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UH / History / HIST 1377 / Columbus was born when?

Columbus was born when?

Columbus was born when?

Description

School: University of Houston
Department: History
Course: The U S To 1877
Professor: Douglas erwing
Term: Spring 2015
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Notes from 1/20/15 - 1/30/15
Description: These notes cover the first month of school. It includes information about the map discussed in class, with great descriptions and detail. Enjoy!
Uploaded: 02/13/2015
32 Pages 55 Views 1 Unlocks
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1st Week’s Notes


Columbus was born when?



1/21/15

● Three themes

○ Establishment of an American Identity

○ Development of an American Self Government

○ Territorial expansion of the country in the midst of the struggle over slavery

● 1476 Narrative

○ A ship is sunk by a French war ship. A man lands near Lagos, Portugal. The sailor doesn't speak any Portuguese, his name is Christopher Columb. He was in awe of Henry, who was the father of modern systematic exploration​. He has directed sailors on exploration, and Columb.

○ Henry lived to 1394­1460

■ Columbus discovered the continent and the new world, and return in an era when people cared about it.

■ Henry ­ visionary explorer​, only left Portugal once. Third son of


Who is the brother of columbus?



We also discuss several other topics like Who is carson?

Portugal. He is turned away by his father, but given rank and hierarchy and decides to launch a crusading expedition across the strait of

Gibraltar to a fortress occupied by Muslims

■ He expects to find trade goods and riches that one might find in

Portugal

■ By age 21 ­ leading this military expedition, conquer and occupy and Prince Henry is surprised and he discovers that Portugal is not involved in even the extensive trading by the Islamic country on the edge

(silks, gold, tapestry). His life goal is to bring the goods to Portugal, by

going around the Islamic to Asia, by passing the Cape of Good Hope in Africa to go to Goa, India and Asia

■ The first efforts ­ they went to the Islands in the Pacific instead of going to Asia


What is the meaning of the fall line?



If you want to learn more check out What is the age of the universe?

■ Died in 1460 but his organizations including navigators, inventors, would continue to live on. (Prince Henry the Navigator)

○ Columbus ​born in Genoa in 1451, in Italy

■ Most people in Venice and Genoa made their living off of the sea

■ Him and his brother, by 14976 had sailing experience. Began to be mapmakers, by using information from other sailors. We don’t know all

the places he visited, maybe Iceland, British Isles, or Africa. Sailed in

the mediterranean.

■ He and his brother (Bartholomew) developed a theory ​­ that one could leave Portugal and sail West to arrive in Asia. But what about the size and circumference of the Earth

■ They believed that the ball of the Earth was smaller than it actually is ■ They put a plan to sail West, and by 1484 he pitched the idea of low ranking aristocrats. They were well received but the monarch's advisorsWe also discuss several other topics like Why do we call it comparative politics?

were against, and that the people on the board will die before getting there. They were turned down by a variety of courts. Lastly, they went to Spain by Ferdinand and Isabel funded them even though their advisors were against it too. Coulomb and his brother had to go to the bank first.

■ The troubling aspects of sailors of the tip of South America and Africa is that the wind blows against them.

■ Many men that accompanied were from bars but after started to believe Columbus landing on the islands and thinking he found “Indians.”

Because he thinks that he is in India, but he found a new continent.

■ He went to back three more times to North America

■ 2 cartographer, one named Amerigo Vespucci thinks that Columbus discovered a new continent, and not Asia and would later name the

continent even though he was never there with Columbus.

■ Santa Maria has been found.

● The Map

○ Tide Waters like Galveston

■ Swept by hurricanes and floods Don't forget about the age old question of Where do states come from?

■ Low fertility in the soil, because of the salt

■ Narrow coastal plain, broadens as you go southwards

■ Good harbors, sandy beaches We also discuss several other topics like What is the definition of summer solstice?

■ Lot of mosquitoes

○ Fall Line ­ Boundary between Tide Water and the Piedmont

■ Has waterfall

■ An uplifting, and is the deepest penetration by European settlers for some time

■ State capitals were founded here ­ Washington D.C., Columbia, S Carolina, richmond Virginia.

○ Piedmont

■ Like the land from here to Austin

■ More tree and forested

■ Lower humidity

■ Better fertility

■ Will draw you in from the tide water

○ Series of old mountain ranges = Appalachian mountain

■ 2000­3000 ft

■ Form a huge barrier of trade, settlement and occupation

■ Blue ridge ­ the front face. blue when the sun is rising

■ Has some series of ridges and valleys

● Called the ridge and valley system

● one valley in particular is called the great valley

○ Runs from Pennsylvania to northern alabama

○ 30­60 miles wide

○ Great soil

○ First place that settlers settled was the Blue Grass Country

■ Famous for horses and burton ­ Kentucky and Tennessee

■ Has a limestone base that has been scraped off the top of the

Appalachian mountains. The limestone filters the water and makes

burton and makes the grass blue and unusually fertile.

○ Mississippi River is at the bottom of the Gulf Coastal Plain If you want to learn more check out What are prompts?

■ Black loamy soil, 50ft deep. Detritus that was dumped by the river and feeds cotton

○ Great Plains ­ branded the “The Great American Desert”

■ You make your house out of mud, a sud hut

■ The wind made the first 1st feet of soil dry but the rest of the soil was the most productive soil in the world

1/23/15

● What is History?

○ UN History Project

■ Used supercomputers to gather information

■ Made it through 5000 years of information ­ 1 of 1th million of data for the last month

● It was a failure

■ If they were able to gather all information related to humans, would they have history?

