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Organismal Biology Lab Practical 2 Study Guide

by: Emma Cox

Organismal Biology Lab Practical 2 Study Guide BIOL 1030 - 002

Marketplace > Auburn University > Biology > BIOL 1030 - 002 > Organismal Biology Lab Practical 2 Study Guide
Emma Cox
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About this Document

This study guide contains notes on all of the Phylum, Classes, organisms, and vocabulary that we have covered in lab.
Organismal Biology
Debbie R. Folkerts
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Cox on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1030 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Debbie R. Folkerts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 162 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 04/17/16
Lab  Practical  2   Lab  8   •   Phylum  Porifera  -­‐-­‐  Scypha,  Cliona,     o   Multicellular   o   Cellular  level  of  organization   o   Body  with  many  surface  pores  and  internal  water  canals  and  chambers   o   Internal  skeleton  of  microscopic  spicules  and/or  spongin  fibers   o   Aquatic  and  sessile  -­‐-­‐  many  with  motile  larval  form   o   Most  are  asymmetrical   o   Both  sexual  and  asexual  modes  of  reproduction  common   o   Holdfast:  base  of  sponge  where  it  attaches  to  the  substratum   o   Osculum:  where  water  exits   o   Pores:  where  water  enters  the  body   o   Spongocoel:  large  internal  cavity   o   Spongin  fibers  and  spicules  provide  a  supporting  framework  for  the  soft -­‐bodied  sponge  and   maintain  integrity  of  the  canal   o   Sponges  are  totally  dependent  on  a  continuous  flow  of  water  through  the  body  to  maintain   their  life-­‐sustaining  activities   o   Choanocytes:  specialized  cells  that  move  water  through  the  sessile  body   o   Collar  cells:  flagellated  cells  that  move  water  through  the  body  and  also  capture  and  digest   food,  capture  sperm   o   3  body  types:  simple  (ascon),  intermediate  (sycon),  complex  (leucon)   •   Ascon     §   Choanocytes  lline  the  spongocoel   §   Small,  tube  shaped  sponges   •   Sycon   §   Thicker  body  wall   §   Folded  wall  produces  alternating  external  and  internal  canals   •   Leucon   §   Canal  system  lead  to  and  from  choanocyte  lined  chambers   •   Radiata  -­‐-­‐  phylum  Cnidaria  and  Ctenophora   o   Phylum  Cnidarians:  jellyfish  and  other s  with  tentacles  that  sting   •   Tissue  level  of  organization   •   Radial  symmetry   •   Free  swimming  but  have  feeble  locomotor  abilities  =   planktonic   •   Polyp:  sessile,  elongate  with  tentacles  at  one  end   •   Medusa:  free-­‐swimming,  bell-­‐  or  saucer-­‐  shape  with  its  tentacles  around  the  margin   or  rim  of  the  bell   •   Most  marine   •   Tentacles  surrounding  the  mouth   •   Cnidocytes  used  in  feeding  and  defense   -­‐-­‐  contain  nematocysts   •   Gastrovascular  cavity  with  one  opening   •   Mesoglea  between  epidermis  and  gastrodermis   •   Pedal  disc  =  attachment  site  to  th e  substrate   o   Class  Hydrozoa:  solitary  polys  or  coloanial  with  polyps  and  medusa  in  life  cycle   •   Hydra   §   Solitary  -­‐-­‐  fresh  water   •   Bud  develops  asexually   •   Obelia   §   Colonial  -­‐-­‐  marine   §   Sessile  polyp  is  dominant   §   Feeding  and  reproductive  polyps   §   Dioecious  medusa   §   Embryo  develops  into  planula  larva   o   Class  Scyphozoa:  solitary  large  medusae;  polyps  reduced  or  absent  in  life  cycle     • True  jellyfish   o   Class  Anthozoa:  solitary  or  colonial  polyps;  no  medusae  in  life  cycle   •   Sea  anemone                           LAB  9   •   Bilateria   o   Organisms  that  exhibit  bilateral  symmetry   o   Body  regions   •   Anterior:  head  end   •   Posterior:  tail  end   •   Dorsal:  upper  or  back  side   •   Ventral:  lower  or  under  side   o   Cephalization:  accumulation  of  structures  at  the  head  end   o   Free  living  and  active  life -­‐style   o   Grouped  according  to   presence  or  absence  of  a  body  cavity:  fluid  filled  space  between  the   body  wall  and  