Zoology Exam 4 Study Guide
Zoology Exam 4 Study Guide BIOL 1114, 001
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see Intro to zoology in Biology at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 04/16/16
Zoology Exam 4 Study Guide Chapter 28 The Endocrine System The endocrine system is a major communication system within the body. Endocrine glands consist of cells that produce and transport hormones through the bloodstream. Hormones are chemicals produced by the body that can alter metabolism. Each hormone corresponds to specific target cells, which have receptor proteins that initiate the cell’s response. Negative feedback a change occurs that triggers a reverse in action Positive feedback a change occurs that triggers the continuation of an action Tissue types of the endocrine system: Epithelial make up majority of glands and secrete many types of hormones Connective hormones circulated through blood Nervous hormones secreted by some neurons, parts of the brain; brain controls release of particular hormones Organs of the endocrine system: Pineal gland melatonin Hypothalamus hormones that stimulate or inhibit hormones from pituitary Pituitary gland hormones that affect target tissues or stimulate other glands Thyroid gland hormones that regulate metabolism Parathyroid glands hormones that regulate blood calcium Adrenal glands hormones regulate kidney function and contribute to stress response Pancreas hormones regulate blood glucose levels Ovaries (female) estrogen and progesterone affect monthly cycle and promote secondary sex characteristics Testes (male) testosterone promotes sperm production and secondary sex characteristics Hormones are water or lipid soluble: Water soluble hormones: Hormone circulates the bloodstream, then binds to receptor protein. A second messenger (cAMP) molecule is activated and initiates a cell response by activating an enzyme Lipid soluble hormones: (steroid hormones) can pass straight through membrane, straight into nucleus where receptor is located. When bound by a hormone, it activates transcription of a gene, leads to production of new proteins (slower response) Peptide hormones water soluble; proteins or short chains of amino acids (ex: insulin) Steroid hormones lipid soluble; produced from cholesterol (ex: testosterone, estrogen) The hypothalamus: Posterior pituitary two hormones are stored in and released by the posterior pituitary o Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) targets kidneys, promotes conservation of water o Oxytocin targets mammary glands and uterus, stimulates smooth muscle contractions Anterior pituitary hypothalamus produces hormones that inhibit or stimulate release of hormones by anterior o Growth hormone targets most cells in the body; stimulates tissue growth o Prolactin targets mammary glands; stimulates milk secretion o Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) targets thyroid; stimulates secretion of thyroid hormones o Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) targets adrenal cortex; stimulates secretion of glucocorticoid hormones o FSH and LH target testes and ovaries; stimulates secretion of sex hormones o Endorphins targets pain receptors in the brain; relieves pain The thyroid gland: Thyroxine & Triiodothyronine targets all tissues; increases metabolic rates Calcitonin targets bone; increases rate of calcium deposition The parathyroid: PTH targets bone, digestive organs, and kidneys; releases calcium from bones, increases calcium absorption in digestive organs and kidneys The adrenal medulla: Epinephrine & Norepinephrine target blood vessels; raise blood pressure, constrict blood vessels, and slows digestion (stress response) The adrenal cortex: Mineralocorticoids target kidneys; maintain blood volume and electrolyte balance Glucocorticoids targets all tissues; increase glucose levels in blood and brain The pancreas: Insulin targets all tissues; increase uptake of glucose Glucagon targets liver and adipose tissue; promotes breakdown of glycogen to glucose and fats to fatty acids The pineal gland: Melatonin targets other endocrine glands; regulates effects of light and dark cycles Diabetes: Glucose accumulates in the body, but cannot be absorbed. Type 1 pancreas fails to produce insulin, so body’s cells never receive the signal to absorb glucose. Type 2 body’s cells fail to absorb glucose even when insulin is present—this is known as insulin resistance. Hypoglycemia: excess insulin intake causes low blood sugar Chapter 29 The Skeletal and Muscular Systems Two bones meet at joints (ex: fingers, knees, elbows, hips, and toes) Tendons are bands of connective tissue that attach bones together. A similar structure is a ligament. Skeletal muscles generate voluntary movements Composition: Muscle tissues are made up of muscle fibers (individual muscle cells). Muscle cells contain large quantities of myofibrils, which are bundles of protein filaments that run the length of the cell. Thick filaments are composed of myosin proteins. Thin filaments have strands of actin and the regulatory proteins troponin and tropomyosin. Thick and thin filaments alternate within muscle tissues, creating a striped pattern. These divisions split myofibrils into units called sarcomeres. Sarcomeres: Z lines form boundaries of each sarcomere; thin filaments attach to these membranes A bands make up the length of the thick myosin filament I bands have only actin H zones have only myosin (See figure 29.15 in text) Sliding filament model muscle fibers contract when thin and thick filaments slide between each other Muscle fibers generate ATP in