Exam 3 study guide
Exam 3 study guide Comm 118
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Dillon on Thursday February 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 118 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Mike Schmierbach in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 75 views.
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Date Created: 02/12/15
COMM EXAM 3 REVIEW 35 multiple choice Materials from 8 9 and 11 Watch for made up terms and ideas that are not like the other choices Resonance if we see content that aligns with our beliefs it will amplify that creates bigger differences among people Spiral of silence a key force that causes it is the fear of isolation Exemplification Mainstreaming people gravitate towards mainstream media views the more TV they watch the more similar people become even if they start with very opposing views Elaboration Likelihood Model individuals with high motivation and high ability to process are likely to process the lasting qualities of an argument and read it carefully This group sees past the superficial ideas First person perception can be seen in media content such as ads promoting healthy eating Things that inflate their own egos a positive in nature thingeffect displayed Negative political ads are sometimes objected because they may backfire the evidence either way is very unclear Sundar s MAIN model includes what affordances M Modality A Agency I Interactivity N Navigability Measures of engagement and immersion Flow Interactivity Transportation being absorbed into the story narrative feeling Presence sense of being there special presence feeling that the virtual world is real Selective exposure suggest that people are especially prone to seek reinforcing content M are less concerned with avoiding challenging content Fidelity faithfulness similar to reality the better it is surround sound good quality etc the better the media experience effects of 3rel person effect about both the perceptions I think others are more effected than I am and the actions behavioral hypothesis consequences taken MAIN model all 4 of the affordances can have 2 influences on us and could lead to us evaluating media in specific ways the affordances can also become if we like something Ultimately judge quality and then credibility Cultivation media does not provide an accurate representation of reality 1St order effect the estimate of reality people who watch a lot of TV have a skewed view of reality 2nOI order attitudes and behaviors formed on the basis of the first order dissonance we think that people that are less like us are effected more than us exposure to stereotyped potentially alters our personal views can be in any context stereotype lift we see stereotype of another group alters performance in a positive way reminded that you are in the better group so they do better stereotype threat we see a stereotype that describes our group and it can alter our performance in a negative way Media multiplexity the closer a relationship the more means of media will be used this will not create rather reinforce a previously strong relationship presumed influence subset of research on 3rel person effects gap between ourself and others ONLY studies how others are being effected spiral of silence we care what other people think we don t want to be in the minority isolation if we hold minority view we will not express it causes more and more people to be silent exemplar accessibility when I watch TV I remember what I see and because of this I will be able to recall them when asked Cannot differentiate that they were seen on TV so we assume that media is a valid representation of reality automy freedom to make choices your choices have a meaningful influence certain types on non verbal communication are cannot be useful but we find ways to compensate Framing presenting things in terms of loss or gain affects how people perceive an issue emphasis framing emphasize certain aspects proteus effect our virtual avatar embodiment potentially affects actions because we believe certain people should act certain ways stereotypes Modality in what form are we interacting with touch example the fact that controllers shake a form of interface D rench hypothesis every once and a while all it takes is one event phenomenon to influence perceptions where usually drip it takes a long time and lots of content CHAPTER 8 TERMS BOOK elaboration likelihood model there are two routes by which people are persuaded central route rational and cognitive peripheral route little thought or scrutiny usually happens when things are meant to entertain product placement advertisers pay for their product to simply be featured in movies or on TV thinking it will help endorse them theory of media cultivation the cultivation of attitudes a way of talking about attitude change social reality people think the real would is the same as what they see on media fear of criminal victimization overestimate their own chances of being involved in violence mainstreaming refers to when people of different opinion groups are exposed to the same media because it is the one that is mass produced causes people s opinions to gravitate toward that of the media protection motivation theory to the extent that fear appeals convince an audience of the severity of a threat their vulnerability to the threat and their ability to respond effectively to the threat they will be persuasive supraliminal illusory placebo effect no evidence that something happened subliminal priming people can recognize certain words much faster if they have been exposed to a prior subliminal stimulus word that is related third person effect people think media content is more likely to affect other people illusion of personal invulnerability people tend to think of themselves as people who would never succumb to the pressures of brainwashing CHAPTER 9 TERMS BOOK need for cognition the need to structure relevant situations in meaningful integrated ways political sophistication a function of knowledge and political ideology agenda setting theory media is usually successful in telling people what to think about rather than what to think spiral of silence fear of isolation we tend to believe that most people agree with the majority train test people asked if they are likely to articulate their personal view on an issue when placed on a train with a complete stranger selective exposure people gravitate toward media that is in sync with their own attitudes interests beliefs and values dual coding theory images might be processed differently than verbal information CHAPTER 11 TERMS BOOK perpetual linkage the new tendency for youth to be constantly connected with each other through some type of technology activity displacement effect people have a limited amount of time in the day to engage in their various activities certain ones cause isolation from others displaces strong social ties when people go online they often end up talking to people in chat rooms and sometimes separately but as a whole the relationships formed online tend to be more superficial with weaker ties than face to face relationships casual claim social argumentation hypothesis people who use the interned to communicate with others should expand their social networks which would give them the relational benefits that come with being more connected with people social compensation hypothesis the effects of the internet on social and psychological well being BUT only for certain individuals introverts individual differences need to be considered when determining if internet is beneficial for a person mix of attributes approach integration of data on traditional media and newer media multitasking actually task switching