the  tubular  digestive  tract   •   Acoelomate  -­‐-­‐  no  body  cavity   §   Digestive  tract  is  completely  surrounded  by  parenchyma   •   Pseudocoelomate:  simple  body  caivity  -­‐-­‐  PLATYHELMINTHES   §   Caivty  between  the  mesoderm  and  endoderm  and  lacks  a  special  lining  called   the  peritoneum   •   Eucoelomate:  true  body  cavity  -­‐-­‐  ANNELIDA  AND  MOLLUSCA   §   Cavity  forms  within  the  mesoderm  and  is  lined  with  tissue  called  peritoneum     o   Fluid  within  coelom    is  free  to  move  an d  effectively  circulates  nutrients,  hormones,  gametes,   respiratory  gases,  wastes,  etc.,  aids  in  body  flexibility  =  serves  as  a  hydrostatic  skeleton    in   many  invertebrate  animals   -­‐-­‐  allow  them  to  crawl,  burrow,  and  swim   o   Two  groups:     • Protostomes:  first  major   pore  to  form  eventually  becomes  the  mouth   §   Ecdysis:  molting  =  Ecdysozoa   §   Lophotrochozoa:  nonmolting  protostomes   •   Platyhelminthes   •   Annelida   •   Mollusca   •   Deuterostomes:  mouth  is  derived  from  the  second  major  pore  to  form   o   PHYLUM  PLATYHELMINTHES   •   Bilateral  symmetry   •   Acoelomate   •   Dorsoventrally  flattened,  unsegmented  body     •   Incomplete  digestive  tract   •   Hermaphroditic   •   Organ-­‐system  level  of  organization   •   CLASS  TREMATODA   §   Small,  leaflike  body;  suckers  present   §   All  parasitic   §   Flukes   §   Ventral  sucker   •   CLASS  CESTODA   §   Long,  tape-­‐like  body     §   Anterior  scolex  and  many  proglottids   §   All  parasitic   §   Tapeworms   •   Monoecious     • Yolk  gland:  add  nutrients  to  the  zygote   •   CLASS  TURBELLARIA   §   Soft,  flattened  body  with  ciliated  epidermis   §   Planarian   §   Dugesia   §   Phagocata   §   Eyespots   §   Ocelli  -­‐-­‐  light  sensitive  eyespots  on  the  head   §   Intestinal  branches   §   Incomplete  digestive  tract   §   Hermaphroditic/monoecious   o   PHYLUM  ANNELIDA   •   Segmentation   •   Eucoeloms   •   Setae:  (chaetae)  sensory  bristles;  aid  in  locomotion   •   Bilaterlly  symmetrical   •   Segmented,  wormlike  body   •   Fluid  filled  eucoelom  =  hydrostatic  skeleton   •   Closed  circulatory  system   •   Complete  digestive  tract   -­‐-­‐  mouth  and  anus   •   Metanephridia,  serving  as  excretory  organs   •   CLASS  POLYCHAETA   §   Many  setae     §   Parapodia  (paddlelike  appendages)   §   Head  well  developed   §   Clam  worm   •   CLASS  OLIGOCHAETA   §   Few  setae   §   Head  poorly  developed   §   Earthworm   •   Clitellum:  near  the  anterior  end  of  the  worm;  major  role  in  reproductive   proccess       •   CLASS  HIRUDINEA   §   Suckers  present   •   Locomotion  and  attachment  for  feeding   §   No  setae  or  parapodia   §   Leech   o   PHYLUM  MOLLUSCA   • Eucoelomate   • Unsegmented  soft  body   • Shell  of  one  or  two  valves  usually  present,  secreted  by  mantle   • Muscular  foot  used  mainly  for  locomotion   • Most  equipped  with  a  radula  (chitinous,  rasping  "tongue")   • CLASS  POLYPLACOPHORA   §   Eight  valves  (shells)  imbedded  in  a  thick  mantle   §   Large  muscular  foot     §   Chiton     • Calcareous  valves:  shell  enclosing  body   • CLASS  GASTROPODA   §   Single,  coiled  shell   §   Large,  flat  foot   §   Radula  present   §   Slug   §   Snail     • CLASS  BIVALVIA   §   Shell  of  two  valves   §   Wedge  shaped  foot   §   Gills   §   Radula  absent   §   Clam   • CLASS  CEPHALOPODA   §   Shell  often  reduced  or  absent   §   Well  developed  head   §   Foot  modified  into  tentacles   §   Radula  present   §   squid       LAB  10   •   Ecdysis:  shed  cuticle  and  produce  a  new  one   •   Kingdom  Animalia  -­‐-­‐>  Bilateria  -­‐-­‐>  Protostomes   o   Non-­‐molting  protostomes  (lophotrochozoa)  (lab  9)   o   Molting  protostomes  (Ecdysozoa)   •   Phylum  Nematoda   •   Phylum  Arthropoda   •   PHYLUM  NEMATODA   o   Bilateral  symmetrry   o   Cylindrical,  unsegmented  body   o   Pseudocoelomate   o   Complete  digestive  system   o   Dioecious   o   Body  wall  with  longitudinal  muscle  fibers   o   Most  are  microscopic   o   Back  and  forth  thrashing  movement  