ANS 2: Midterm 1 Study Guide
ANS 2: Midterm 1 Study Guide ANS 002
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mackenzie Hayes on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANS 002 at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. James Murray in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 426 views. For similar materials see Introductory Animal Science in Animal Science and Zoology at University of California - Davis.
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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Mackenzie!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
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Date Created: 04/16/16
ANS 2: Midterm Exam #1 Study Guide ● Animal Behaviour: ○ The actions and reactions of an animal ○ Ethology:study of animal behaviour ■ Applied Ethology: study of interaction with humans ○ Timbergen: (One of Founding Fathers of Ethology4 questions: ■ Proximate Causation: ● What causes the behaviour? ■ Development: ● How does it change over the animal’s life? ■ Function: ● How does it aid the animal’s survival? ■ Evolution: ● How has it come about over the course of evolution? ○ One Newer Question: ■ Affect: ● What does the behaviour mean to the animal? ○ Assessing observed phenomena: ■ ⅔ of birds have keel bone damage ● Measuring Behaviour: ○ Who do you sample? ■ Ad-lib: whoever you happen to see ■ Focal: select one or few ■ Scan:group as a whole ○ How often do you sample? ■ Continuous: throughout set amount of time ■ Instantaneous:divided into exact time intervals (ie every 3 min) ■ One-zero: if behaviour was done in interval at all (yes / no) ● California livestock-based annual income: ($) ○ Milk + Cream ~ 9 billion ○ Cattle + Calves ~ 4 billion ○ Chicken + Eggs ~ 1.5 billion ○ Turkey ~ 230 million ○ Hogs + Pigs ~ 40 million ○ Aquaculture ~ 13 million ● Immediate ancestors to domestic species arebiologically the sameanimals ○ Yet considered to be aifferent species ● Bladder: always serves as a “landmark” ● REPRODUCTION: ● Sperm = smallest cell in body ● MALES: ○ General Anatomy: ■ Vas Deferens / Ductus Deferens: ● Transportation of sperm for ejaculation ■ Seminiferous Tubules: ● Site ofpermatogenesis - production of immature sperm ● Sertoli Cellnourish sperm + help them mature wSH ● Leydig Cellsproduce testosterone when stimulated wLH ■ Epididymis: ● Aids sperm maturation (takes 6 weeks to mature) ● Transport to vas deferens ■ Accessory Glands: ● Add extra components to seminiferous fluid ● Ampullary, Vesicular, Prostate, Bulbourethral ■ Pampiniform Plexus: ● Regulates in and outgoing blood temperature in testes ■ Testes:(within Scrotum) ● Produce sperm and testosterone ○ Spermatogenesis: ■ Takes place in seminiferous tubules ■ Spermatogonial Cells: go through meiosis ● Replicate DNA (2N, 2C → 2N, 4C) ● Becomes 4 haploid sperm (1N, 1C) (or duplicates itself) ■ Spermatids: haploid cells produced from spermatogonial dividing ■ Continuous process (keep producing throughout lifetime) ○ Hormones: *be able to reproduce table* ■ GnRH: released by hypothalamus to stimulate FSH + LH release ■ FSH: stimulates sertoli cells in testes ■ LH: stimulates testosterone production by leydig cells ■ Hypothalamus → GnRH ■ Stimulates anterior pituitary → FSH + LH ■ Feedback: ● Positive: promotes further production ● Negative: inhibits further production ● FEMALES: ● Egg = biggest cell in body ○ General Anatomy: ■ Ovary: ● Theca Cells: ○ Stimulated bH→ produceandrogens ● Granulosa Cells: ○ Stimulated bSH→ producestrogen ○ Eventually antrum forms as follicle matures ● Corpus Luteum(CL) ○ Forms after ovulatiorogesterone ○ UNLESS no implantation (not pregnant) ● Luteal Cells: ○ Cells of CL that proprogesterone ● Corpus Albican(CA) ○ Regressed form of CL if not pregnant ■ Infundibulum: ● Helps shuttle ovum to oviduct ■ Oviduct: ● Where egg and sperm meet for fertilization ■ Cervix: ● Tight opening before uterus + oviduct to keep larger “things” out ■ Zona Pellucida: ● Outer layer of egg ■ Uterus: ● Site of fetal development ● Shape of uterine horns differs by species ○ Reproduction of Hens: *not controlled by hormones; cyclical* ■ Oviduct: ● Magnum: puts albumen around yolk ● Isthmus:puts down membranes ● Uterus (aka Shell Gland)lays down calcified hard shell ● Sperm Storage Tubules:holds sperm for later fertilization ○ Oogenesis: ■ Cyclical process ■ Estrous types: ● Monoestrous (dog) ● Polyestrous (cattle) ● Seasonally polyestrous (goat) ● Reflex ovulator (cat) ● Anestrous ■ Primordial germ cell differentiates into oogonium ■ Oogonium enters meiosis ■ Primary oocyte = 2N, 4C → has replicated DNA ■ 1st metabolic division is very uneven (at ovulation, 1N, 2C) ■ Arrested development ● Essentially stops at metaphase 1 of meiosis ■ LH activates meiotic “machinery” ■ If fertilized then second division occurs ● Restores diploid state with sperm DNA added ● Why do we “throw away” 3 copies of DNA? (unlike males) ○ Allows for cell to be big and retain almost all cellulose and nutrients, DNA is all that’s wasted ○ Ovulation: ■ Release ofHcauses enzymatic “digestion”tigma ● Stigma- area on follicle not vascularized (less blood loss) ■ Follicle ruptures → release of egg = start of ovulation ■ Smooth muscles in the theca externa contract ■ Granulosa cells remain metabolically active for 24-48 hours ● Producing progesterone and prostaglandins ■ ^Diagram WILL BE ON AN EXAM (be able to recreate / label it) ● Day 0 = ovulation occurs (and again at day 2*label* ● Cycle= period from ovulation to ovulation ● FSH = always steady in the background (levels not cyclical) ● Progesterone: ○ Loss of CL → drop in progesterone (day 0) ○ After ovulation: new CL forming → rise in progesterone ● Estrogen: ○ Follicle grows, then levels drop @ ovulation ○ Cells switch to produce progesterone ● Luteal Phase:area where progesterone is high (between ovulations) ○ Dog luteal phase lasts 5-7 months ○ Longer than gestation, no need for embryo to send “signal”, progesterone constantly high during phase ○ Fertilization: ■ Homunculus - idea of little man inside sperm ■ Physical union of male and female gametes (sperm and ova) ■ Early Development: ● From conception to death: ● Embryonic: from fertilization until all essential organs are formed ● Fetal:end of embryonic stage until parturition ■ A = ygote:one-celled embryo ■ B = 2 cell ■ C = 4 cell ■ E = morula, still held together by zona pellucida ■ F = 72 hours after fertilization ● Dark clump of cells is what actually becomes fnner(I Cell Mas) ● Mass eventually “hatches” out of zona pellucida ○ Definitions: ■ Blastocyst:a hollow sphere of cells composed of two cell layers (the trophoblast) with a clump of cells inside (the ICM or inner cell mass) ■ Blastocoele: fluid filled interior of blastocyst ■ Trophoblast:cells form the extraembryonic membranes ● Extra-embryonic membranes: ○ Provide protection for embryo - fetus and nutrient / waste exchange ○ Amnion: luid filled sac like airbag around embryo ○ Yolk sac:tores yolk (essentially empty in mammals) ○ Chorion and Allantois(often fused) ■ Chorion = outer layer contributing to placenta ■ Allantois = outgrowth of bladder for nutrient/waste exchange, respiration, and storage of urine ○ Recognition of Pregnancy: “signal” sent to mom from embryo ■ Primates:(aka humans) ● Blastocysts secrete chorionic gonadotropin (CG) ● CG binds to LH receptors in the CL and stimulates continued secretion of progesterone ■ Ruminants: ● Not Pregnant:CL regresses at end of cycle ○ Due to endometrial secreting PGF ● Pregnant: ○ (bovine) embryo secretes interferon tau which decrease PGF secretion ○ (sheep) embryo secretes ovine trophoblast protein which inhibits production of PGF ■ Pigs: ● Release estradiol to block PGF ● Minimum 3-4 embryos so signal is strong enough ■ Dogs:monoestrous (basically keep secreting progesterone anyway) ○ Stress / Parturition: ■ “Triggered” by release oortisolfrom fetus ■ → increased release ofstrogenby placenta ■ → estrogen causes uterus to start contracting ■ Uterus releases prostaglandins which cause regression of CL ● → drop in progesterone ■ Progesterone inhibits the contractions of uterus ● → drop in rogesterone= stimulates contractions ■ Oxytocin= posterior pituitary hormone ● Stimulates contraction + mammary production ○ Hormones: ■ GnRH: released by hypothalamus, stimulates anterior pituitary production of FSH + LH ■ FSH:induces growth of follicles in ovary ■ LH:stimulates estrogen production in ovary and ovulation ■ Progesterone:released by CL + is vital for pregnancy ■ FSH → causes Corpus Luteum to develop (CL) ● → releases progesterone ● → regresses to CA when done making progesterone ● Pregnant: ○ Maintains CL and progesterone levels ● Not Pregnant: ○ Release of prostaglandin (by granulosa cells) ○ CL regresses ANS 2: Midterm Study Guide (Mammary) ● Mammary Gland Anatomy ○ Exocrine gland - secretes to outside of body ■ Developmentally like salivary + sudoriferous (sweat) glands ○ Defines the class mammalia ■ Range from skin surface milk patch (monotremes) ■ To variable number of defined glands ○ Number of glands varies with species: ■ Cow: 4 glands; 4 teats ■ sheep/goats: 2 glands; 2 teats ■ Mare: 4 glands; 2 teats ■ Sow: 6-20 glands; same # teats ● Stages of Mammary Development: ○ 1 - at puberty ■ Ductal elongation promoted by estrogen + IOF-I ■ Minimal alveolar development (progesterone) ○ 2 - lactogenesis - at pregnancy ■ Ductal and alveolar growth (progesterone) ■ Late pregnancy production of milk + secretion initiated ○ 3 - galactopoiesis = lactation ○ 4 - involution - at end of lactation ■ Regression to pre-pregnancy state ● Composition of milk varies across species ○ Changes based on: ■ Breed ■ Stage of lactation ● Colostrum vs. milk ● Early vs. mid vs. late pregnancy ■ Parity of dam ■ Type of feed ■ Age of young ○ 9 of the 20 amino acids are essential ○ Over 500 different fat molecules have been found in cow milk ■ Changes in diet affect it ■ Food doesn’t have a composition it has a “range” of composition ● Colostrum: ○ First milk produced after parturition ■ High protein content ■ High material antibody content ● Important for passive immunity ● Neonatal gastrointestinal tract epithelium is porous to large molecules immediately after birth ● Not true for all mammals (rabbits) ● Anatomy: *be able to label* ○ True secretory alveoli develop under hormonal control during pregnancy ■ Increasing estrogen - duct and cistern development ■ High progesterone - alveolar growth ○ Structure’s been modified over time (selective breeding) ■ Conformation to fit milking machine ○ Mammary epithelial cells - produce + secrete milk ○ Meilol epithelial cells - respond to oxytocin to contract ■ Oxytocin release caused by physical stimulation of hypothalamus ○ Parenchyma - glandular tissue (alveolar tissue) makes milk (progesterone) ○ Alveolus ■ Lumen holds milk ■ Epithelial cells produce milk ■ Stroma = connective tissue ○ Lobule - 200-250 alveoli ■ Lobe = multiple lobules ○ Mammogenesis - mammary gland development ○ Lactogenesis - induction of lactation ○ Galactopoiesis - maintenance of lactation ● *500 gallons of blood / 1 gallon milk* ○ Massive blood supply and flow to mammary system
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