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UGA - POLS 1101 - POLS 1101 Study Guides - Study Guide

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UGA - POLS 1101 - POLS 1101 Study Guides - Study Guide

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background image POLS 1101 
Chapter 10 Study Guide: CONGRESS
The Constitution and Congress:  the constitution gives Congress  enumerated powers including regulating commerce, coining money, 
raising and supporting armies, creating the courts, post offices, 
declaring war, and levying taxes. {article I section 8 of the 
constitution} The elastic clause “make all laws which shall be 
necessary and proper for carrying in execution for foregoing powers”
Bicameralism:  The system of having two chambers within one  legislative body, like the House and Senate in the U.S Congress. Trustee and delegate models of representation  o Trustee:  A member of Congress who represents constitutes’  interests while also taking into account national, collective, and 
moral concerns that sometimes 
cause the member to vote  against preference of a majority of constitutes o Delegate:  A member of Congress who loyally represents  constitutes’ direct interests.  Rules for congressional elections:  Every 2 years, voters elect members  of the House (whose terms are 2 years) and 1/3 of the Senate (whose 
terms are 6 years). These elections are held mid-way through a 
president’s term in office and are called mid-term elections
  Electoral connection:  The idea that congressional behavior is centrally  motivated by members’ desire for reelection Redistricting and gerrymandering  o Redistricting:  Redrawing the geographic boundaries of legislative districts. This happens every 10 years to ensure that districts 
remain roughly equal in population
o Gerrymandering:  Attempt to use the process of redrawing district boundaries to benefit a political party, protect incumbents, or 
change the proportion of minority voters in a district
  o Packing and cracking:  Packing:  concentrates members of a group into a single  district. Thereby allowing the other party to collect the 
remainder of the districts
Cracking:  splits a bloc among multiple districts, so as to  dilute their impact and prevent them from constituting a 
  o Racial redistricting:  redrawing the geographic boundaries so the  minorities are the majority in a specific region Incumbency advantage:  The relative infrequency with which members  of Congress are defeated in their attempts for reelection   Party leaders in Congress: 1. Speaker of the House: the elected leader of the House of  Representatives
background image Currently Paul Ryan 2. Majority Leader: the elected head of the party holding the  majority seats in the House or Senate Currently Mitch McConnell 3. Whip System: an organization of the House leaders who work to  disseminate information and promote party unity in voting on 
4. Minority Leader: the elected head of the party holding the  minority seats in the House or Senate 5. President Pro Tempore: a largely symbolic position usually held  by the most senior member of the majority party in the Senate Role of parties in Congress: reflect the individualism of the institution 1. Roll Call Vote: a recorded vote on legislation Yes, no, abstain, or present 2. Party Votes: a vote in which the majority of one party opposed  the position of the majority of the other party 3. Party Unity: the extent to which members of Congress in the  same party vote together on party votes   Committee system: 1. Standing committee: Committees that are a permanent part of  the House or Senate structure, holding more importance and 
authority than other committees
2. Select committees: Committees in the House or Senate created  to address a specific issue for one or two terms 3. Joint committees: Committees that contain members of both the  House and Senate but have limited authority  4. Conference Committees: Temporary committees created to 
negotiate differences between the House and Senate versions of 
a piece of legislation that has passed through both chambers
  Committee markup:  One of the steps through which a bill becomes a  law, in which the final wording of the bill is determined   Role of the House Rules Committee:  the house rules committee set the  rules of which must be followed during the markup process or if the bill
can be amended at all
Cloture and the filibuster in the Senate 1. Cloture: A procedure through which the senate can limit the  amount of times spent debating a bill (cutting off filibuster), if a 
supermajority of 60 senators agree
2. Filibuster: A tactic used by senators to block a bill by continuing  to hold the floor and speak- under the Senate rule of unlimited 
debate- until the bill’s supporters back down 
Conference committees:  Temporary committees created to negotiate  differences between the House and Senate versions of a piece pf 
legislation that has passed through both chambers 
Presidential veto and veto override: 
background image 1. Presidential veto: when a bill passes through the House and  Senate, but the president votes the bill down 2. Veto Override: once the president strikes down a bill, Congress 
can vote the bill a law by 2/3 vote in each chamber
How much support needed to pass/defeat legislation:  if the bill is sent  to the president and is vetoed, the house of congress that the bill 
originated from can override the veto with 2/3rds the majority vote
Differences between the House and the Senate:  There is three key  differences between legislative processes of the House and Senate  1. The continuity of the membership and the impact that has on the rules 2. The way bills get to the floor
3. Structure of the floor process (debate and amendments)
Congressional oversight:  After a bill becomes a law, Congress oversees the implementation of the law to make sure the bureaucracy interprets
it as Congress intended
______________________________________________________________________________ POLS 1101 
Chapter 11 Study Guide: THE PRESIDENCY 
Constitutional role of the president:  o Constitutional Authority: Powers derived from the provisions of  the Constitution that outline the president’s role in government  o Statutory Authority: Powers derived from laws enacted by  Congress that added to the powers given to the President in the 
o Commander in chief
o Chief diplomat
o Executive- Formal/Pocket Veto 
o Legislator- Agenda setting, high influence on what legislation is 
written about,  o Constitutional powers ambiguous and limited, yet the president  is considered quite powerful. o Head of state Green Lantern theory of the presidency:  “The belief that the president  can achieve any political or policy objective if only he tries hard 
enough or uses the right tactics.” like the Green Lantern, the president 
is seen to be able to accomplish anything that the president puts his 
mind to. REALITY: the president is not a superhero, but rather a person 
operating in a complex separation-of-powers system
Evolution of presidential power: 

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School: University of Georgia
Department: Science
Course: American Government
Professor: Haynes
Term: Summer 2015
Name: POLS 1101 Study Guides
Description: Midterm 3 Study Guides filled out
Uploaded: 04/17/2016
11 Pages 110 Views 88 Unlocks
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