Communications Word Document Study Guide
Communications Word Document Study Guide COMM 2110
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by altaboooot77 Notetaker on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 2110 at Wayne State University taught by Ronald Stevenson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Debate in Communication Studies at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 04/16/16
STUDY GUIDE FOR COMMUNICATIONS FINAL EXAM Fallacy: generic term used to indicate an error or weakness in an argument ▯ or an individual's reasoning ▯ Sources of fallacy: data, reasoning process, conclusion, language ▯ Division: what is true of the whole is true of the separate parts ▯ ▯ Composition: what is true of the separate parts is true of the whole ▯ ▯ Slippery slope: movement in certain direction will cause future movements ▯ in the same direction ▯ Adhomeinum: use of personal attacks to divert attention from the substance of the controversy ▯ ▯ Adpopulum: an argument not based on sound reasoning but rather on an ▯ appeal to popularity ▯ ▯ Admisericordiam: an argument not based on sound reasoning but rather on ▯ an appeal to pity or sympathy ▯ ▯ Non sequitur: conclusion does not follow from the data ▯ ▯ Adverecundiam: an argument not based on sound reasoning but rather on an ▯ appeal to authority ▯ ▯ StrawMan fallacy: when a person simply ignores a person's actual position ▯ and substitutes a distorted, exaggerated or misrepresented version of that ▯ position ▯ What type of fallacy is this? Iraq is full of terrorists. Josef is from Iraq so he must be a terrorist: Division What type of fallacy is this? Gatorade is the best sports drink because all the superstars drink it: Adpopulum ▯ ▯ What type of fallacy is this? Your arguments about the health penalty are ▯ irrelevant because you are just an ignorant, pompous fool: Adhomenium What type of fallacy is this? Joe is in a gang and he carried a fun. Therefore it is safe to assume all gang members carry guns: compositon What type of fallacy is this? I cut 10 pieces of evidence on the death penalty, so I am going to get an A in this class: NonSequitur What type of fallacy is this? Legalizing assisted suicide in the US will lead to another holocaust: SlipperySlope What type of fallacy is this? I should be allowed to take my test on another day because I have a headache, my feet are sore, and I need to get some more sleep: AdMisericoridiam What type of fallacy is this?Barack Obama's recommendations about how to handle Syria are correct because he is the president: AdVerencundiam What type of fallacy is this? I like White Castle hamburgers. They must be the key to the fountain of youth: NonSequitur What type of fallacy is this? "Senator Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can't understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that.": Strawman What is argument by example? When you take the known characteristics of a group and reason that an unknown case within that group will have similar characteristics . group of linemen between 300400 lbs someone joins teams as lineman and you use data to generalize that he weighs at least 300 lbs What are the 3 tests that we us to evaluate argument by example and explain each one? 1) Typically expected, the norm 2) Negative instances acknowledge when there is an case that doesn't fit your generalizations 3) Sufficient number the more, the better need no less than 3 and no more than 3 examples to support your generalizations What is argument by analogy? If two things have certain essential characteristics in common then it is probable that they have one or more additional characteristics in common What is the difference between argument by example and argument by analogy? Argument by example looks at a group where argument by analogy compares two things. ▯ What would we do to evaluate argument by analogy? We look if the compared cases are fundamentally alike. What are two types of analogies? ▯ 1) Literal: only one we can test fundamentally alike ▯ 2) Figurative: similes and metaphors compare 2 things that are not ▯ fundamentally similar What is argument by causal correlation? Identifying the necessary and sufficient conditions for the assurance of an event. Example: cause and effect attendance and grades rain and car accidents What are the two test of argument for determining augment by causal correlation? ▯ 1) Necessary Test: that the effect will not occur absent the cause have to ▯ have money to buy cigs have to have a car to drink and drive ▯ ▯ 2) Sufficiency Test: the cause is enough to produce the effect even though other things may create the effect as well identify a correlation and explain why and what makes it a good cause and effect (Test Question) ▯ What is argument by causal generalization that is done by deductive reasoning? The specific application of a previously established causal correlation ▯ What are the two tests for causal generalizations? 1) Is the cause necessary and sufficient have to have a good correlation to start with 2) Intervening factors: something unique about you that makes the correlation not apply (something unique that prevents the correlation from being applicable) Ex: Joe immune to vodka because been drinking it since he was there ▯ What is argument by sign? Taking evidence of something visible as symptomatic of something not visible. based on a substance attribute relationship EX: where there is smoke (attribute), there is fire (substance(what you do not see)) ▯ ▯ What are the two test for argument of sign? ▯ 1) Are there a sufficient # of signs? ▯ 2) Are contradictary signs considered? ▯ What is the difference between cross examination and direct examination? Direct examination is asking questions to someone who is friendly to your cause/cost and cross examination is asking questions to someone who is hostile to your cause and cost. What are three purposes of cross examination? 1) to clarify previous statements 2) get your opponent to commit to a particular position 3) To establish a basis for future arguments prevent them from flip flopping, have to get them to look into something in order to make arguments against them, to have to know exactly what you are arguing about if there are arguments that you know you want to make, you set them up earlier in the crossexamination ▯ What are the psychological aspects of crossexamination? ▯ 1) Don't be overly aggressive ▯ 2) Don't be indecisive ▯ 3) You want to be relaxed and self confident ( you want to be in control) ▯ ▯ What are the psychological aspects when answering questions? ▯ 1) Don't be overly evasive: want to e a little evasive ▯ 2) Don't be overly cooperative ▯ 3) Appear open and honest (body language, eye contact) ▯ What is the techniques for asking questions? ▯ 1) Ask factual questions (have a definite answer) ▯ 2) Do not ask people to draw conclusions ▯ 3) Politely cut off long answers ▯ 4) Drop unproductive lines of questioning ▯ ▯ What is the techniques for answering questions? ▯ 1) Take some time to think ▯ 2) Do not hesitate to answer obvious questions ▯ 3) Qualify your answers ▯ 4) Don't answer questions you do not understand ▯ 5) Be willing to admit you do not know ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯
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