multiple ways At rest muscle cells have ATP and creatine phosphate floating around During activity: o ATP used up quickly o creatine phosphate can recharge ADP ADP + creatine P ATP + creatine When muscle cells need to create more ATP: Glycolysis (anaerobic) Lactic acid (burning sensation in muscles = acidic) Cell is now in oxygen debt, borrowing to make ATP Oxygen arrives (circulatory and respiratory) Cellular respiration (aerobic) Slow twitch fibers small; relatively long duration; capillaries deliver oxygen rich blood Fast twitch fibers larger; short durations; rapid, powerful contractions Exercise increases The diameter of muscle cells The efficiency of muscle cell metabolism # mitochondria Blood flow to muscles Bone strength Chapter 30 The Circulatory System The circulatory system transports blood throughout the body, with the heart being the main pump that keeps blood moving. Animal circulatory system: Picks up nutrients from intestines Deliver nutrients to all cells Exchange O2 and CO2 at lungs Exchange O2 and CO2 at cells (cellular respiration) Pick up metabolic waste from all over Drop off waste at kidneys Deliver hormones all over An open circulatory system has short open ended vessels, and blood travels through the body cavity In a closed system, blood does not leave system and remains in vessels Pulmonary circulation blood exchanges gases at the lungs and returns to the heart Systemic circulation blood circulates through the body and back to the heart Atrium where blood enters the heart Ventricle where blood exits the heart Plasma liquid matrix of the blood Arteries large blood vessels directing away from the heart Veins vessels direct blood toward the heart Portal system blood passes from capillaries Arteries branch off into arterioles, which then branch off to capillaries (the smallest blood vessels) Capillaries empty into venules, which begin to form into veins, thus taking the blood back toward the heart The heart: Pericardium sac that surrounds the heart Myocardium cardiac muscle cells Endotheliuminnermost lining of the heart Atrioventricular (AV) valves thin flaps that prevent blood from moving back into the atrium after the ventricle contracts Semilunar valves prevent blood from reentering the ventricles after leaving the heart through the arteries Pulmonary arteries blood passes to the lungs, where it gets oxygenated Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood back to the heart Aorta largest artery in the body The right half: 1) Receives deoxygenated blood from the rest of the body 2) Pumps deoxygenated blood straight to the lungs to get oxygenated The left half: 1) Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs 2) Pumps it to the rest of the body to get deoxygenated Right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from superior vena cava, blood is dumped into right ventricle, which pumps it to the lungs through pulmonary arteries, and blood returning from lungs will be pulmonary veins Left atrium receives oxygenated blood Cardiac output amount of blood the heart can pump in one minute Chapter 31 The respiratory system Components Trachea windpipe, branches down into two bronchi Bronchi one leads to each lung; further branch into bronchioles Alveoli tiny sacs where gas exchange occurs; arteries meet veins here Tidal volume amount of air that can be inhaled at rest Vital capacity amount of air that can be exhaled after taking the deepest breath possible About 99% of oxygen in blood is carried in red blood cells; remaining 1% is dissolved in plasma Hemoglobin binds with oxygen, and is very ironrich (part of red blood cells) Chapter 32 The Digestive System Ingestion: first encounter of food mouth (teeth and tongue) Digestion: chemical and mechanical breakdown of food Absorption: nutrients enter the bloodstream Elimination: expelling undigested food through feces Epiglottis when swallowing, a “trap door” closes that prevents food from entering trachea rather than esophagus When ingesting: food is carried down esophagus with smooth muscle contractions In the stomach Churning: mechanical digestion Enzymes and chemicals chemical digestion Pepsin protein digesting enzyme Other enzymes Hydrochloric acid Mucus Salts Water Digestion and absorption: Villi and microvilli increase surface area of small intestine Blood vessels along small intestine will absorb nutrients and deliver to body Liver produces bile, which emulsifies fat and breaks down (bile is not a digestive enzyme it’s an acid) Gallbladder storage unit for bile Pancreas produce and release enzymes and bicarbonate Stomach, small intestine produce digestive enzymes Salivary glands in the mouth, begin the chemical breakdown of food Epiglottistemporarily covers opening of trachea so that food does not enter lungs Nucleic Acids nitrogenous bases, sugars, phosphates Incomplete digestive tracts have only one opening; food enters and exits from same place and food must be completely digested before eating again Digestive enzymes Mouth o Smaller polysaccharides, from carbohydrates o Enzymes from fats and nucleic acids Stomach o Small polypeptides from proteins Small intestine o Disaccharides from carbohydrates o Short chains of amino acids from proteins o Emulsified fat droplets from fat (due to bile) o Nucleotides from nucleic acids End product of digestion o Monosaccharides o Amino acids o Fatty acids and glycerol o Nitrogenous bases, sugars, and phosphates Trophic Exchange: Energy “lost” as it increases up the foodweb Biomagnification increases the amount of toxins as it goes up the food chain
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