■ History is about gathering and cataloguing information and also interpret the information

■ The UN History Project did not interpret and that’s another failure

○ History is about deciphering, interpreting and the division making process with a body of data and there’s a choice of what data

○ Journalization is the other extreme

■ The immediacy

■ The stuff in the newspaper may not be relevant to actual history ● There are slow news day

■ There are some times that don’t even have much news

■ It lacks the perspective of the historian

○ The map is a sample of examples of the very decisions of someone’s opinion ○ 4 Factors undergird the Age of Discovery

■ Technology

● Measure, standardize, generalize and apply knowledge to take

mastery of nature around man

● Conquering time​(daytime and nighttime, clock) and space

(geography, map, compass)

○ Time: Sundials, than wood fire then clock then

wristwatches to standardize and measure times

○ Space: kite ­ measured the wind patterns, no orientation

however thus the compass

● Ship Design: Caravel

○ Huge technological advancement

○ Developed by Prince Henry’s nodical people

○ Ships that carried people during the age of discovery

○ Had a variety of sail, ex. lantine sail allowing the sail to hang off the boat and capture wind and direct the wind

○ Hanseatic League

○ Mediterranean Tradition

● Printing Press

○ Invented by Johannes Gutenberg 

○ 1457

○ Allows the dissemination of Columb’s journal

■ His was the first for people to read it and get

interested and be well read

■ Centralization of Power

● Collapse of the Roman Stage that led to feudalism

○ Bonds and oath that are owed to the workers to the lords and those above them

○ When you die, the oath die off. So ever shifting that make it difficult to amass power over long periods of time

● Dawn of power in 15th century

○ Shift of power away from kings and nobles

○ Rule of law

■ It is permanent ​and it is a set of degrees

● It give the states the resources that will then be used during the age of discovery

○ Ex. the collection of tax

■ Rise of the Urban Middle Class in Europe

● Most of people are shorter and depend of the land

● 60% from Bangladesh drink water that is poisoned with arsenic ● Having pets, such as a dog, is a sign of emergent wealth ● Carpentry, barrow making, legal work, accounting

○ These specialization by people made the middle class ● Sign of prosperity

■ Search for wealth

● Europe’s nation­state had internal struggles in the early 1400s ● There had been the Black Death

● Europeans weren't inclined to explore their knowledge ○ They thought that everything had been found out by the Greeks or Europeans

● Islam had spread

○ Arabic was the predominant language of science, commerce, government, trade and more. ​Now it is English

● The Atlantic Ocean was seen as a barrier for Europe ● The Silk Road ­ from China to Islamic territory ○ Dunhuang

● Marco Polo

1st Week’s Notes

1/21/15

● Three themes

○ Establishment of an American Identity

○ Development of an American Self Government

○ Territorial expansion of the country in the midst of the struggle over slavery

● 1476 Narrative

○ A ship is sunk by a French war ship. A man lands near Lagos, Portugal. The sailor doesn't speak any Portuguese, his name is Christopher Columb. He was in awe of Henry, who was the father of modern systematic exploration​. He has directed sailors on exploration, and Columb.

○ Henry lived to 1394­1460

■ Columbus discovered the continent and the new world, and return in an era when people cared about it.

■ Henry ­ visionary explorer​, only left Portugal once. Third son of

Portugal. He is turned away by his father, but given rank and hierarchy and decides to launch a crusading expedition across the strait of

Gibraltar to a fortress occupied by Muslims

■ He expects to find trade goods and riches that one might find in

Portugal

■ By age 21 ­ leading this military expedition, conquer and occupy and Prince Henry is surprised and he discovers that Portugal is not involved in even the extensive trading by the Islamic country on the edge

(silks, gold, tapestry). His life goal is to bring the goods to Portugal, by

going around the Islamic to Asia, by passing the Cape of Good Hope in Africa to go to Goa, India and Asia

■ The first efforts ­ they went to the Islands in the Pacific instead of going to Asia

■ Died in 1460 but his organizations including navigators, inventors, would continue to live on. (Prince Henry the Navigator)

○ Columbus ​born in Genoa in 1451, in Italy

■ Most people in Venice and Genoa made their living off of the sea

■ Him and his brother, by 14976 had sailing experience. Began to be mapmakers, by using information from other sailors. We don’t know all

the places he visited, maybe Iceland, British Isles, or Africa. Sailed in

the mediterranean.

■ He and his brother (Bartholomew) developed a theory ​­ that one could leave Portugal and sail West to arrive in Asia. But what about the size and circumference of the Earth

■ They believed that the ball of the Earth was smaller than it actually is ■ They put a plan to sail West, and by 1484 he pitched the idea of low ranking aristocrats. They were well received but the monarch's advisors

were against, and that the people on the board will die before getting there. They were turned down by a variety of courts. Lastly, they went to Spain by Ferdinand and Isabel funded them even though their advisors were against it too. Coulomb and his brother had to go to the bank first.

■ The troubling aspects of sailors of the tip of South America and Africa is that the wind blows against them.

■ Many men that accompanied were from bars but after started to believe Columbus landing on the islands and thinking he found “Indians.”

Because he thinks that he is in India, but he found a new continent.

■ He went to back three more times to North America

■ 2 cartographer, one named Amerigo Vespucci thinks that Columbus discovered a new continent, and not Asia and would later name the

continent even though he was never there with Columbus.

■ Santa Maria has been found.

● The Map

○ Tide Waters like Galveston

■ Swept by hurricanes and floods

■ Low fertility in the soil, because of the salt

■ Narrow coastal plain, broadens as you go southwards

■ Good harbors, sandy beaches

■ Lot of mosquitoes

○ Fall Line ­ Boundary between Tide Water and the Piedmont

■ Has waterfall

■ An uplifting, and is the deepest penetration by European settlers for some time

■ State capitals were founded here ­ Washington D.C., Columbia, S Carolina, richmond Virginia.

○ Piedmont

■ Like the land from here to Austin

■ More tree and forested

■ Lower humidity

■ Better fertility

■ Will draw you in from the tide water

○ Series of old mountain ranges = Appalachian mountain

■ 2000­3000 ft

■ Form a huge barrier of trade, settlement and occupation

■ Blue ridge ­ the front face. blue when the sun is rising

■ Has some series of ridges and valleys

● Called the ridge and valley system

● one valley in particular is called the great valley

○ Runs from Pennsylvania to northern alabama

○ 30­60 miles wide

○ Great soil

○ First place that settlers settled was the Blue Grass Country

■ Famous for horses and burton ­ Kentucky and Tennessee

■ Has a limestone base that has been scraped off the top of the

Appalachian mountains. The limestone filters the water and makes

burton and makes the grass blue and unusually fertile.

○ Mississippi River is at the bottom of the Gulf Coastal Plain

■ Black loamy soil, 50ft deep. Detritus that was dumped by the river and feeds cotton

○ Great Plains ­ branded the “The Great American Desert”

■ You make your house out of mud, a sud hut

■ The wind made the first 1st feet of soil dry but the rest of the soil was the most productive soil in the world

1/23/15

● What is History?

○ UN History Project

■ Used supercomputers to gather information

■ Made it through 5000 years of information ­ 1 of 1th million of data for the last month

● It was a failure

■ If they were able to gather all information related to humans, would they have history?