produced  by  longitudinal  muscles  in  the  body  wall  (no   circular  muscles)   o   Body  wall  is  made  up  of  the  protective,  non -­‐cellular  cuticle  secreted  by  the  underlying   epidermis  and  a  relatively  thick  layer  of   longitudinal  muscle   o   Pseudocoel:    body  cavity  between  the  body  wall  and  intestines   •   PHYLUM  ARTHROPODA   o   Largest  phylum   o   Segmented  bodies   o   Jointed  appendages   o   Chitinous  exoskeleton   o   Segmented  body  divided  into  distinct  body  regions:  head,  thorax  and  abdomen;   cephalothorax  and  abdomen,  or  head   and  trunk   o   Subphylum  Cheliceriformes:  paired  chelicerae;  paired  pedipalps,  four  pairs  of  legs;   cephalothorax  and  abdomen   •   Class  Merostomata:  spike-­‐like  telson;  gills,  compound  eyes     §   Horseshoe  crab   •   Class  Arachnida:  unsegmented  or  segmented  abdomen  without  a  telson;  simple  eyes   §   Spiders   o   Subphyulm  Myriapoda:  one  pair  of  antennae;  paired  mandibles;  uniramous  (unbranched)   appendages;  tracheae   •   Class  Diplopoda:  millipedes;  rounded  body  with  two  pairs  of  legs  per  segment;  head   with  short  antennae   §   millipede   •   Class  Chilopodia:  centipedes;  flattened  body  with  one  pair  of  legs  per  segment;  head   with  long  antennae;  venom  claws   §   Centipedes   o   Subphylum/Class    Crustacea:  two  pairs  of  antennae;  paired  mandibles;  biramous  (two   branched)  appendages;  gills   •   Crab   •   Crayfish   •   Barnacle   o   Subphylum  Hexapoda:  body  divided  into  distinct  head,  thorax,  and  abdomen;  three  pairs  fo   walking  legs  on  thorax,  typically  two  pairs  of  wings  on  thorax;  one  pair  of  antennae;  paired   mandibles;  uniramous  (unbranched)  appendages;  tracheae   •   Class  Insecta:  insects;  same  characteristics  as  subphylum   §   insects               LAB  11   •   Kingdom  Animalia  -­‐-­‐>  Bilateria  -­‐-­‐>  Deuterostomes   o   Deuterostomes   •   Phylum  Echinodermata   §   Spiny  dermal  endoskeleton   §   Pentamerous  radial  skeleton   §   Water,  vascular  system,  usually  with  tube  feet   •   Madreporite:  allow  seawater  to  enter  the  vascular  system   §   Eucoelom   §   Class  Asteroidea   •   Body  in  the  form  of  a  central  disc  with  radially  arranged  arms   •   Sea  stars   §   Class  Ophiuridea   •   Slender,  often  branched  arms   •   Brittle  stars   §   Class  Holothuroidea   •   Thick,  muscular,  and  elongated   body   •   Tentacles  around  mouth   •   Sea  cucumbers   §   Class  Echinoidea   •   Spherical  or  flattened  body   •   Test     • Spines   •   Urchins  and  sand  dollars   •   Phylum  Chordata  (lab  12)   §   Subphylum  Urochordata   •   sessile  adults   •   Body  enclosed  in  a  tunic  made  mostly  of  cellulose   •   Tunicate   §   Subphylum  Cephalochordata   •   Free  swimming   •   Fish  shaped   •   Lancelet  =  amphioxus   §   Subphylum  Vertebrata   •   Cartilaginous  or  bony  cranium  and  vertebral  column   •   Usually  two  pairs  of  appendages   •   Class  Agnatha   •   No  jaws  or  paireed  fins   •   Brook  lamprey   •   Class  Chondrichthyes   •   Fish  with  cartilaginous   •   Endoskeleton   •   Paired  fins   •   Ventral  mouth  with  jaws   •   Shark   •   Class  Osteichthyes   •   Fish  with  bony  endoskeleton   •   Paired  fins   •   Terminal  mouth  (usually)  with  jaws   •   Yellow  perch   •   Class  Amphibia   •   Two  pairs  of  legs   •   Smooth  (no  scales)  skin   •   Leopard  frog   •   Salamander   •   Class  Reptilia   •   Two  pairs  of  legs   •   Scaly  skin   •   Turtle   •   Garter  snake   •   Class  Aves     • Paired  wings  and  legs   •   Feathers   •   Class  Mammalia   •   Two  pairs  of  legs   •   Hair     • Mammary  glands       LABS  13,  14,  &  15   Use  this  link  to  help  you  review  anatomy  of  the  rat -­‐instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-­‐ 8#q=label%20a%20dissected%20rat       BE  SURE  TO  GO  BACK  THROUGH  THE  LAB  MANUAL   AND  LOOK  AT  ALL  OF  THE  DIAGRAMS  AND  LOOK  AT   PICTURES  OF  THE  ORGANISMS  WE  OBSERVED       Good  luck!  :)    


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