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Psy2012 Exam 4 study guide

by: Lauren Carstens

Psy2012 Exam 4 study guide PSY2012

Marketplace > Florida State University > PSY2012 > Psy2012 Exam 4 study guide
Lauren Carstens
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Last exam before the optional final! Good luck!
Melissa Shepard
Study Guide
Psychology, exam, four
50 ?





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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Carstens on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY2012 at Florida State University taught by Melissa Shepard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.


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Date Created: 04/17/16
Psychology Exam 4 Study Guide Chapter 11: Emotions and Motivation  Definitions o Emotions are conscious reactions caused by an event o Moods are feelings/ states that are not linked to a specific event o Affects are automatic responses  Positive vs. negative affects  Discrete Emotions Theory o Humans experience a small number of distinct emotions that are rooted in our biology  Primary emotions  Anger  Fear  Sadness  Happiness  Disgust  Surprise  Primary  Primary emotions combine to form secondary emotions  Ex: Fear + Surprise = Alarm  These emotions are universal  Darwin: emotions and expressions are biologically innate and instinctive  Ekman and colleagues: Showed people pictures of other people displaying emotions and found high agreement o Criticized for only testing industrialized countries  Did the same experiment in New Guinea  Still could not prove the six emptions were produced spontaneously  Third study: Had American and Japanese people watch an emotional film and monitored their facial expressions  Displaying Emotion rules o How and when to display emotion o Cultural differences because cultural norms create the rules  Americans are more expressive than East Asian cultures especially when they think they are being watched o Gender differences  Men and women experience the same amount of emotions, but differ in their expression  Exception: Mean fall in love faster and fall out of love slower o Sometimes people show emotions they don’t feel  Pan Am Smile: fake smile  Duchenne Smile: real smile  Emotions and behavior o We used to think emotions are bi-dimensional  Arousal (high vs. low)  Physiological response to an emotion  Valence (pleasant vs. unpleasant)   This has been phased out because emotions with the same arousal and valence may have different behaviors o Domain Specificity  Emotion often motivates behavior  Disgust: avoid disease  Sadness: seek social support o Similar valence/arousal, but different behaviors  Theories of Emotion o James Lang Theory  Emotions are caused by physiological changes  Stimulus  physiological change  arousal  Missing the idea that specific physiological changes do not always lead to the same emotion o Cannon Bard Theory  Physiological arousal and emotions occur simultaneously  Stimulus  Physiological arousal AND emotion o Two-Factor (Schacter- Singer) theory  Two components to emotions  Physiological experience  Cognitive interpretation  Ex: When your heart is beating after walking up a flight of stairs to get to an interview  You might think your heart is beating fast because you are anxious, but it could be because you are out of shape  Motivation o Psychological needs or desires that energize or direct behavior o Three perspectives  Drive Reduction Theory  A physiological need creates an aroused state that motivates organisms to seek satisfaction  Aim: Homeostasis  Incentive Theories  Motivated behavior extends beyond satisfying physiological drive because we are also motivated by psychological drives (goals)  Curiosity: we explore the world without a need-based drive  Intrinsic Motivation: People are motivated by internal goals (enjoyment)  Extrinsic Motivation: People are motivated by external goals (When you don’t necessarily want to do something, but do for the hopeful outcome  studying)  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Model  Emphasizes the prioritizing of diverse physiological and psychological needs o Basic needs before higher-level needs Chapter 13: Social Psychology  The scientific study of the causes and consequences of people’s affects, behaviors and cognitions regarding themselves and other people o Attitudes are beliefs that include an emotional component  Affected by our actions because sometimes we look to our actions to inform our attitude o Cognitive dissonance: unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from two conflicting attitudes or actions (when your actions don’t match your attitudes)  To eliminate this tension:  Modify your actions  Modify your attitudes  Conformity o A tendency to alter ones thinking or behavior in response to group pressure o Asch’s experiments  Participants were shown three lines and told to pick which one matched  Other participants were instructed to choose incorrectly to see how the actual test subject would conform o Reasons to conform  Negative social influence  The fear of social rejection or need for social approval  Informational social influence  Accepting the opinion of others to be true  Obedience o Behavior following the rules or instructions from those of higher authority  Debate of good or bad o Obedience influences  Authority of experimenter  Tone of voice  Word choice  Prestige  Location of experimenter  More obedience when they are in the same room  Location of victim  More obedience when the victim is not in the room  Disobedient peers  People who know other dissenters are more likely to disobey  Prosocial Behavior o Intentional (accidently helping does not count o Has to benefit others (not just yourself)  Bystander Intervention o Are people willing to engage in prosocial behavior in an emergency situation? o Bystander Effect: People are less likely to step in and help as the number of bystanders increases o Darley and Latane  1. Notice situation  2. Interpret as an emergency  Pluralistic ignorance: Error of assuming that no one in a group perceives things as we do (Not acting because you rely on other people’s reactions  Tested people in a room and sent smoke in to see if the participant would go get help while the others did nothing  3. Assume responsibility  Diffusion of responsibility: Reduction of feelings of personal responsibility in the presence of others  4. Know