■ History is about gathering and cataloguing information and also interpret the information

■ The UN History Project did not interpret and that’s another failure

○ History is about deciphering, interpreting and the division making process with a body of data and there’s a choice of what data

○ Journalization is the other extreme

■ The immediacy

■ The stuff in the newspaper may not be relevant to actual history ● There are slow news day

■ There are some times that don’t even have much news

■ It lacks the perspective of the historian

○ The map is a sample of examples of the very decisions of someone’s opinion ○ 4 Factors undergird the Age of Discovery

■ Technology

● Measure, standardize, generalize and apply knowledge to take

mastery of nature around man

● Conquering time​(daytime and nighttime, clock) and space

(geography, map, compass)

○ Time: Sundials, than wood fire then clock then

wristwatches to standardize and measure times

○ Space: kite ­ measured the wind patterns, no orientation

however thus the compass

● Ship Design: Caravel

○ Huge technological advancement

○ Developed by Prince Henry’s nodical people

○ Ships that carried people during the age of discovery

○ Had a variety of sail, ex. lantine sail allowing the sail to hang off the boat and capture wind and direct the wind

○ Hanseatic League

○ Mediterranean Tradition

● Printing Press

○ Invented by Johannes Gutenberg 

○ 1457

○ Allows the dissemination of Columb’s journal

■ His was the first for people to read it and get

interested and be well read

■ Centralization of Power

● Collapse of the Roman Stage that led to feudalism

○ Bonds and oath that are owed to the workers to the lords and those above them

○ When you die, the oath die off. So ever shifting that make it difficult to amass power over long periods of time

● Dawn of power in 15th century

○ Shift of power away from kings and nobles

○ Rule of law

■ It is permanent ​and it is a set of degrees

● It give the states the resources that will then be used during the age of discovery

○ Ex. the collection of tax

■ Rise of the Urban Middle Class in Europe

● Most of people are shorter and depend of the land

● 60% from Bangladesh drink water that is poisoned with arsenic ● Having pets, such as a dog, is a sign of emergent wealth ● Carpentry, barrow making, legal work, accounting

○ These specialization by people made the middle class ● Sign of prosperity

■ Search for wealth

● Europe’s nation­state had internal struggles in the early 1400s ● There had been the Black Death

● Europeans weren't inclined to explore their knowledge ○ They thought that everything had been found out by the Greeks or Europeans

● Islam had spread

○ Arabic was the predominant language of science,

commerce, government, trade and more. ​Now it is

English

● The Atlantic Ocean was seen as a barrier for Europe

● The Silk Road ­ from China to Islamic territory

○ Dunhuang

● Marco Polo

1/26/15

● What is not History?

○ Things that can’t be measured like Religion, but it does shape people and forces

○ Causation ​is every important to the steps that form history

○ United States is actually oldest country under the same existing government ■ China is now celebrating its 60th anniversary

○ More history makes the country more pindown

■ Chinese is always in the present tense and so they always live in their history, and it animates

○ 1st Europeans, the 39 Spanish sailors were the first

○ ⅔ of English settlers die and the effect on the natives were far worse because the English lived the way they wanted to which was sometimes fatal to the Natives

■ The Tuno died ­ over 99% died

■ Disease, animals affects the Natives

○ This is the beginning of globalization

■ Columbian Exchange because the contact between the old and new world would initiates trade, good and disease

○ Diseases spread with the newcomers into the New World

■ Communal, group disease

○ 1510­1535 ­ Will take the disease into the mainland

○ Europeans bring 7­10 diseases ­ fatal to Native

○ Two sets exacerbated the impacts of the diseases

■ Natives

● They walked through a biological deepfreeze

● They were wiped out to the new diseases

● They were hunter­gatherers and lived in groups of 50­100 and

move frequently. The ability of latent diseases would have found

it very hard to make it into the moving population but they still

had diseases, but they didn’t have communal diseases

■ Europeans

● They had been exposed and had been seasoned since they

were great travelers

● However malaria and yellow fever lived them in Africa

● Urbanization allowed the diseases to live in in the communities

and since they had exposure, they end up having an immunity.

The filthy European city allowed them to be seasoned, but not

the Bubonic plague

● They worked in close communities, reinforced the spreading the

disease and seasoning of them

● Animals are filthy ­ Natives domesticated only one animal ­ dogs

○ They are one of the best animals to live with and quite

clean

○ Europeans live closely with not just dogs, but chickens

and cattle

○ 99% of Native people will die as a result of

● Diseases that were brought to the new world: dysentery, Bubonic

plague, leprosy, measles, small pox, whooping cough, yellow

fever

● Syphilis originated from the New World

○ Europeans brought sugar canes and stuff that weren’t nutritious and brought cotton ­ Old world to New world

■ Reverse ­ casava, maise (corn) and potato produce 5x as many calorie ■ Potato makes place that can't produce but can produce the potato

● From the New world to Old World

● Bad in Irish ­ the 1ft gap between the row of potato and had the

potato blight

○ New Effect: increase of European population because of cassava, maisie and the potato during the 300 year period

■ Animals: Europeans bring war dogs, horses to ride, and cattle and the bees which became the symbol of death, and disruption

1/28/15

● 10/20/1565

○ Hurricanes came flew

○ 250 French women, men and children, left to defend themselves by their commander. He went to defend from the Spanish. The people are left alone and the Spanish come and massacre and the heads are put in rucksacks and sent back to the French to say stay away from the Spanish territory

○ Africans had been exposed to the same diseases that the Europeans had been because of the trade routes

○ Much of Africa was virgin land, unlike the Native

○ Until the early 19th century, despite Europeans superior government systems and technology, the Africans held their own against Europeans and Africans regained control of the continents, unlike the Americas

○ So germs, diseases were very important to colonization

○ Spanish, Dutch, Swedish, French ­ Europeans to try and settle in the Americas ■ Spanish

● Heart and soul was the gold mines

● 181 tons of gold out of the New World

● In the course of obtaining gold, you scratch the Earth, the Spanish are in the primitive stage of mining

● Amount of wealth increased 5 times in 100 years because of the gold in Europe

● Silver is the real wealth ­ 16,000 tons of silver

● Paradox ­ it was wealthy and powerful for a period time, but it was impoverished because of the prices of goods sored to try and soak up the wealth. So people bought foreign goods and Spain today lacks the industrial base

● Two reasons of Spain’s importance

○ Hunt for more wealth ­ the gold could be found near

Mexico

○ Security for their holdings

■ 10 years was the age of the conquistadors, a hunt

for greater wealth ­ they didn’t find the wealth and

didn’t add to Spanish wealth

■ Settlements

● A buffer zone between any enclosure zone

used to amass wealth

● Buffer zones for population and military

purposes

● Because the English and French were

trying to take the Spanish treasure ships

● The Spanish settled in different cities like El Paso, Santa Fe ■ French

● They moved far away from Spanish to Canada, North and traveled up the Saint Lawrence river (gives protection), and didn’t see the Spanish who were in the coast

■ English

● They watched Spanish’s wealth grow, they decided to try and claim some of the wealth. They saw themselves falling behind the Spanish.

