Organismal Biology Lab Practical 2 Study Guide
Organismal Biology Lab Practical 2 Study Guide BIOL 1030 - 002
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Cox on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1030 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Debbie R. Folkerts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 162 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Lab Practical 2 Lab 8 • Phylum Porifera -‐-‐ Scypha, Cliona, o Multicellular o Cellular level of organization o Body with many surface pores and internal water canals and chambers o Internal skeleton of microscopic spicules and/or spongin fibers o Aquatic and sessile -‐-‐ many with motile larval form o Most are asymmetrical o Both sexual and asexual modes of reproduction common o Holdfast: base of sponge where it attaches to the substratum o Osculum: where water exits o Pores: where water enters the body o Spongocoel: large internal cavity o Spongin fibers and spicules provide a supporting framework for the soft -‐bodied sponge and maintain integrity of the canal o Sponges are totally dependent on a continuous flow of water through the body to maintain their life-‐sustaining activities o Choanocytes: specialized cells that move water through the sessile body o Collar cells: flagellated cells that move water through the body and also capture and digest food, capture sperm o 3 body types: simple (ascon), intermediate (sycon), complex (leucon) • Ascon § Choanocytes lline the spongocoel § Small, tube shaped sponges • Sycon § Thicker body wall § Folded wall produces alternating external and internal canals • Leucon § Canal system lead to and from choanocyte lined chambers • Radiata -‐-‐ phylum Cnidaria and Ctenophora o Phylum Cnidarians: jellyfish and other s with tentacles that sting • Tissue level of organization • Radial symmetry • Free swimming but have feeble locomotor abilities = planktonic • Polyp: sessile, elongate with tentacles at one end • Medusa: free-‐swimming, bell-‐ or saucer-‐ shape with its tentacles around the margin or rim of the bell • Most marine • Tentacles surrounding the mouth • Cnidocytes used in feeding and defense -‐-‐ contain nematocysts • Gastrovascular cavity with one opening • Mesoglea between epidermis and gastrodermis • Pedal disc = attachment site to th e substrate o Class Hydrozoa: solitary polys or coloanial with polyps and medusa in life cycle • Hydra § Solitary -‐-‐ fresh water • Bud develops asexually • Obelia § Colonial -‐-‐ marine § Sessile polyp is dominant § Feeding and reproductive polyps § Dioecious medusa § Embryo develops into planula larva o Class Scyphozoa: solitary large medusae; polyps reduced or absent in life cycle • True jellyfish o Class Anthozoa: solitary or colonial polyps; no medusae in life cycle • Sea anemone LAB 9 • Bilateria o Organisms that exhibit bilateral symmetry o Body regions • Anterior: head end • Posterior: tail end • Dorsal: upper or back side • Ventral: lower or under side o Cephalization: accumulation of structures at the head end o Free living and active life -‐style o Grouped according to presence or absence of a body cavity: fluid filled space between the body wall and the tubular digestive tract • Acoelomate -‐-‐ no body cavity § Digestive tract is completely surrounded by parenchyma • Pseudocoelomate: simple body caivity -‐-‐ PLATYHELMINTHES § Caivty between the mesoderm and endoderm and lacks a special lining called the peritoneum • Eucoelomate: true body cavity -‐-‐ ANNELIDA AND MOLLUSCA § Cavity forms within the mesoderm and is lined with tissue called peritoneum o Fluid within coelom is free to move an d effectively circulates nutrients, hormones, gametes, respiratory gases, wastes, etc., aids in body flexibility = serves as a hydrostatic skeleton in many invertebrate animals -‐-‐ allow them to crawl, burrow, and swim o Two groups: • Protostomes: first major pore to form eventually becomes the mouth § Ecdysis: molting = Ecdysozoa § Lophotrochozoa: nonmolting protostomes • Platyhelminthes • Annelida • Mollusca • Deuterostomes: mouth is derived from the second major pore to form o PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES • Bilateral symmetry • Acoelomate • Dorsoventrally flattened, unsegmented body • Incomplete digestive tract • Hermaphroditic • Organ-‐system level of organization • CLASS TREMATODA § Small, leaflike body; suckers present § All parasitic § Flukes § Ventral sucker • CLASS CESTODA § Long, tape-‐like body § Anterior scolex and many proglottids § All parasitic § Tapeworms • Monoecious • Yolk gland: add nutrients to the zygote • CLASS TURBELLARIA § Soft, flattened body with ciliated epidermis § Planarian § Dugesia § Phagocata § Eyespots § Ocelli -‐-‐ light sensitive eyespots on the head § Intestinal branches § Incomplete digestive tract § Hermaphroditic/monoecious o PHYLUM ANNELIDA • Segmentation • Eucoeloms • Setae: (chaetae) sensory bristles; aid in locomotion • Bilaterlly symmetrical • Segmented, wormlike body • Fluid filled eucoelom = hydrostatic skeleton • Closed circulatory system • Complete digestive tract -‐-‐ mouth and anus • Metanephridia, serving as excretory organs • CLASS POLYCHAETA § Many setae § Parapodia (paddlelike appendages) § Head well developed § Clam worm • CLASS OLIGOCHAETA § Few setae § Head poorly developed § Earthworm • Clitellum: near the anterior end of the worm; major role in reproductive proccess • CLASS HIRUDINEA § Suckers present • Locomotion and attachment for feeding § No setae or parapodia § Leech o PHYLUM MOLLUSCA • Eucoelomate • Unsegmented soft body • Shell of one or two valves usually present, secreted by mantle • Muscular foot used mainly for locomotion • Most equipped with a radula (chitinous, rasping "tongue") • CLASS POLYPLACOPHORA § Eight valves (shells) imbedded in a thick mantle § Large muscular foot § Chiton • Calcareous valves: shell enclosing body • CLASS GASTROPODA § Single, coiled shell § Large, flat foot § Radula present § Slug § Snail • CLASS BIVALVIA § Shell of two valves § Wedge shaped foot § Gills § Radula absent § Clam • CLASS CEPHALOPODA § Shell often reduced or absent § Well developed head § Foot modified into tentacles § Radula present § squid LAB 10 • Ecdysis: shed cuticle and produce a new one • Kingdom Animalia -‐-‐> Bilateria -‐-‐> Protostomes o Non-‐molting protostomes (lophotrochozoa) (lab 9) o Molting protostomes (Ecdysozoa) • Phylum Nematoda • Phylum Arthropoda • PHYLUM NEMATODA o Bilateral symmetrry o Cylindrical, unsegmented body o Pseudocoelomate o Complete digestive system o Dioecious o Body wall with longitudinal muscle fibers o Most are microscopic o Back and forth thrashing movement produced by longitudinal muscles in the body wall (no circular muscles) o Body wall is made up of the protective, non -‐cellular cuticle secreted by the underlying epidermis and a relatively thick layer of longitudinal muscle o Pseudocoel: body cavity between the body wall and intestines • PHYLUM ARTHROPODA o Largest phylum o Segmented bodies o Jointed appendages o Chitinous exoskeleton o Segmented body divided into distinct body regions: head, thorax and abdomen; cephalothorax and abdomen, or head and trunk o Subphylum Cheliceriformes: paired chelicerae; paired pedipalps, four pairs of legs; cephalothorax and abdomen • Class Merostomata: spike-‐like telson; gills, compound eyes § Horseshoe crab • Class Arachnida: unsegmented or segmented abdomen without a telson; simple eyes § Spiders o Subphyulm Myriapoda: one pair of antennae; paired mandibles; uniramous (unbranched) appendages; tracheae • Class Diplopoda: millipedes; rounded body with two pairs of legs per segment; head with short antennae § millipede • Class Chilopodia: centipedes; flattened body with one pair of legs per segment; head with long antennae; venom claws § Centipedes o Subphylum/Class Crustacea: two pairs of antennae; paired mandibles; biramous (two branched) appendages; gills • Crab • Crayfish • Barnacle o Subphylum Hexapoda: body divided into distinct head, thorax, and abdomen; three pairs fo walking legs on thorax, typically two pairs of wings on thorax; one pair of antennae; paired mandibles; uniramous (unbranched) appendages; tracheae • Class Insecta: insects; same characteristics as subphylum § insects LAB 11 • Kingdom Animalia -‐-‐> Bilateria -‐-‐> Deuterostomes o Deuterostomes • Phylum Echinodermata § Spiny dermal endoskeleton § Pentamerous radial skeleton § Water, vascular system, usually with tube feet • Madreporite: allow seawater to enter the vascular system § Eucoelom § Class Asteroidea • Body in the form of a central disc with radially arranged arms • Sea stars § Class Ophiuridea • Slender, often branched arms • Brittle stars § Class Holothuroidea • Thick, muscular, and elongated body • Tentacles around mouth • Sea cucumbers § Class Echinoidea • Spherical or flattened body • Test • Spines • Urchins and sand dollars • Phylum Chordata (lab 12) § Subphylum Urochordata • sessile adults • Body enclosed in a tunic made mostly of cellulose • Tunicate § Subphylum Cephalochordata • Free swimming • Fish shaped • Lancelet = amphioxus § Subphylum Vertebrata • Cartilaginous or bony cranium and vertebral column • Usually two pairs of appendages • Class Agnatha • No jaws or paireed fins • Brook lamprey • Class Chondrichthyes • Fish with cartilaginous • Endoskeleton • Paired fins • Ventral mouth with jaws • Shark • Class Osteichthyes • Fish with bony endoskeleton • Paired fins • Terminal mouth (usually) with jaws • Yellow perch • Class Amphibia • Two pairs of legs • Smooth (no scales) skin • Leopard frog • Salamander • Class Reptilia • Two pairs of legs • Scaly skin • Turtle • Garter snake • Class Aves • Paired wings and legs • Feathers • Class Mammalia • Two pairs of legs • Hair • Mammary glands LABS 13, 14, & 15 Use this link to help you review anatomy of the rat https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome -‐instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-‐ 8#q=label%20a%20dissected%20rat BE SURE TO GO BACK THROUGH THE LAB MANUAL AND LOOK AT ALL OF THE DIAGRAMS AND LOOK AT PICTURES OF THE ORGANISMS WE OBSERVED Good luck! :)
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