Exam One Study guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristin Wismer on Friday February 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 120 at Kansas taught by Steve Ilardi in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 339 views.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
Chapter 1 PSYC 120 Exam 1 Review Have a gistlevel understanding of each major model of personality biological psychoanalytic behavioral cognitive humanisticexistential trait as reviewed in class 0 Major Theoretical Models of Personality 0 The mind is what the brain does Mind and brain are ip sides of a single underlying reality To understand personality need to understand brain function Genes program and regulate brain function but modified by experience epigenetics Many think mind and body are different but biological think they connect If you want to understand your personality you need to understand brain function Two critical points 0 Experience changes your genes 0 Experiences changes the brain Determinism once we have perfect knowledge about one s brain we know exactly what they are going to do 0 Developed by Sigmund Freud Beginning in 1890 s Critical stages of early psychological development Focus on childhood experiences as determinant of adult personality Most of the mind is unconscious and irrational What happened to you as a young child 0 Lorenz example used ducks when they hatch whatever is closest and largest around them they imprint on imprinting Lorenz Showed there is a critical window after they hatch if you are there they will imprint on you 0 Freud used this with people to see how there early childhood connections play a role on their future 0 Environmental determinism Person born mostly a blank slate shaped by environment Specifically pattern s of reward reinforcement and punishment You are born a blank slate and your environment determines what happens in your life 0 Newest theoretical model Focus on personality as result of information processing in the brain Personality arises from cognitive processes memory attention judgment categorization schematic selfrepresentation etc Views your brain like a computer the best predictor of future behavior is past behavior Meehl s Maxim Agnostic doesn t care about underlying causes of behavior Just wants to get most accurate description and measurement of personality use it to predict important life outcomes Focus on traits stable attributes of personality The longer you have been doing something the harder it is to change very hard to change ones personality because they have doing it for so long 0 Example girl scared of harming him with the stapler 0CD 0 Neuroticism how much negative emotion one experiences how emotionally reactive are you 0 You can better predict ones grades knowing their personality traits rather than IQ 0 Chapter 2 Nonscientific not antiscientific Says science has limits Focus on free will science is deterministic Focus on conscious subjective experience Review the 4 major types of personality data and the proscons of each 0 Most of what we think we know about personality is based on selfreport 0 When writing my final paper do not rely only on selfreport because there are blind spots things we can t see 0 Pros O Cons 0 Pros 1 Only direct access to thoughts and feelings 2 Best expert greatest interest 3 Even when distorted self image is important facet of personality 4 Easy data to obtain 1 Bias e g selfserving biases extort info in our favor DunningKruger effect etc 0 The discovery of Dunning Kruger is Incompetence leads to over competence 2 Unwillingness to disclose some data 3 Vastly over used method 1 Can often see subjects blind spots 2 Can often infer subject s thoughts and feelings 3 Even when distorted others perceptions important e g reputation 1 Limited information Bias Fundamental attribution error ingroup bias Fundamental attribution error if someone s acts a certain way you think it s part of their personality rather than the situation they are placed in 0 When we do bad things our explanation is it was the circumstances Ingroup bias we sub divided the world with in group and out group O 3 types Naturalistic e g hidden camera eavesdropping oneway mirror 0 Pros etc 0 Watching the subject in their own natural environment unknown to the subject e g when he asked how much money we would need to be given to have cameras put in our house Experiment Mischel s Marshmallow Test Milgram s obedience study Marshmallow test put 4 year old kids in a room and they were told not eat the marshmallow in a room they were told they can eat 2 when the person comes back if they don t eat the first marshmallow now Those that waited where able to delay gratification had a larger IQ in high school and we able to hold longer relationships marriages less likely to be smokers obese Milgram s obedience study one person is told they need to press a button giving the other a shock it is to see how far the participant will go listening to the authority figure When you actually manipulate a person Personality Test Rorschach Draw A Person least usefulsuccessful 1 Can target specific often rare situations for study 2 Most objective form of personality data 1Difficulty of interpretation 2 Ethical problems O I Data that is part of the public record anyone can find it out about you e g criminal record education records credit check 0 Pros I 1 Often intrinsically important info that psychologists want to know I 2 Gives probabilistic information about personality eg gave example of guy in sigma kappa with two DUI s and was kicked out of school all we saw was public record and we judged who he is O Cons I 1 Can be misleading eg via stereotyping I We have all been wrongly stereotypes but a good amount of the time they are correct Chapter 3 Understand correlation coefficient reliability validity also material on scientific method covered in lecture Shows strength and direction of correlation 10 10 0 Correlation between any measured trait and a situation is very low and Correlation does not apply causation O Relating to Mischel and he believed that traits don t really exist but the situation caused these traits In science and statistics validity is the extent to which a concept conclusion or measurement is well founded and corresponds accurately to the real world 0 measuring what something actually claims to be measuring is an attribute of any computer related component software or hardware or a network for example that consistently performs according to its specifications It has long been considered one of three related attributes that must be considered when making buying or using a computer product or component Chapters 47 Review everything from the lecture notes regarding the trait approach the situationist critique projective