● The West Countrymen ​­ the first men who led the call to travel ○ Irish, so not at the center of power

○ They argued to the monarchs to foster settlements

■ Colonies would provide market​for English goods

■ Raw materials

■ The land appeared to be more populous and they

would move there

● Abundant evidence that the English

population was exploding and the cities

were growing. 1500­1600 the population

went from 3 to 4 million

■ It could provide cheap raw materials to be sold in England

■ The Irish was the first place to be tested

○ Below are the reasons given by the Countrymen to colonize

○ 1. The Increase in Population

○ 2. The Enclosure Movement (of the Land ­ textiles) ■ The land is needed for sheep for textiles

■ They fenced the land and the tenants are pushed off the land and they are moved to cities, poor

○ 3. Cloth Trade

■ Amsterdam, Holland is the center of this trade ■ Easily accessible geographically

■ And the English had to endure the wild swings of the economy

○ First place to test this, off the coast of Irish

■ English tried to colonize them before going to the North America

● Sir Humphrey Gilbert

○ Self made man

○ Appeals to Queen Elizabeth and she grants him and his half brother to make profit

● Sir Walter Raleigh (Gilbert’s half brother)

○ Queen takes him to her bed maybe

○ She sees a future and will lose interest in him and the quest

● The two man undertake a venture to set up a place in North America

● Gilbert will be lost at see and Raleigh will take over and land in 1585 ­ Lost Colony

○ Lost by the tides, because of hurricanes

○ Lasts three years and they land on it during the drought ○ The natives are hostile to them because they attack Natives villages

○ English men bake in the Sun because of the summer heat

○ 1587 ­ One of the governors will drop more people ○ Virginia Dare ­ the first Englishman born in the New World

● 1588 ­ English and Spanish go to war

○ Spanish try to launch the Armada, the Spanish fleet of

soldiers

○ And so no one will help the colony and all they can find is

“Croatoan” ­ found in a tree

■ Because of the war between the English and the

Spanish. John White returns to find the colonizers

dead and gone because Queen Elizabeth didn’t

send troops and support

○ It looks bad for the English ­ the Gilbert exploration had

been a failure it looked like

1/30/15

● The Native people didn't have the warning that the English are coming ● 25,000 ­ amount of Indian around the Chesapeake Bay

○ Chief ­ Powhatan, led the Confederacy

■ Had to preserve the integrity of the Confederacy against the diseases from Europeans and more powerful Indians inland

○ Group of 30 tribes

○ Led live as semi­nomadic ­ had settlements that they would occupy in the winter and summer and migrate in the fall and spring.

○ They hunt deer, fished

○ Task are divided by gender which isn’t new

○ They had shamans ­ healers

○ Indians viewed the English ambivalently because they wanted to English to their advantage

○ English viewed the Indian as savages ­ they are human, and remind them to the Garden, more pure

■ They wanted to turn the Indians as laborers

■ Both peoples will view each other as a threat

● The English in the lost Colony

○ They were killed or were taken by Indians

○ Best guess: Indian practices waged warfare and take the women and children lived out their days as an Indian in the interior

■ Evidence: English heard that there were Indian that looked like the English and the English men wanted to bring the English Indian back,

they were killed

● 2nd Attempt of Colonization (1605) ­ James I is reigning, Queen Elizabeth died ○ 1604 ­ James signs a peace treaty with Spain

○ 1605 ­ Virginia Company​­ to explore again in North America

■ People invested in these companies as a shareholder

■ Advantages of a corporation

● Capital

○ Capital accumulation​­ when you open the doors to thousands of people and will gain way more money ,

which is what was learned by the failed Gilbert

exploration

○ each investors has different risk analysis but the money still goes in

● The reward will far outway the risk

● You as a shareholder are limited liability and the reward is unlimited

○ This reward risk profile is very advantageous

■ December ­ they leave to the Americas

● 26th, 1607 ­ lands on the island of Chesapeake bay

● Names the river ­ James River ­ for the King James I

● And the settlement is Jamestown

● John Smith ​­ names as one of the leaders of the colony ○ All the stories are true ­ he was a mercenary soldier, fight in Holland and Italy

○ Becomes one of the best hand to hand combat

■ Problem to the Settlement

● Most of the settlers were rich kids ­ 2/3/4th kids

● They do not want to work

● 3 Groups for the settlers

○ Building settlement

○ Planting crops

○ Looking for gold or a way to the orient

● Hoped to put the Indians to work, like the Irish

○ Failed because they died

○ Indians were accosted to a regimented labor

○ Africans were more used to it

○ Indians were lazy and all, so the English failed to have sanitation, houses

○ Many English die ­ 80%

○ Survivors ate animals, and cannibalism

● First 2 winters were really bad

● Finally John Smith asserts control, and he said those who work, won't eat ­ military discipline

○ The settlers try to kill me, he got the death rate from

200­7 people

○ When he leaves the death rates returns back to 90% ■ Two ships comes to the settlers, to resupply

● The settlers were dead and many want to turn back but in an hour they change their mind

● The survivors want to leave but people leave the ship, and the

death rate stay round 70%

■ 1619 ­ colony on the brink of failure, the company goes through a reorganization

● The size of the colony is restricted​, so people can stay within

a small area, and the support is in one place

● They create ahead right system ​­ has the effect to turn over

land to be used as private property. You can pay for your own

passage and you could get land or pay for others and they will

get land

○ The indentured servants​were people subjected to

involuntary servitude ­ people that had their passage paid

for by another

○ You would owe labor to the person who paid for your

passage, and after 5/7 years after you get your land

which most people wouldn’t live to get

○ Benjamin Franklin and Alexander Hamilton were servants

at the beginning

● Creation of the House of Burgesses (1619) ​­ House of

representatives. The initiatives

○ Each plantation would elect two representatives

○ They institute fairer land distribution

○ They fixed and quality of tobacco

○ They required everyone to grow food

■ Why??