what to do  5. Judge that the costs are outweighed by benefits  Definitions: o Prejudice: A generalized negative attitude towards members of a group o Stereotypes: A generalized belief about members of a group o Discrimination: Behaviors or cognitions directed toward people on the basis of their group membership  Origins o Motivational origins  Social Identity Theory  We want to feel good about ourselves and our identity (partly) comes from the groups we belong to  Strong in-group identification leads to strong out- group prejudice o FSU  When self-esteem is threatened, people dislike out- group members more o Cognitive Origins  Categorization  People exaggerate differences between members of categories  People underestimate differences within category differences  When you are in a group, you see differences within the group, but you don’t see differences in an out- group  Illusory Correlation  Perceiving a correlation where non exists or over- estimating it’s magnitude  Caused by a joint occurrence between a minority member and a distinct event  Prejudice Reductions o Contact Hypothesis  Simply exposing people to members of different groups reduces prejudice  Not supported with research o 1. Out-group members should have traits and abilities that challenge negative stereotypes o 2. Contact is supported by social norms o 3. Groups are of equal status o 4. Contact Occurs in personal interactions o 5. Groups engage in cooperative activities to achieve a common goal  Group Behavior o Social Facilitation Theory  When you are in the presence of others, you will have a higher physiological arousal  Better performance if the task is well learned  Worse performance if the task is unknown o Social loafing  People are less productive in groups  Why?  They are not evaluated individually  They think their contribution is unimportant  Interpersonal interaction o To increase becoming attracted to someone  Proximity (being close more often)  Similarity  Reciprocity (mutual acceptance)  Physical Attractiveness  Symmetry  Averageness (Composite faces) o Sternberg’s triangle of love  Passion  Necessary for starting a relationship  Intimacy: feelings of closeness and sharing  Commitment  Necessary to maintain the relationship and increase over time  People always have different levels of the three components during different stages of a relationship o Why we stay in a relationship  Investment model  Satisfaction/ How happy are you with your partner?  Available alternatives/ Are there others who would make a better partner?  Investment/ How much have you put into this relationship? Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders  Mental Illness o Psychopathology (mental illness): A disturbance in thoughts, emotions or behaviors that cause significant distress and/ or impairs functions o Failure analysis approach: tries to understand MI by examining breakdowns in functioning  Psychological disorders o Criteria for diagnosing  What is abnormal?  Statistically abnormal from the bell curve  Every culture has different standards for normality  Not all disorders are uncommon  Does it lead to significant distress?  Except: some forms of distress are expected due to events o Grief over a dead loved one o Not all disorders cause distress and not all distress is caused by a disorder  Does it interfere with one’s ability to get along in life?  Degree of impairment matters as well  Remember: Everyone deviates, is distressed or experiences impairment at times and that is normal  It’s a matter of degree o To classify psychological disorders  Syndromes: patterns of psychological symptoms  DSM: manual on how to classify/diagnose disorders  Groups disorders by category  Specific criteria checklist to determine disorders and make diagnoses o People must have 5 of 9 on the list  Cautions psychologists to rule out physical causes first  Contains information about prevalence/ rarity  Criticisms o Not all diagnoses meet criteria for validity/ are well researched o Not all criteria and rules are well researched o High level of comorbidity  Multiple disorders occurring in one person  Says the distinct categories are more related than we think o Reliance on categorical rather than dimensional model o Vulnerable to political and social influences  People lobby for changes before a new version is finalized  Anxiety disorders o Exaggeration of threat that results in distressing, persistent anxiety and may lead to maladaptive impairment o Types of anxiety disorders  Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)  Excessive worry about situations that may not worry others  Continually tense and uneasy even without provocation  General/broad  Panic Disorders  Panic attacks and the worry about future panic attacks o Changing behaviors to decrease the likelihood o having an attack o Psychological: intense fear o Physiological: rapid heart rate, chest pain, lightheadedness, feels like a heart attack  Sometimes also diagnosed with agoraphobia (fear of outside)  Phobia  More intense than a fear o A particular animal, object or situation  Can be maladaptive if they prevent you from doing everyday or unfrightening things  Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)  Exposed to a traumatic event and reacted with intense fear or horror  Re-experiences the trauma through distressing recollections, intense distress when exposed to reminders  Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  Obsessions: recurrent and persistent distress-causing thoughts  Compulsions: Repetitive behaviors driven by an obsession  Persistent and unwanted  Mood disorders o Characterized by a lasting disturbance in mood  Extreme depression and mania o Major Depressive Disorder  Most common mood disorder  Severely depressed mood  Major changes in sleep patterns, weight and a loss of interest in otherwise pleasurable activities  Lasts for months in order to be diagnoses o Bipolar Disorder  Alternating between depression and mania  Cycle through approximately biweekly  Depressive episode  Similar to Major Depressive Disorder  Cant get enough sleep  Little to no thoughts  Manic episode  Euphoria, grandiose self-esteem and over-activity  Do not need a lot of sleep  Often hospitalized during this phase  Personality Disorders o Maladaptive patterns of behavior that have the ability to severely impact the way a person communicates and behaves in social situations


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