Test 4 Study Guide
Test 4 Study Guide ANTH 1102
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1102 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Birch in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 337 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Test #4 Study Guide Terms: 1. Hegemony: social order in which subordinates are socialized to accept hierarchy as “natural” • Social control • Ideology • Accept government structures as natural • Vs. resistance 2. Margaret Mead: • Writer of the ethnography “Coming of Age in Samoa” • Ethnographer: described the customs of peoples and cultures • Studied Samoa, Bali and Papa New Guinea o Adolescence in Samoan culture o Sexual freedom of teenagers compared to sexuality in US in 1930’s 3. Focus group: • Talking to people in groups and listening to them talk to each other o Debates and conversation o Especially important to observe their reactions 4. Multi-sited research: • Large teams which fan out across a region • Ethnographic studies in multiple places, then comparing results 5. Longitudinal study: • Long-term study usually based on repeated visits • The same individuals/subjects are studied to compare to previous trips and to gather progress over a certain amount of time (months, decades, etc.) 6. Emic: • Emic account is a description of a behavior or belief that comes from a person within the culture (ME) 7. Etic: • Etic account is a description of a behavior or belief by an observer in terms that can be applied across culture (THEM) 8. Participant observation: • Bronislaw Malinowski was one of the earliest adaptors of participant observation • Put yourself into the society and fully participate • Ex. Malinowski studied the ceremonial trade of gifts in Papa New Guinea 9. Functionalism • Theory that says any social practice exists because it performs useful functions • All customs and institutions in a society are interrelated o Each aspect is a function of another 10.Historical Particularism • Franz Boas and his students • Gathering data and analyzing it according to scientific method • Rooted in the notion that each culture is unique and intelligible only in its own terms • Rejects comparative method 11.Focal vocabulary: • The sets of words that describe particular domains of experience that are especially important in a culture • Ex. Saami words for types of reindeer and types of snow 12.Ethnocide: • The deliberate destruction of the culture of an ethnic group o Ex. Native Americans in the 1950’s – take the child away, change them entirely, allow them to return to families when they are adults and seem to be strangers 13.Ethnicity: • Based on perceived cultural similarities and differences in a society or nation • Markers include name, belief, sense of solidarity, geographic territory, religion and language • Groups of people who are considered to share common national, territorial, religious, linguistic, or cultural backgrounds • Social construct by people as they identify more with one group and less with another • Define ethnicity historically, culturally, dress, symbols, etc. 14.Assimilationist model: • Minorities are expected to abandon their cultural traditions and values and be absorbed into the dominant culture 15.Big Man: • Highly influential individual • Supporters often in several villages • Skilled persuasion • Leadership based on redistribution and reciprocity • Gain wealth and give it away o Shows you care o Supporters in many villages • Power, prestige, and serve as a good person rather than absolute power 16.Potlach: • Gifts scaled according to your status in society demonstrated to accrued status and reinforced 17.Kula Ring: • Studied by Malinowski • Trade between different islands • Closed system only senior male partners could participate in • Dangerous sea voyages for trade helps bond between partners • Clockwise: red necklaces • Counter-clockwise: white shell arm bands • Reinforced friendship and authority. 18.Adaptive strategy: • A group’s system of economic production/their way of “making a living” o Foraging, cultivation, agriculture, etc. 19.Horticulture: • Nonindustrial plant cultivation o No plow – digging with sticks, hoes, etc. o Fallow periods – cultivated land gets to rest 20.Agriculture: • More industrial plant cultivation o Irrigations systems, terracing o Nutrients refunded to land through fertilizer or swamp muck 21.Pastoralism: • Branch of agriculture concerned with raising livestock • The care, tending and use of animals such as camels, goats, cattle, yaks, llamas, and sheep 22.Market principle: • Buying, selling, valuation, capital • Determined by supply and demand • Aim to maximize profit • Governs the distribution of the means of production: land, labor and natural resources 23.Sexual dimorphism: • Marked phenotypic differences between males an females of a species • Females are smaller and more gracile • Males are heavier, taller, and more robustly built • Humans: much less pronounced than ancestors 24.Gender roles: • The tasks and activities that a culture assigns to each sex • Ex. In 100 human societies, 95% males made stone tools and 5% women were the homemakers. 