○ Church attendance mandatory on Sunday twice

○ Regulate Indian and English interaction

○ Punished drunkenness and swearing

■ They give the list that society needs addressed

● What missing?

○ Profit

● What is the relevance of the history ­ any truths that have long terms effects ○ Nations perseverance

○ The backbone of the nation

1st Week’s Notes

1/21/15

● Three themes

○ Establishment of an American Identity

○ Development of an American Self Government

○ Territorial expansion of the country in the midst of the struggle over slavery

● 1476 Narrative

○ A ship is sunk by a French war ship. A man lands near Lagos, Portugal. The sailor doesn't speak any Portuguese, his name is Christopher Columb. He was in awe of Henry, who was the father of modern systematic exploration​. He has directed sailors on exploration, and Columb.

○ Henry lived to 1394­1460

■ Columbus discovered the continent and the new world, and return in an era when people cared about it.

■ Henry ­ visionary explorer​, only left Portugal once. Third son of

Portugal. He is turned away by his father, but given rank and hierarchy and decides to launch a crusading expedition across the strait of

Gibraltar to a fortress occupied by Muslims

■ He expects to find trade goods and riches that one might find in

Portugal

■ By age 21 ­ leading this military expedition, conquer and occupy and Prince Henry is surprised and he discovers that Portugal is not involved in even the extensive trading by the Islamic country on the edge

(silks, gold, tapestry). His life goal is to bring the goods to Portugal, by

going around the Islamic to Asia, by passing the Cape of Good Hope in Africa to go to Goa, India and Asia

■ The first efforts ­ they went to the Islands in the Pacific instead of going to Asia

■ Died in 1460 but his organizations including navigators, inventors, would continue to live on. (Prince Henry the Navigator)

○ Columbus ​born in Genoa in 1451, in Italy

■ Most people in Venice and Genoa made their living off of the sea

■ Him and his brother, by 14976 had sailing experience. Began to be mapmakers, by using information from other sailors. We don’t know all

the places he visited, maybe Iceland, British Isles, or Africa. Sailed in

the mediterranean.

■ He and his brother (Bartholomew) developed a theory ​­ that one could leave Portugal and sail West to arrive in Asia. But what about the size and circumference of the Earth

■ They believed that the ball of the Earth was smaller than it actually is ■ They put a plan to sail West, and by 1484 he pitched the idea of low ranking aristocrats. They were well received but the monarch's advisors

were against, and that the people on the board will die before getting there. They were turned down by a variety of courts. Lastly, they went to Spain by Ferdinand and Isabel funded them even though their advisors were against it too. Coulomb and his brother had to go to the bank first.

■ The troubling aspects of sailors of the tip of South America and Africa is that the wind blows against them.

■ Many men that accompanied were from bars but after started to believe Columbus landing on the islands and thinking he found “Indians.”

Because he thinks that he is in India, but he found a new continent.

■ He went to back three more times to North America

■ 2 cartographer, one named Amerigo Vespucci thinks that Columbus discovered a new continent, and not Asia and would later name the

continent even though he was never there with Columbus.

■ Santa Maria has been found.

● The Map

○ Tide Waters like Galveston

■ Swept by hurricanes and floods

■ Low fertility in the soil, because of the salt

■ Narrow coastal plain, broadens as you go southwards

■ Good harbors, sandy beaches

■ Lot of mosquitoes

○ Fall Line ­ Boundary between Tide Water and the Piedmont

■ Has waterfall

■ An uplifting, and is the deepest penetration by European settlers for some time

■ State capitals were founded here ­ Washington D.C., Columbia, S Carolina, richmond Virginia.

○ Piedmont

■ Like the land from here to Austin

■ More tree and forested

■ Lower humidity

■ Better fertility

■ Will draw you in from the tide water

○ Series of old mountain ranges = Appalachian mountain

■ 2000­3000 ft

■ Form a huge barrier of trade, settlement and occupation

■ Blue ridge ­ the front face. blue when the sun is rising

■ Has some series of ridges and valleys

● Called the ridge and valley system

● one valley in particular is called the great valley

○ Runs from Pennsylvania to northern alabama

○ 30­60 miles wide

○ Great soil

○ First place that settlers settled was the Blue Grass Country

■ Famous for horses and burton ­ Kentucky and Tennessee

■ Has a limestone base that has been scraped off the top of the

Appalachian mountains. The limestone filters the water and makes

burton and makes the grass blue and unusually fertile.

○ Mississippi River is at the bottom of the Gulf Coastal Plain

■ Black loamy soil, 50ft deep. Detritus that was dumped by the river and feeds cotton

○ Great Plains ­ branded the “The Great American Desert”

■ You make your house out of mud, a sud hut

■ The wind made the first 1st feet of soil dry but the rest of the soil was the most productive soil in the world

1/23/15

● What is History?

○ UN History Project

■ Used supercomputers to gather information

■ Made it through 5000 years of information ­ 1 of 1th million of data for the last month

● It was a failure

■ If they were able to gather all information related to humans, would they have history?

■ History is about gathering and cataloguing information and also interpret the information

■ The UN History Project did not interpret and that’s another failure

○ History is about deciphering, interpreting and the division making process with a body of data and there’s a choice of what data

○ Journalization is the other extreme

■ The immediacy

■ The stuff in the newspaper may not be relevant to actual history ● There are slow news day

■ There are some times that don’t even have much news

■ It lacks the perspective of the historian

○ The map is a sample of examples of the very decisions of someone’s opinion ○ 4 Factors undergird the Age of Discovery

■ Technology

● Measure, standardize, generalize and apply knowledge to take

mastery of nature around man

● Conquering time​(daytime and nighttime, clock) and space

(geography, map, compass)

○ Time: Sundials, than wood fire then clock then

wristwatches to standardize and measure times

○ Space: kite ­ measured the wind patterns, no orientation

however thus the compass

● Ship Design: Caravel

○ Huge technological advancement

○ Developed by Prince Henry’s nodical people

○ Ships that carried people during the age of discovery

○ Had a variety of sail, ex. lantine sail allowing the sail to hang off the boat and capture wind and direct the wind