tests Rorschach TAT drawaperson objective tests 3 methods of objective test construction rational empirical factor analysis Big Five personality factors focus on Extraversion Neuroticism Openness Trait a staple of personality Examples impulsivity warmth hostility grittiness grit dominance etc 0 Grit has been shown to tell as much about people as IQ 0 There can be an inverse association between talent and grit ITraits are dimensional with each person somewhere on a continuum O O No one exhibits the same level of traits everyone varies in expression of traits in the given situation The correlation between any measured trait and any little snap shot of a behavior is often very low Correlation coefficient Shows strength and direction of correlation 10 10 Correlation does not apply causation 10000 hour rule The idea that you need to spend at least 10000 hours studying deliberate practicing at something in order to be world class introvert more willing to put in that time Over time you become more attracted or less attracted to someone depending on their personality 0 Assessment of Traits O Comes from the Freudian tradition if you present somebody with an ambiguous situation not really sure what they re talking about what you do in these situations gives someone useful information about you Very interesting they get people s attention The problem is that they rarely ever work Rorschach a type of projective test used in psychoanalysis in which a standard set of symmetrical ink blots of different shapes and colors is presented one by one to the subject who is asked to describe what they suggest or resemble 0 80 of clinical sociology still teaches the Rorschach Drawing a person test 0 predicts a child s IQ by what they draw TAT 0 Asking participants to tell a story about what they see in a picture card that they were given 0 Drew Westen was trained with the TAT test 0 The test measured Emotional attachments and how driven one 1s 0 I We don t have to rely on subjective interpretation they are straight forward and easy to interoperate I 1 Rational Method each item rationally derived from underlying theory 0 Questions correlate with overall topic 0 Some people are unable to respond honestly I 2 Empirical Method data driven not relying on theory 0 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI O Advantage not transparent so hard to fake replies 0 Disadvantage shrinkage cant replicate often poor validity I 3 Factor Analysis sophisticated extension of rational method 0 Helps you understand what you are really testing 0 Uses sophisticated statistics to help measure target construct 0 Big five factor analysis of 17953 trait words 9 5 underlying factors 1 Neuroticism negative emotionality 2 Extraversion sociability 3 Openness openness to new emotionality 4 Agreeableness interpersonal warmth and trust 5 Conscientiousness dependability organization 00000 I tendency to experience negative emotional reaction 0 Proneness to experience negative emotional reactions anxiety sadness anger embarrassment etc Depending upon one s level of Neuroticism he or she may be classified as being I Reactive High Negative Emotionality 0 1 Cautious alert to the possibility that something might go wrong 0 2 Sensitive to the distresspain of others I 3 Easily discouraged or overwhelmed 0 4 Feels emotions intensely I 5 Vulnerable to mental illness depression anxiety eating disorders etc I Resilient Low Negative Emotionality 0 1 Largely unfazed by negative possibilities or actual negative outcomes 0 2 May ignore others discomfort or distress O 3 Can handle high levels of stress and remain calm in the face of crisis Better health longer lifespan E g Pumpkin seed fish have a high level of neuroticism those that O Neuroticism results in high rates of mental illness stress hormones such as cortisol degrades your skin and is toxic to the brain one doesn t live as long more likely to be in mental care emotional contagion O 0 Social orientation I Extravert High Extraversion 1 Craves high levels of stimulation especially of a social nature 2 Energized by social interaction enjoys group settings and parties 3 Drawn to leadership roles 4 Usually has breadth but not depth in friendships and other relationships 5 Not typically prone to introspect 6 Very expressive and easy to read 0 Friends with everybody O Stronger cravings that turn into addiction drink more have more sex peruse rewarding things more I Introvert Low Extraversion 1 Craves quiet settings with lower levels of stimulation Energized by isolation exhausted by large social gatherings Independent not inclined to follow the crowd Intense depth of relationships but a small circle of close friends Highly productive on projects Reserved hard to read 0 Rich inner life close group of friends I Facets Friendliness Gregariousness Assertiveness Activity Level Excitement seeking Cheerfulness O The tendency to seek out or create new experiences perceptions and concepts I Explorer High Openness 1 Highly imaginative and creative 2 In any given situation able to envision new possibilities for what could be 0 3 Invites change in fact easily bored with things as they are 0 4 Broad intellectual curiosity Open to seeing even cherished truths and principles framed in a completely new way 0 5 May be viewed as impractical and having head in the clouds 0 6 Usually progressive in political orientation 0 Preserver Low Openness 1 Focused on the here and now highly practical 2 Wants to conserve and preserve cherished institutions and practices 3 Uncomfortable with change Finds beauty in ritual and repetition 4 Prefers not to question existing views and beliefs 5 May be viewed as narrow and dogmatic Facets Imagination Artistic Interests Emotionality Adventurousness Intellect Liberalism Sample questions 1 Which type of personality data is most likely to promote stereotyping a experimental data b selfreport data c informant data e naturalistic observation People who are naturally drawn to leadership positions are most likely to be b low in extraversion c high in neuroticism d low in openness to experience e low in neuroticism 3 An important scientific principle is the fact that does not imply Observation causation Fenestration mastication Experimentation observation Sequestration selfgratification 999 The DunningKruger e ect refers primarily to the finding that b competence leads to selfserving bias c confidence is sexually attractive d incompetence is a prerequisite for election to Congress e people attribute the bad behavior of others to their stable personality traits Projective tests and their interpretation are based on a key hypothesis about the workings of the unconscious mind that were first articulated by a Meehl c Thales d Mischel e Chingy
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