25.X and Y chromosomes • Determine genetic sex • 22 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes = 24 chromosomes • female: XX • male: XY • eggs have XX, spermy have XY à 50% change male vs female 26.Matriarchy: • Where women hold the bulk of political power • Significantly less internal violence towards men 27.Family of orientation: • Family one is born into • Vs. family of procreation 28.Lineal kin: • Either the direct ancestors of descendants of a particular Ego • Blood • Grandparents; parents; kids; grandkids 29.Descent group: • Groups of people based on demonstration belief in common ancestry • Real or fictitious line • Rights, duties, and obligations associated with both families and descent groups • Most societies have both and obligations to one may conflict with obligations to the other 30.Clan: • Stipulated descent – say they descent from a common ancestor but to no actually trace genealogical links 31.Balanced reciprocity: • Explicit expectation of more/less immediate return • Ex. Christmas gifts 32.Generalized reciprocity: • Gifts with no expectation of immediate return – personal relationships • Ex. birthday gifts 33.Negative reciprocity: • Tricky/coercion • Hard bargaining • Buy something/ offer less than what its worth / sell something / offer more than its worth • At the expense of the other • Can take place among strangers 34.Lineage: • Demonstrated descent – can directly trace descent back to a common ancestor 35.Nuclear family: • father, mother, and their children • Class family picture 36. Unilineal descent: • Descent is traced through one parent only 37.Bilineal descent: • Individuals trace descent through matrilineal and patrilineal groups, resulting in unique combinations for sets of siblings 38.Bilateral descent: • Aka double descent • Every biological relative is a socially recognized ancestor or family member 39.Endogamy: • Marriage is only allowed within a particular social group 40.Exogamy: • Marriage is only allowed outside of a particular social group • Often one’s own group is not allowed 41.Bride price: • The reverse of a dowry – involved the groom giving things of high value to the bride’s father o Respect for bride and parents OR compensation to family for taking away her financial aid capability to family o Lead to abuse and loss of rights o Lead to child brides and promises of marriage at birth 42.Dowry: • A predetermined agreement to transfer wealth or perform labor for one’s in- laws • Dowry deaths o Failure to pay off dowry in full could end in violence or killing off of wife by in-laws so that son could get a wife and full dowry o Newly married young women in dangerous situations o Dowries banned 43.Animism: • Belief system or worldview wherein animals, plants, and inanimate objects or phenomena possess a spiritual essence • An anthropological construct rather than an organized religion 44.Rite of passage: • A ritual event that makes a person’s transition from one status to another • Marriage, baptism, confirmation, rush week, visions quests, etc. Questions: 1. What is the ethnographic present? • People don’t die/ disappear – they change (evolve) • Changed by incorporating modern items (ex. cloth) 2. Name and explain six methods cultural anthropologists employ in their research • Participant-Observation: o Pay attention to minute details o Live and observe with people o Trust needed o Host families/ groups o Ethical clearances and review panel • Conversation and Interviewing: o Conversations – informal o Interviews – more formal o Focus group – talking to people in groups and listening to them talk to each other • Surveys: o Questionnaires o May allow you to reach more people but low rate of return o More impersonal • Genealogical Approach: o Used to understand current social relations and reconstruct history o Collect data on kinship • Life histories: o Take one individual’s (or family’s) perspective of society o How people perceive of, react to and contribute to changes that affect their lives o Data on health, diet and livelihood • Problem-Oriented ethnography: o Ethnography to answer research questions • Longitudinal study: o Long term study, usually based on repeated visits • Team research: o Large teams which fan out across a region • Multi-sited research: o Research in multiple times and places toward a common goal 3. What are the three components of linguistic analysis? • Phonology – the study of speech sounds • Morphology – the formation and composition of words • Syntax – the formation and composition of phrases and sentences from these words 4. What is the difference between Relativist and Universalist approaches to understanding language? • Relativist: o This principle holds that the structure of a language affects the ways in which its speakers conceptualize their world o We understand the world in terms of our language o Grammatical categories allow our speakers to think in different ways • Universalist: o Argument that the human brain contains a limited set of rules for organizing language o Thus all languages have a common structural basis – or “universal grammar” 5. How do Malinowski and Durkheim’s theories of functionalism differ? • Malinowski: o Needs functionalism – biological needs were preeminent (food, shelter, sex) and other aspects of a culture developed to help fulfill those needs (biological) • Durkheim: o