CULTIVATION cultivation media skews our view of the real world because what is portrayed doesn t match the actual reality media portrays more crimeviolence more white collar workers more wealth more sexual promiscuity less stable relationships marriages first order effects the connection between TV viewing and perceived reality the more someone watches the more they tend to match TV beliefs people turn to TV and it shapes their idea of the world second order effects the actions attributed when people experience first order media effects example supporting crime restrictions engaging in stereotypes mean world perceptions people are not trustworthy of others they have a negative perception of the world exemplar accessibility 1St orderjudgments based on this because media provides exemplars that outweigh reality when asked people draw upon media experiences which makes them believe that the media examples are reality mainstreaming when people of opposite views gravitate more towards the middle of the spectrum the portion that has the highest media coverage Different people become more and more similar resonance people tend to respond more to media that is relevant in their personal lives media that mirrors individual reality PERSUASION attitude orientation toward an object or idea valence can be positive or negative intensity stability complexity behavior actions taken when someone has a certain attitude external imperfectly predicted by attitude theory of reasoned action what causes behaviors to happen attitudes and perceived social norms lead to intended behavior which in turn causes behaviors to occur does not factor in perceived control You have to believe that you can do a certain behavior before you actually do it dual processing models elaboration likelihood models central systematic route involves cognition careful argument and evaluation peripheral heuristic route in favor of shortcuts easily distracted Types of heuristics when people don t take central route attractiveness expertise professionalism bandwagon less thought involved Factors of persuasion reciprocity give when you receive scarcity want more of what you have less of authority people follow credible experts consistency commitments that can be made liking similar cooperative complementary people consensus look to the actions of others credibility source vs scale expertise level accuracy trust also consider reputation THIRD PERSON RESEARCH third person perception people tend to see others as more influenced by media also called perceptual hypothesis social distance corollary less similar individuals are seen to be more influenced target corollary those more exposed to media will be more influenced typical users presumed influence focuses on assumptions about the effects on others and can distort what we think about other s opinions we assume people believe the media content they consume spiral of silence people that have the minority view will not share of it because of their desire to conform and fear of isolation this restraint further distorts public opinion in favor of the majority AGENDA SETTING FRAMING BAIS AND SELECTIVE EXPOSURE agenda setting transferring principles processing from media intermedia relations public response macro big picture how many sources cover this how much of the public thinks it is important more coverage more public importance micro individual agenda does this person care respond to the media need for cognition this is a character trait NOT everyone has it people that are more cognitive rely on media and tend to use it to believe it puzzle lovers curious people open to solving complex problems 2nOI level agenda setting extend to the level of an individual issue notjust what WHAT ABOUT equivalence framing presenting equal choices will generate responses based on wording gain loss framing can convey in terms of gains and losses commonly tested in terms of hea h emphasis framing presents issues in different ways 0 episodic talks about single event 0 thematic broad issue given context over time accessibility no evidence to prove agenda setting similar to priming about the notion of putting ideas into one s head that can be activated applicability framing based on the values we have and the ways we see the world consciously forming relevant opinions bias why uneven amount of coverage unequal tone hard to measure hostile media perceptions partisan individuals will perceive content as biased against them relative to neutralopposing readers we would point out 10 bias before pointing out 90 agreement selective exposure seeking out context that reinforces what we already believe makes people more secure in their beliefs cognitive dissonance possible explanation for selective exposure that dissonance is uncomfortable and we make excuses for conflicting ideas NEWS KNOWLEDGE AND ALTERNATIVE SOURCES positive influences education news media exposure especially print communication mediation model if you place others together to talk about what they think of mediapolitics it will intensify their beliefs thinking about what you have been exposed to further amplifies beliefs knowledge gap exposure to news increases knowledge BUT news can create different responses in different people greater with people take away different things educa on motivation interest SES OOOO soft news entertainment focused lots of current affair elements ex people magazine political advertising negative ads are not as impactful as people thing people are more memorable but it can backfire on ad fire THEORIES OF TECHNOLOGY social information processing theory non verbal techniques are altered online it is possible to form strong relationships they just happen slower media multiplexity stronger relationships link to a diversity of channels used to maintain the relationship more communication leads to more interdependence mix of attributes media is not just the content if we really want to understand the content we need to consider interactivity structure channel textuality content MAIN model the presence of specific affordances serves as cues to quality credibility and acceptance if I expect bells and whistles and they are there I will think it is legit 4 MAIN affordances M modality not limited to sight and dound A agency what is the source I interactivity getting the user involved N nagavibility way to efficiently use content media equation computers as social actors people indirectly judge computers with human qualities people directly rebel against this idea but indirectly admit that they do it VIDEO GAME RELATED THEORIES proteus effect individuals conform to their self representation independent of how others perceive them stereotype threat reminder of a negative stereotype may lead to people following that particular trend stereotype lift negative stereotypes of others may enhance individual experience connection to avatars self presence framework viewing avatar as part of self body connection self represent emotion connection appearance reminds of emotion identity connection representation self identity flow theory described the intense focused positive state of mind during a task indicators feelings of mastery being up to a challenge distortion or loss of time not aware automatic reactions just do it happens naturally loss of awareness of external stimulus presence another approach to immersion most often used with interactive media a sense of being there involvement sensory fidelity seems rea adaptation interface quality self determination theory satisfaction of 3 intrinsic motivationsneeds creates a positive expenence 1 autonomy ability to make choices 2 competency sense of mastery 3 relatedness opportunity to connect with others
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