. Documents= written sources such as books, Category=people having similar characteristics, not newspapers, diaries, bank records, police reports or files, necessarily interacting to each other. A primary group=characterized by an intimate, a long-term, face-to- etc. Unobtrusive measures=observing the behaviors of face association and cooperation. Secondary people who do not know they are being watched and group=characterized by larger, relatively temporary, more studied. Experiments=the use of control group and experimental group to test the causation relationship anonymous, more formal, and more impersonal. In- Groups=groups toward which we feel loyalty such as between dependent and independent variables. police or army unit. Out-Group=groups toward which we Replication=Repeating of the same study to see if similar feel antagonisms such as the “three KKK”-Ku Klux Klan. results can come out. Population=a total membership of a Reference groups=groups we use as standards to evaluate defined class of people. All cases of the targeted group. ourselves such as families, classmates, coworkers, teachers, etc. Cliques=a cluster of people within a larger Sample= a subset of cases selected from a population. Random sample=a sample in which everyone has the group who choose to interact with one another. Social same chances of being selected. Stratified random networks=the social ties radiating outward from the self sample= specific subgroups of the targeted population in that link people together. Group dynamics = the ways in which individuals affect groups and groups affect which everyone has an equal chance of being included. individuals. Small group=a group small enough for Generalizability= the extent to which findings from one everyone to interact directly with all the other members. sample can be generalized to a larger population. Gender bias- affects orientations, our attitudes and what happens Big group- a group where the interaction is less formal, there’s less body language and less intimacy. Dyad =the to us in life, have to take steps to prevent bias. Ethics in smallest possible group consisting of two people, the research- protect the subject and maintain truth. most unstable group because of its size. Triad=a group of Mode=the mostly frequently occurring scores. Median = three people, the larger the group, the more complex the the middle point dividing scores in two half: one half relationships in between. Coalition- some members of a group against others. Types of leaders: Instrumental above the point and another half below the point. Mean =mathematical average. The Hawthorne leader=task-oriented leader trying to keep the group Experiment=people were found to change their behavior moving to reach the goal. Expressive leader=socio- because they realize they were being studied, not due to emotional leader trying to increasing harmony and minimizing conflicts in a group. Leadership style: any variables being introduced to the experiment. Authoritarian=leading by giving orders. Democratic= leading by trying to gain a consensus. Laissez-faire= capitalism becoming the globe’s dominant economic leading by giving highly permissive. The Asch system. Globalization=process in which extensive experiment and Milgram experiment- the power of peer movement of capital and ideas among world nations pressure. Groupthink- collective group tunnel vision Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Social class=Weber/a large number of people who rank Social stratification=the division of large numbers of closely to one another, Marx/capitalists (bourgeoisie) people into layers according to their relative power, own means of productions or workers (proletariat) sell property, and prestige. Elites=top leaders of a society labor. Wealth- consists of both property and income. whose decisions influence the whole of its people, consisting of politicians, military leaders, and leaders in Status inconsistency=a situation in which individuals are ranked high on some dimensions of social class and low big corporations. Slavery=ownership of people by others. on other dimensions. Status consistency- a person has Caste=status is determined by birth and lifelong. similar rank in wealth, power and prestige. Power=the Estate=consisting three groups” the nobility, the clergyman, and the commoners. Class-primarily based on ability to carry out your will in spite of resistance. Power elite=Mill’s term/the top people in US corporations, possession of money. Can move up or down the social military and politics who make the nation’s major class ladders. Means of production= tools, factories, land decision. Prestige=respect or regard. High prestige and investment capital used to produce wealth, concluded by Karl Marx. Bourgeoisie=capitalist who own means of occupations are characterized by higher education, more pay, more abstract thought, and greater autonomy. production. Proletarian=working class who sell their Wright-class model- turned Marx’s model into 4 classes: labors to capitalists. Functionalist’s perspective-society capitalists, petty bourgeoisie, managers, and workers. must make sure its functions are filled. Conflicts’ perspective-view the system a result of class conflict and Capitalist=having power, wealth, and prestige, either from old money or new money, investors and heirs. competition for scarce resources. Global stratification- Upper middle=most shaped by education, working as most industrialized nations, industrializing nations, least managers and having some authority. Lower industrialized nations. Age stratified- infants, child, middle=having job slightly more prestigious with income childhood, reproductive period, and the old. Gender slightly higher than working class. Working class=having stratified- patrilineal system (descent is traced only to the less education, relatively unskilled & lower income, father’s side) and matrilineal system (descent is traced working as blue/white-collar. Working poor=mostly high only to the mother’s side). Colonialism=the process by school dropouts, unskilled, low-paying, temporary or which one nation takes over another nation usually for the seasonal jobs, dependent upon food stamps. purpose of exploiting its labor and natural resources. Underclass=less/no education, little/ no access to job