Structural functionalism – customs and social practices function in order to preserve the social structure o Support culture itself and reproduction of form 6. What is the difference between evolutionism and neo-evolutionism? • Evolutionism: o perspective based on the idea that cultures evolve in unlineal evolution (one line or path through which culture evolve) o Cultures evolve in uniform/progressive manner o Edward Tyler o Savagery à barbarism à civilization o Theory went out of fashion • Neo-evolutionism: o Renewed interest in why cultures change or evolve o “new” evolution o social and cultural evolution o how society becomes more complex and what drives these processes o determinism: cultures evolve as a result of various factors § environmental determinism (ex. climate change) § technological determinist (ex. advancements) § economic determinism (ex. organization change) 7. What does it mean when anthropologists say that race is a social construct? • Cultural category rather than a biological reality because it is often perceived on phenotypic categories • Race is a social construct that is poorly descriptive of the phenomenon it seeks to describe and has a long history of devastating consequences for individuals 8. What does it mean to say that racial categories are institutionalized? Provide an example. • Institutionalized Racism is the process of purposely discriminating against certain groups of people through the use of biased laws or practices • Ex. Jim Crow Laws in the post-civil war South, segregating people and what they are allowed to do/where they are allowed to go according to their skin color 9. What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination? • Prejudice: refers to devaluing or looking down upon a group of people because of assumed behavior, values, or capabilities • Discrimination: consists of policies and practices that actively harm a group and its members 10.According to the video that you watched in class, what is the connection between the race of an expectant mother and the rate of miscarriage? • Hormone systems warn down more in African American Women with 10.2 infant deaths per thousand compared to white 3.8 • Stresses of everyday racism • Need to care for these women from their own birth 11.According to the video you watched in class, why is it that the rate of diabetes is so high among Native American and First Nation communities? • Come to the conclusion that they will get it eventually • Self-esteem lowered • Behavioral and mental health • NOT biological 12.How do Big Men achieve their status? • They are very skill in persuasion and lead based on redistribution and reciprocity • They gain wealth by giving it away to demonstrate their care, gaining support in many villages • Power and prestige comes from being a good person rather than being a force of power 13.How are achieved and ascribed statuses different? Provide an example of each. • Achieved status: o Not born into it – course of lifetime, demonstrate skills, judgment, etc. o Small scale societies: band leader or spokesperson that is “first among equals” rather than a rules • Ascribed status: o People have little or on choice about occupying these statuses o Ex. age: we cannot choose not to age o Ex. people are born members of a certain group and remain so their entire life § Miocene Greece where they have chiefs, an infant was found buried in gold leaf surrounded by precious medals – inherited status 14.What is the relationship between hegemony and resistance? • Hegemony: Social order in which subordinates are socialized to accept hierarchy as natural • Resistance: opposition to the dominant social order – question and challenge 15.What is economic anthropology and what are two topics addressed by economic anthropologists? • Studies how human societies provide the material goods and services that make life possible • How production, distribution and consumption organized is organized in different societies • What motivates people in different cultures to produce, distribute, or exchange and consume? 16.What are two key differences between the political organization of segmentary societies and chiefdoms? • Segmentary societies: kinship based groups usually farming people, no political institutions • Chiefdoms: larger stratified populations, class system, political and religious 17.What are the major types of reciprocity? Give an example of each. • Generalized reciprocity – birthday gifts • Balanced reciprocity – Christmas gifts • Negative reciprocity – buying something that someone wants to sell immediately for a low price 18.Define and then compare and contrast horticulture and agriculture • Horticulture: Non-industrial plant cultivation • Agriculture: reuse land refund nutrients in a more organized fashion 19.How do modes of production vary between industrial and non-industrial economies? • Non-Industrial: economic relations are one component of a continuum of social relations – often kin-based • Industrial: workers have impersonal relations with their products, coworkers, and bosses 20.What does industrial alienation refer to? • People are alienated from the products they make – the product belongs to someone else o No longer taking all the benefits of your work/labor 21.Compare