○ Hanseatic League

○ Mediterranean Tradition

● Printing Press

○ Invented by Johannes Gutenberg 

○ 1457

○ Allows the dissemination of Columb’s journal

■ His was the first for people to read it and get

interested and be well read

■ Centralization of Power

● Collapse of the Roman Stage that led to feudalism

○ Bonds and oath that are owed to the workers to the lords and those above them

○ When you die, the oath die off. So ever shifting that make it difficult to amass power over long periods of time

● Dawn of power in 15th century

○ Shift of power away from kings and nobles

○ Rule of law

■ It is permanent ​and it is a set of degrees

● It give the states the resources that will then be used during the age of discovery

○ Ex. the collection of tax

■ Rise of the Urban Middle Class in Europe

● Most of people are shorter and depend of the land

● 60% from Bangladesh drink water that is poisoned with arsenic ● Having pets, such as a dog, is a sign of emergent wealth ● Carpentry, barrow making, legal work, accounting

○ These specialization by people made the middle class ● Sign of prosperity

■ Search for wealth

● Europe’s nation­state had internal struggles in the early 1400s ● There had been the Black Death

● Europeans weren't inclined to explore their knowledge ○ They thought that everything had been found out by the Greeks or Europeans

● Islam had spread

○ Arabic was the predominant language of science,

commerce, government, trade and more. ​Now it is

English

● The Atlantic Ocean was seen as a barrier for Europe

● The Silk Road ­ from China to Islamic territory

○ Dunhuang

● Marco Polo

1/26/15

● What is not History?

○ Things that can’t be measured like Religion, but it does shape people and forces

○ Causation ​is every important to the steps that form history

○ United States is actually oldest country under the same existing government ■ China is now celebrating its 60th anniversary

○ More history makes the country more pindown

■ Chinese is always in the present tense and so they always live in their history, and it animates

○ 1st Europeans, the 39 Spanish sailors were the first

○ ⅔ of English settlers die and the effect on the natives were far worse because the English lived the way they wanted to which was sometimes fatal to the Natives

■ The Tuno died ­ over 99% died

■ Disease, animals affects the Natives

○ This is the beginning of globalization

■ Columbian Exchange because the contact between the old and new world would initiates trade, good and disease

○ Diseases spread with the newcomers into the New World

■ Communal, group disease

○ 1510­1535 ­ Will take the disease into the mainland

○ Europeans bring 7­10 diseases ­ fatal to Native

○ Two sets exacerbated the impacts of the diseases

■ Natives

● They walked through a biological deepfreeze

● They were wiped out to the new diseases

● They were hunter­gatherers and lived in groups of 50­100 and

move frequently. The ability of latent diseases would have found

it very hard to make it into the moving population but they still

had diseases, but they didn’t have communal diseases

■ Europeans

● They had been exposed and had been seasoned since they

were great travelers

● However malaria and yellow fever lived them in Africa

● Urbanization allowed the diseases to live in in the communities

and since they had exposure, they end up having an immunity.

The filthy European city allowed them to be seasoned, but not

the Bubonic plague

● They worked in close communities, reinforced the spreading the

disease and seasoning of them

● Animals are filthy ­ Natives domesticated only one animal ­ dogs

○ They are one of the best animals to live with and quite

clean

○ Europeans live closely with not just dogs, but chickens

and cattle

○ 99% of Native people will die as a result of

● Diseases that were brought to the new world: dysentery, Bubonic

plague, leprosy, measles, small pox, whooping cough, yellow

fever

● Syphilis originated from the New World

○ Europeans brought sugar canes and stuff that weren’t nutritious and brought cotton ­ Old world to New world

■ Reverse ­ casava, maise (corn) and potato produce 5x as many calorie ■ Potato makes place that can't produce but can produce the potato

● From the New world to Old World

● Bad in Irish ­ the 1ft gap between the row of potato and had the

potato blight

○ New Effect: increase of European population because of cassava, maisie and the potato during the 300 year period

■ Animals: Europeans bring war dogs, horses to ride, and cattle and the bees which became the symbol of death, and disruption

1/28/15

● 10/20/1565

○ Hurricanes came flew

○ 250 French women, men and children, left to defend themselves by their commander. He went to defend from the Spanish. The people are left alone and the Spanish come and massacre and the heads are put in rucksacks and sent back to the French to say stay away from the Spanish territory

○ Africans had been exposed to the same diseases that the Europeans had been because of the trade routes

○ Much of Africa was virgin land, unlike the Native

○ Until the early 19th century, despite Europeans superior government systems and technology, the Africans held their own against Europeans and Africans regained control of the continents, unlike the Americas

○ So germs, diseases were very important to colonization

○ Spanish, Dutch, Swedish, French ­ Europeans to try and settle in the Americas ■ Spanish

● Heart and soul was the gold mines

● 181 tons of gold out of the New World

● In the course of obtaining gold, you scratch the Earth, the Spanish are in the primitive stage of mining

● Amount of wealth increased 5 times in 100 years because of the gold in Europe

● Silver is the real wealth ­ 16,000 tons of silver

● Paradox ­ it was wealthy and powerful for a period time, but it was impoverished because of the prices of goods sored to try and soak up the wealth. So people bought foreign goods and Spain today lacks the industrial base

● Two reasons of Spain’s importance

○ Hunt for more wealth ­ the gold could be found near

Mexico

○ Security for their holdings

■ 10 years was the age of the conquistadors, a hunt

for greater wealth ­ they didn’t find the wealth and

didn’t add to Spanish wealth

■ Settlements

● A buffer zone between any enclosure zone

used to amass wealth

● Buffer zones for population and military

purposes

● Because the English and French were

trying to take the Spanish treasure ships

● The Spanish settled in different cities like El Paso, Santa Fe ■ French

● They moved far away from Spanish to Canada, North and traveled up the Saint Lawrence river (gives protection), and didn’t see the Spanish who were in the coast

■ English

● They watched Spanish’s wealth grow, they decided to try and claim some of the wealth. They saw themselves falling behind the Spanish.