World System Theory=world is divided by four market, live in inner city, temporary jobs, low-paying, interconnected nations: the first is core nations that are unstable, homeless, dependent upon welfare and food the most advanced industrialized; second is semi- stamps. Consequences of social class- technology, family periphery nations that trade with the core; the third is life, politics, religion, and health care. Social mobility- periphery fringe nations that sell crops to the first; and the move of status up or down the social ladder. fourth is the external areas that left behind development Intergenerational mobility=upward or downward have few connection with the first. Culture of Poverty=having a culture that the way of life that movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next. Structural mobility=upward or perpetuates poverty from generation to generation. downward social mobility of individuals caused by Neocolonialism=the economic and political dominance of changes in technology or social movement, such as the least industrialized countries by the most industrialized nations. The least developed dependent on computers created thousands of jobs for some while many being laid off because their skills are outdated. the most developed. Multinational Exchange mobility=approximately same numbers of Corporations=companies that operate across national people move up and down the social ladder so that the boundaries, helping maintain the global dominance of the most industrialized nations. Ideology=a system of beliefs. result of the mobility is roughly on balance. Poverty- poverty line is the official measure of poverty. Weber’s three components of social class” property, Feminization of poverty=a trend in US poverty whereby power, and prestige. Immanuel Wallenstein’s world most poor families are headed by women. Culture of systems, core, semi-periphery/trade, periphery/crops, external/left behind. Globalization of capitalism- poverty=based on the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor are fundamentally different from neutral and necessary part of every society. A __ theorist other people in the society. Social structure=the sees the law as an instrument of repression and a tool framework that surrounds us, consisting of relationships designed to maintain the powerful in their privilege positions. – Conflict. In national Hawthorne’s the scarlet of people and groups to one another, which gives letter, officials forced Hester Prynne to wear a Scarlet a direction to and set limits on behavior. Deferred gratification=giving up something in the present for the sewn to her dress. This was an example of a: degradation sake of greater gains in future. Personal problems=faced ceremony. Many believes that if people know they will by insignificant group of people or persons. Only a small be punished they will refrain from crime. This viewpoint is based on the idea of: deterrence. Which statement is proportion of people are affected in society. Social true regarding recent trends in the numbers of females problems=affect a large group of people in society such charged with crimes? The percentage of burglaries and as unemployment due to terrorism, divorce rate, lay off drug offences committed by women is rising compared to workers due to changes in technology, etc. Horatio Alger males. According to the strain theory a teacher who Myth- the belief that due to limitless possibilities anyone suffers from “burnout” but arrives at work on time every can get ahead if he or she tries hard enough. Joseph Kahl day and goes through the motions of teaching even if and Dennis Gilbert (1993)- six-class model (income, he/she no longer cares whether students learn is a (an) education, and occupation are considered), capitalist, ritualist. Which of the following would sociologists term a white-collar crime? Embezzlement. Which of the upper middle, lower middle, working class, working poor following best describes the effect of the medicalization and underclass Quiz 5 of deviance? The behavior is treated by medical ______ refers to whether operational definitions measure procedure rather than as a crime. The violation of a what they/ intended to measure- validity. The target culture’s rule or norms is referred to as: Deviance. Which of the following is not one of the five techniques group for a study is called a- population. In a __ everyone of neutralization used to deflect society’s norms? Denial in the population has an equal chance of being included the act occurred. What are white-collar crimes? Non- in the study – random sample. A (n) __ predicts a relationship between or among variables- hypothesis. The violent crimes committed by people of a high and arithmetic average derived when a researcher adds a respectable social class. Which of the following is true group of members and divides the total by the number of according to studies of crime rates and social classes: cases is called the: mean. When researchers analyze data White collar crime coasts far more, in dollars, than street crimes. Conflict theorist believe: Laws exist to prevent collected by others they are using: secondary analysis. In the elite from abusing their power. the course of an experiment to show cause and effect the Quiz 9 experimental group is exposed to an independent variable, the __ group is not exposed to the independent Social __ is the system in which groups of people are variable- Control. The change in behavior may occur divided into lawyers according to their relative power, when people know they are being studied is known as: property, and privilege. – Satisfaction. Vertical social mobility is possible in a (an) __ system –class. Max the Hawthorne Effect. Which of the following best Weber believed social class was determined by: wealth, describes the extent to which data yields consistent power and prestige. In every society in the world __ is a results? Reliability. The author’s research on the basis for social satisfaction – Gender. In medial Europe homeless involved: participant observation. Using someone else’s work without giving them credit is called: kings rules under ideology known as divine right. This plagiarism. Which of the following is not a step in the was an example of: The control of ideas. The research model? Deleting