the market principle to redistribution and reciprocity • Market principle: buying, selling, valuation and capital determined by supply and demand o Aims to maximize provide o Governs the distribution of the means of production: land, labor and natural resources • Redistribution: system of economic exchange within a social group intended to alter the distribution of goods o Capital flows to central authority, who then redistributes it (taxes) • Reciprocity: exchange along various continuums (generalized, balanced, negative) 22.Define sex and gender and explain why we need to distinguish between the terms. • Sex: the biological categories of female and male that are differentiated by genes, hormones, and reproductive organs (genetic – born this way) • Gender: social categories differentiated by psychological characteristics and role expectations (social construct dependent on cultural context) 23.What is the feminization of poverty? How does it transpire and why is it a problem? • Women are increasingly the heads of household, yet they are only earning 77 cents per every dollar a man earns • Transpires to make the women feel belittled and make gender roles feel unbalanced 24.How do gender roles change with different adaptive strategies? • Foragers/hunter-gatherers o Men mainly hunt and women mainly gather • Horticulturalists o Females are responsible for crops and have more political power • Agriculturalists o Males are responsible for crops and plowing – more political power o Women restricted to domestic realm 25.What is the relationship between the family of orientation and the family of procreation? • Family of orientation: family one is born into • Family of procreation: family one establishes and reproduces in 26.Describe the difference between matrilocality, patrilocality and neolocality. 27.Explain the difference between a lineage and a clan. • Matrilocality: couples reside with the woman’s family (regionally or in house) • Patrilocality: couples reside with the man’s family (regionally or in house) • Neolocality: family establish a new residence unrelated to the location of either’s kin group 28.How have household compositions in the United States changed between 1970 and 2012? Give an example from lecture or your textbook. • Number of households have increased • Married couples with children have gone from 40% to 20% • Single father family households have changed from 0% to 5% • Households of 5+ have dropped from 21% to 10% 29.What is the difference between a dowry and a bride price? • Dowry: a predetermined agreement to transfer wealth or to perform labor for one’s in-laws • Bride Price: groom gives things of high value to the bride’s father 30.How does the practice of dowry payments lead to the deaths of new brides in India? • When a bride’s family is unable to pay off a dowry in full, it could end in violence or the killing of of a wife by in-laws so that the groom could remarry to get a full dowry • Newly married young women are in dangerous places living in the home of the husband’s family • Dowries were banned in 1961 31.What is a rite of passage? Give an example from your culture and an example from another culture discussed in class. • A ritual event that makes a person’s transition from one status to another • My culture: baptism and confirmation • Some other cultures take “vision quests” in which they spend days and/or nights secluded to spend time with natural forces and spirits, hoping to have visions and communicate with other beings 32.List the 3 phases in a rite of passage. • Separation • Liminality • Incorporation 33.How does religion influence social organization? Provide an example. • Religion is the intersection between belief systems, cultural systems and world views • States may adopt “official” religions • The Taliban dynamited 2 statues of Buddha in Afhanistan to create their vision of an Islamic society 34.How are the totem polies of the Pacific Northwest used to express descent? • These totem poles demonstrate lineages and are placed outside living spaces to show what family lives in said dwelling • Figures represent the mythological origins of lineage 35.Based on the guest lecture, describe the three components of food insecurity and explain why each is important to consider. • Food insecurity is everywhere • Food insecurity does not define Africa • Food insecurity is more than not eating enough food – it also includes not eating the right foods 36.Based on the guest lecture, describe how using methods that look at actual consumption patterns tells a different story about food insecurity than do standardized surveys. • Surveys: her survey was face to face and was more personal – the questions build off of each other and she studied two different communities 3 times • Anthropometrics: medical anthropology – research the children’s weight and height to determine nutritional content • Dietary Recall Survey: what did you eat this morning/ afternoon/ evening? • Dietary Change Interviews: interview older women to determine their diets and how they have or have not changed • Participant observation: cooking and eating with people • Flour preference survey: questions about flour with and without restrictions
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