● The West Countrymen ​­ the first men who led the call to travel ○ Irish, so not at the center of power

○ They argued to the monarchs to foster settlements

■ Colonies would provide market​for English goods

■ Raw materials

■ The land appeared to be more populous and they

would move there

● Abundant evidence that the English

population was exploding and the cities

were growing. 1500­1600 the population

went from 3 to 4 million

■ It could provide cheap raw materials to be sold in England

■ The Irish was the first place to be tested

○ Below are the reasons given by the Countrymen to colonize

○ 1. The Increase in Population

○ 2. The Enclosure Movement (of the Land ­ textiles) ■ The land is needed for sheep for textiles

■ They fenced the land and the tenants are pushed off the land and they are moved to cities, poor

○ 3. Cloth Trade

■ Amsterdam, Holland is the center of this trade ■ Easily accessible geographically

■ And the English had to endure the wild swings of the economy

○ First place to test this, off the coast of Irish

■ English tried to colonize them before going to the North America

● Sir Humphrey Gilbert

○ Self made man

○ Appeals to Queen Elizabeth and she grants him and his half brother to make profit

● Sir Walter Raleigh (Gilbert’s half brother)

○ Queen takes him to her bed maybe

○ She sees a future and will lose interest in him and the quest

● The two man undertake a venture to set up a place in North America

● Gilbert will be lost at see and Raleigh will take over and land in 1585 ­ Lost Colony

○ Lost by the tides, because of hurricanes

○ Lasts three years and they land on it during the drought ○ The natives are hostile to them because they attack Natives villages

○ English men bake in the Sun because of the summer heat

○ 1587 ­ One of the governors will drop more people ○ Virginia Dare ­ the first Englishman born in the New World

● 1588 ­ English and Spanish go to war

○ Spanish try to launch the Armada, the Spanish fleet of

soldiers

○ And so no one will help the colony and all they can find is

“Croatoan” ­ found in a tree

■ Because of the war between the English and the

Spanish. John White returns to find the colonizers

dead and gone because Queen Elizabeth didn’t

send troops and support

○ It looks bad for the English ­ the Gilbert exploration had

been a failure it looked like

1/30/15

● The Native people didn't have the warning that the English are coming ● 25,000 ­ amount of Indian around the Chesapeake Bay

○ Chief ­ Powhatan, led the Confederacy

■ Had to preserve the integrity of the Confederacy against the diseases from Europeans and more powerful Indians inland

○ Group of 30 tribes

○ Led live as semi­nomadic ­ had settlements that they would occupy in the winter and summer and migrate in the fall and spring.

○ They hunt deer, fished

○ Task are divided by gender which isn’t new

○ They had shamans ­ healers

○ Indians viewed the English ambivalently because they wanted to English to their advantage

○ English viewed the Indian as savages ­ they are human, and remind them to the Garden, more pure

■ They wanted to turn the Indians as laborers

■ Both peoples will view each other as a threat

● The English in the lost Colony

○ They were killed or were taken by Indians

○ Best guess: Indian practices waged warfare and take the women and children lived out their days as an Indian in the interior

■ Evidence: English heard that there were Indian that looked like the English and the English men wanted to bring the English Indian back,

they were killed

● 2nd Attempt of Colonization (1605) ­ James I is reigning, Queen Elizabeth died ○ 1604 ­ James signs a peace treaty with Spain

○ 1605 ­ Virginia Company​­ to explore again in North America

■ People invested in these companies as a shareholder

■ Advantages of a corporation

● Capital

○ Capital accumulation​­ when you open the doors to thousands of people and will gain way more money ,

which is what was learned by the failed Gilbert

exploration

○ each investors has different risk analysis but the money still goes in

● The reward will far outway the risk

● You as a shareholder are limited liability and the reward is unlimited

○ This reward risk profile is very advantageous

■ December ­ they leave to the Americas

● 26th, 1607 ­ lands on the island of Chesapeake bay

● Names the river ­ James River ­ for the King James I

● And the settlement is Jamestown

● John Smith ​­ names as one of the leaders of the colony ○ All the stories are true ­ he was a mercenary soldier, fight in Holland and Italy

○ Becomes one of the best hand to hand combat

■ Problem to the Settlement

● Most of the settlers were rich kids ­ 2/3/4th kids

● They do not want to work

● 3 Groups for the settlers

○ Building settlement

○ Planting crops

○ Looking for gold or a way to the orient

● Hoped to put the Indians to work, like the Irish

○ Failed because they died

○ Indians were accosted to a regimented labor

○ Africans were more used to it

○ Indians were lazy and all, so the English failed to have sanitation, houses

○ Many English die ­ 80%

○ Survivors ate animals, and cannibalism

● First 2 winters were really bad

● Finally John Smith asserts control, and he said those who work, won't eat ­ military discipline

○ The settlers try to kill me, he got the death rate from

200­7 people

○ When he leaves the death rates returns back to 90% ■ Two ships comes to the settlers, to resupply

● The settlers were dead and many want to turn back but in an hour they change their mind

● The survivors want to leave but people leave the ship, and the

death rate stay round 70%

■ 1619 ­ colony on the brink of failure, the company goes through a reorganization

● The size of the colony is restricted​, so people can stay within

a small area, and the support is in one place

● They create ahead right system ​­ has the effect to turn over

land to be used as private property. You can pay for your own

passage and you could get land or pay for others and they will

get land

○ The indentured servants​were people subjected to

involuntary servitude ­ people that had their passage paid

for by another

○ You would owe labor to the person who paid for your

passage, and after 5/7 years after you get your land

which most people wouldn’t live to get

○ Benjamin Franklin and Alexander Hamilton were servants

at the beginning

● Creation of the House of Burgesses (1619) ​­ House of

representatives. The initiatives

○ Each plantation would elect two representatives

○ They institute fairer land distribution

○ They fixed and quality of tobacco

○ They required everyone to grow food

■ Why??

○ Church attendance mandatory on Sunday twice

○ Regulate Indian and English interaction

○ Punished drunkenness and swearing

■ They give the list that society needs addressed

● What missing?

○ Profit

● What is the relevance of the history ­ any truths that have long terms effects ○ Nations perseverance

○ The backbone of the nation

1st Week’s Notes

1/21/15

● Three themes

○ Establishment of an American Identity

○ Development of an American Self Government

○ Territorial expansion of the country in the midst of the struggle over slavery

● 1476 Narrative

○ A ship is sunk by a French war ship. A man lands near Lagos, Portugal. The sailor doesn't speak any Portuguese, his name is Christopher Columb. He was in awe of Henry, who was the father of modern systematic exploration​. He has directed sailors on exploration, and Columb.

○ Henry lived to 1394­1460

■ Columbus discovered the continent and the new world, and return in an era when people cared about it.

