Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide PSY-P 101
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cierra Beyers on Thursday February 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY-P 101 at Indiana University taught by Jeff Huber in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 629 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 02/12/15
Consciousness Aware of ourselves and our environment Better definition attention Two Tracks and Their Characteristics Conscious quothighquot track mind mind takes deliberate actions we know we are doing 0 driving on the freeway 0 Usually after low road 0 Slower 0 Visual perception 0 Problem solving can override low road thinking Unconscious quotlowquot track mind mind performs automatic actions often without us being aware of them 0 processing sensory details along the freeway Automatic Precedes consciousness Faster Visual action Used in tracking navigating Everyday functions 00000 I Walking driving etc o Biases precede and or in uence attitudes and decisions Blind Sight quotSeeingquot things without consciously experiencing them Experiments tell us about unconscious processing Selective Attention Choosing to attend to some things and ignore others Cocktail Party Effect mental spotlight on one things 0 Focusing on one conversation Popout Effect unconscious filtering o gnot paying attention buy you hear your name Can be 0 Good filters out extraneous stuff 0 Bad hyper focus and miss things 0 Ugly texting while driving results in a crash Selective Inattention Failure to notice environment when attention is directed somewhere else Inattentional blindness missing the obvious when attention is focused on something else 0 Video Gorilla on the court and the xray test Change Blindness 23 of the people didn t notice he was giving directions to different guys 0 Videocolor changing card trick Choice Blindness Parallel Processing Processing info concurrently using two separate systems Parallel Processing explains o Stroop Effect low road automatic processing interfering with high road conscious processing I Q name color not word Takes longer Difference in time visual perception track fighting with the visual action track Perceptual Narrowing Arousal and anxiety increase too much focus becomes too narrow and you miss cues o EX quarterback cant see wide open receiver 0 EX driver doesn t see other car 0 EX You knew the right answer to a multiple choice test question but you were too nervous to see the right answer 3 Directions of Attention Past present future IZOF Individual zone of optimal functioningquot Hanin Some students do well on tests with high arousal some done Dividing attention comes with a cost Biases and offsetting our low road unconscious thinking We can use high road thinking so it overrides low road Remind yourself of good examples 0 In the video the guy reminded himself of MLK Collin Powell and Michael Jordan Effects of Sleep Loss Lose brain power Suppress immune system Gain weight Reduce productivity Feel old Be irritable Why sleep particularly REM sleep is important Restores and repairs brain Builds and strengthens memories Facilitates creative problem solving Activates growth hormones Aids in physical recovery and rehabilitation Maintains and regains emotional balance 5 Theories For Why We Dream 1 2 Wish fulfillment psychoanalytic theory Information processing sort consolidate and file memories of day s experiences Physiological functioning develop and preserve neural pathways especially for infants Activation synthesis makes sense of random neural activity neural activation from emotional limbic system Cognitive development re ect cognitive development with maturation Things That Help Us Get To Sleep Stay on a regular sleep schedule Stay away from harsh lights before bed 7 Signs of Dependence 1 2 Tolerance use more to receive desired effects Withdrawal discomfort when not using Using more than needed Persistent failed attempts to regulate use Preoccupied with substance obtaining it and recovering Important activities reduced because of use gt195 er Continued use despite aversive consequences Drugs and Impact on Daily Life Reduces time with family friends and coworkers Loss of motivation and direction Reduces time with important activities Mental physical emotional impact Increase time with substance Nature Genes passed down from mom and dad what we inherit nature gives us Nurture Experience environment family peers society education Heredity Genes from parent Environment Everything that is not genetic Prenatal to people and things around us Diversity Difference in traits between us due to genetic and environmental in uences Genetic Similarity We are 999 similar to other humans 96 similar to chimps 50 similar to bananas Structure of Cell and Genes W parts of DNA molecules found in chromosomes in the nuclei of every human cell 0 Accounts for much of who we are but not all of it Chromosome threadlike structure made of DNA molecules inside the nucleus DNA spiraling complex molecule containing genes Chromosomes are made of DNA which are made of genes 0 Mitochondria o Cell s battery Chemical energy for cell Keeps cell thriving Mitochondrion singular What keeps it charged I Lean body mass weight to height ratio I Exercise OOO Behavior genetics Study of genetic and environmental in uences on behavior Twin Studies Biological opportunity to study effects we could never replicate in the lab Identical twins raised apart genes constant and very environment Identical twins vs siblings vary genes in same environment Identical twins same egg and same sex Fraternal twins separate eggs and same or different sex Fraternal Twins No more genetically alike than other siblings Danny DeVito and Arnold Schwarzenegger could be fraternal twins Some fraternal twins tend to be more alike than other siblings 0 Because they share I Same number of siblings I Same home environment I Same school I Same time in parents lives I Same life experiences I Cohort same generational group Identical Twins Genetically identical More alike than fraternal twins in 0 Personality traits 0 Behavior and outcomes 0 Abilities Adoption Studies Despite raise apart the twins are still similar 0 Same test scores same heart rate brain waves same interests and tastes Big 5 Personality Traits 5 Personality Traits 1 Openness 2 Agreeableness 3 Conscientiousness 4 Extroversion 5 Neuroticism 0 These five traits cover the most important elements of personality Designer Babies Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis removal of one cell to test DNA for various diseases Video 0 Girl with Tay Sachs effects the CNS and causes you to lose motor skills 0 Very fatal disease People are going to want to use this process to pick different cosmetic traits their baby has 0 EX blonde hair and blue eyes Birth Order Alfred Adler thinks order in uences personality According to Sulloway the first born is 0 Less agreeable 0 Less open to new ideas 0 Socially agreeable o More conscientious There is not enough data to support Adler s claim We have to look at the biopsychosocial in uences Parenting In uences Adopted children 0 More similar to genetic relatives than to their environmental relatives YES It matters Parenting can in uence Religion Habits Politics Manners Attitudes 0 Values OOOOO Parents help shape child Only about 10 of environmental in uences and parenting in uences in uence temperament Average parents should ease off both blame and credit for how their child turns out 0 Kids are going to be how they are meant to be 0 Not 100 on parents shoulders because genes play a major role Temperament Temperament general level and style of emotional reactivity 3 types in infants 1 Easy cheerful relaxed predictable 2 Difficult irritable intense unpredictable 3 Slowtowarmup tends to resist or withdrawal from new people and situations Molecular Genetics Studies molecular structure and function of genes Helps see how specific genes in uence behavior Genetic Tests reveal which people are at risk for many physical diseases Epigenetics Environment acts on genes to alter activity Environment triggers genes to switch on or off Gene Expression Off no coding of protein molecules building blocks of body Obesity in adults can turn weight regulation gene off which can be passed down Evolutionary Psychology Uses evolutionary principals natural selections to explain origin and function of mind traits and behaviors Helps to explain our similarities and differences MaleFemale Differences Men think more about sex than women do and usually think that casual sex is acceptable MEN 0 Little cost to spreading genes 0 Seek women with fuller figure 0 BOYS I Focus on activity I Play is competitive WOMEN 0 Greater survival cost because you are pregnant being pregnant used to be really dangerous 0 Seek men with loyal behavior and physical social power and resources Communicate more than men GIRLS I Focus on connection and conversation I Play is social I Invite feedback Cultural In uences Individualist Cultures raise children to be selfreliant and independent Collectivist cultures compliant obedient integrated into webs of mutual support Indonesia and Ecuador Asian and African cultures more emotionally and physically close to others than in western and eastern Europeans
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