unobtrusive measures. The classification Most Industrialized Nations includes: France, Germany and Australia. One significant method of drawing subjects from several subgroups of characteristic of the least industrialized nations is the: the population, each of which has an equal chance of rapid growth of population. Immanuel Wallenstein being selected is called: stratified random sampling. __ means that two variables exist together. Correlation. ___ proposed the __ theory based on the economic and Researcher focuses on precise measurement and use of political connections that tie most of world’s counties statistics and numbers. Quantitative. together. – World system. Two major factors that Quiz 8 contributes to the maintenance of global domination by the Most Industrialized Nations are: neocolonialism and According to sociologist Howard S Becker, deviance is multinational corporations. Karl Marx used term __ to defined by the reaction of others to the act. Erving identify the group that controlled the means of production Goffman felt blindness, deafness, and mental handicaps carry a stigma because: they violate our norms of ability. – Bourgeoisie. What is the most effective way for the Functionalists like Durkheim believed deviance is: a group in control to maintain its position and power? - Through control of ideas and information. Which of the What was the significance of Stanley Milgram’s electric following is not one of the four major system of social shock experiment-- Ordinary, intelligent adults will classification? – Meritocracy. Prior to 1800, which three follow orders even when they feel they are wrong. A factors were the traditional justifications for slavery? – group of four people could have a total of six Debt. Crime, war. What was Marx’s term of the workers’ relationships. What are in-groups? Groups to which a mistaken identification of themselves with owners? – particular person or group feels loyalty. Members of False consciousness. Caste systems require __ for hunting and gathering societies have more leisure time marriage—Endogamy. than any other human groups. Leaders who are task- Quiz 10 oriented and try to keep their group on-track are known In America the “wealthiest” __ of the population own as: Instrumental leaders. The United States was the first 70% of the nation’s wealth- 10%. According to Melvin country to have 50 percent of its work force employed in Kohn, lower class parents stress __ to their children while service occupations. middle class parents stress __. – Conformity and obedience, creativity and independence. In a study by Quiz 19 Ray Gold, apartment- house janitors who unionized and Today the average American spends _______ per year on made more money than some of the people whose medical care. $4000. The lower class has a _______ garbage they carried out are an example of: status percentage of mental problems compared to the upper inconsistency. A person who has a college education, class- higher. Which of the following did not occur as a earns over $100,000 year/ and is in a professional result of the professionalization of medicine? There were occupation is most likely regards of the __ class – upper fewer claims to be providing a service for society and middle. Members of a __ church are most likely from the more claims to practice medicine for economic incentive. upper and middle classes. Episcopal. In general which If the number of Americans killed by medial error were social class has the highest rate of divorce? Lower class. an official classification of death, it would rank in the top Women who head families average __ the income of men 10 leading causes of death. What is defensive medicine? who head families. - One half. Compared to the general Medical practice focused on protecting against population the elderly are less likely to be poor. How is malpractice suits/. Which of the following is a conflict power distributed in the U.S? – Power tends to be theorist’s perspective of medicalization? Medicalization concentrated in small group of wealthy individuals. A results from the growing power of the medical profession. conflict theorist would believe that: The welfare system The most-consumed beverage in the U.S. is: Beer. When exists to maintain an army id reserve workers. One in did medicine begin to become professionalized in the every 5 U.S children now lives in poverty. Most poverty U.S-Medicine began to become professionalized in the in the United States: lasts less than a year. Changes that early 1900s.Which of the following is not an element of occurs over several generations are called: the sick role? You like the sick role. In which type of intergenerational mobility. Members of the working class nation is cancer most common? Most Industrialized are likely to be politically: liberal on economic issues and nations. What is epidemiology? The study of disease conservative in social issue. Members of the __ class are patterns in a population. How have the worldwide rates of most likely to be robbed, burglarized or murdered - tuberculosis changed over time? There are now more Lower cases than before the microbe was discovered. The practice of dealing with people as though they were cases and diseases, not individuals is referred to as: Quiz 6 Depersonalization. Which of the following is a The single social institution in hunting and gathering functionalist’s perspective of medicalization? societies was: family. Which type of society offered the Medicalization assists both physicians and patients. the most prevalent theory on the origin of AIDS is that the greatest equality? Hunting and gathering. A virus: was first present in monkeys in Africa and then _________consists of people who share a culture and a territory- society. __ Societies developed in the arid transmitted to humans. regions while________ societies developed where there was sufficient rainfall - pastoral-horticultural. The basic component of a postindustrial society is: information. Passengers on a bus would best be described as a (n): aggregate. Groups we use as standards to evaluate ourselves are termed: reference groups. Family, friends, acquaintances, and “friends of friends” make up our: social network. The least stable type of group is a: dyad.
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