■ Henry ­ visionary explorer​, only left Portugal once. Third son of

Portugal. He is turned away by his father, but given rank and hierarchy and decides to launch a crusading expedition across the strait of

Gibraltar to a fortress occupied by Muslims

■ He expects to find trade goods and riches that one might find in

Portugal

■ By age 21 ­ leading this military expedition, conquer and occupy and Prince Henry is surprised and he discovers that Portugal is not involved in even the extensive trading by the Islamic country on the edge

(silks, gold, tapestry). His life goal is to bring the goods to Portugal, by

going around the Islamic to Asia, by passing the Cape of Good Hope in Africa to go to Goa, India and Asia

■ The first efforts ­ they went to the Islands in the Pacific instead of going to Asia

■ Died in 1460 but his organizations including navigators, inventors, would continue to live on. (Prince Henry the Navigator)

○ Columbus ​born in Genoa in 1451, in Italy

■ Most people in Venice and Genoa made their living off of the sea

■ Him and his brother, by 14976 had sailing experience. Began to be mapmakers, by using information from other sailors. We don’t know all

the places he visited, maybe Iceland, British Isles, or Africa. Sailed in

the mediterranean.

■ He and his brother (Bartholomew) developed a theory ​­ that one could leave Portugal and sail West to arrive in Asia. But what about the size and circumference of the Earth

■ They believed that the ball of the Earth was smaller than it actually is ■ They put a plan to sail West, and by 1484 he pitched the idea of low ranking aristocrats. They were well received but the monarch's advisors

were against, and that the people on the board will die before getting there. They were turned down by a variety of courts. Lastly, they went to Spain by Ferdinand and Isabel funded them even though their advisors were against it too. Coulomb and his brother had to go to the bank first.

■ The troubling aspects of sailors of the tip of South America and Africa is that the wind blows against them.

■ Many men that accompanied were from bars but after started to believe Columbus landing on the islands and thinking he found “Indians.”

Because he thinks that he is in India, but he found a new continent.

■ He went to back three more times to North America

■ 2 cartographer, one named Amerigo Vespucci thinks that Columbus discovered a new continent, and not Asia and would later name the

continent even though he was never there with Columbus.

■ Santa Maria has been found.

● The Map

○ Tide Waters like Galveston

■ Swept by hurricanes and floods

■ Low fertility in the soil, because of the salt

■ Narrow coastal plain, broadens as you go southwards

■ Good harbors, sandy beaches

■ Lot of mosquitoes

○ Fall Line ­ Boundary between Tide Water and the Piedmont

■ Has waterfall

■ An uplifting, and is the deepest penetration by European settlers for some time

■ State capitals were founded here ­ Washington D.C., Columbia, S Carolina, richmond Virginia.

○ Piedmont

■ Like the land from here to Austin

■ More tree and forested

■ Lower humidity

■ Better fertility

■ Will draw you in from the tide water

○ Series of old mountain ranges = Appalachian mountain

■ 2000­3000 ft

■ Form a huge barrier of trade, settlement and occupation

■ Blue ridge ­ the front face. blue when the sun is rising

■ Has some series of ridges and valleys

● Called the ridge and valley system

● one valley in particular is called the great valley

○ Runs from Pennsylvania to northern alabama

○ 30­60 miles wide

○ Great soil

○ First place that settlers settled was the Blue Grass Country

■ Famous for horses and burton ­ Kentucky and Tennessee

■ Has a limestone base that has been scraped off the top of the

Appalachian mountains. The limestone filters the water and makes

burton and makes the grass blue and unusually fertile.

○ Mississippi River is at the bottom of the Gulf Coastal Plain

■ Black loamy soil, 50ft deep. Detritus that was dumped by the river and feeds cotton

○ Great Plains ­ branded the “The Great American Desert”

■ You make your house out of mud, a sud hut

■ The wind made the first 1st feet of soil dry but the rest of the soil was the most productive soil in the world

1/23/15

● What is History?

○ UN History Project

■ Used supercomputers to gather information

■ Made it through 5000 years of information ­ 1 of 1th million of data for the last month

● It was a failure

■ If they were able to gather all information related to humans, would they have history?

■ History is about gathering and cataloguing information and also interpret the information

■ The UN History Project did not interpret and that’s another failure

○ History is about deciphering, interpreting and the division making process with a body of data and there’s a choice of what data

○ Journalization is the other extreme

■ The immediacy

■ The stuff in the newspaper may not be relevant to actual history ● There are slow news day

■ There are some times that don’t even have much news

■ It lacks the perspective of the historian

○ The map is a sample of examples of the very decisions of someone’s opinion ○ 4 Factors undergird the Age of Discovery

■ Technology

● Measure, standardize, generalize and apply knowledge to take

mastery of nature around man

● Conquering time​(daytime and nighttime, clock) and space

(geography, map, compass)

○ Time: Sundials, than wood fire then clock then

wristwatches to standardize and measure times

○ Space: kite ­ measured the wind patterns, no orientation

however thus the compass

● Ship Design: Caravel

○ Huge technological advancement

○ Developed by Prince Henry’s nodical people

○ Ships that carried people during the age of discovery

○ Had a variety of sail, ex. lantine sail allowing the sail to hang off the boat and capture wind and direct the wind

○ Hanseatic League

○ Mediterranean Tradition

● Printing Press

○ Invented by Johannes Gutenberg 

○ 1457

○ Allows the dissemination of Columb’s journal

■ His was the first for people to read it and get

interested and be well read

■ Centralization of Power

● Collapse of the Roman Stage that led to feudalism

○ Bonds and oath that are owed to the workers to the lords and those above them

○ When you die, the oath die off. So ever shifting that make it difficult to amass power over long periods of time

● Dawn of power in 15th century

○ Shift of power away from kings and nobles

○ Rule of law

■ It is permanent ​and it is a set of degrees

● It give the states the resources that will then be used during the age of discovery

○ Ex. the collection of tax

■ Rise of the Urban Middle Class in Europe

● Most of people are shorter and depend of the land

● 60% from Bangladesh drink water that is poisoned with arsenic ● Having pets, such as a dog, is a sign of emergent wealth ● Carpentry, barrow making, legal work, accounting

○ These specialization by people made the middle class ● Sign of prosperity

■ Search for wealth

● Europe’s nation­state had internal struggles in the early 1400s ● There had been the Black Death

● Europeans weren't inclined to explore their knowledge ○ They thought that everything had been found out by the Greeks or Europeans

● Islam had spread

○ Arabic was the predominant language of science, commerce, government, trade and more. ​Now it is English

● The Atlantic Ocean was seen as a barrier for Europe ● The Silk Road ­ from China to Islamic territory ○ Dunhuang

● Marco Polo

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