Study Guide - FINAL - Cultural Anthropology
Study Guide - FINAL - Cultural Anthropology ANT2410
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT2410 at University of Florida taught by Crystal Felima in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Social Stratification Social stratification is defined as a system by which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy These categories lead to patterned social inequality—the unequal sharing of resources and social rewards Stratification persists because it is backed up by an ideology Principles of Stratification It is a characteristic of society, not simply a reflection of individual differences It persists over generations It is universal but variable It involves not just inequalities but also beliefs Social Inequality Saying that inequality is patterned indicates that the differences occur: o On a wide-scale basis o With regularity o And along lines of certain specific, identifiable characteristics (e.g. race, class, and gender) Social inequality is a structured and systematic phenomenon. Dimensions of Social Stratification/Inequality Max Weber Wealth: the accumulation of economic resources Power: the ability to impose one’s will on others Prestige: the respect given by others These dimensions can be interrelated or operate independently. Types of Societies Egalitarian — few or no groups have greater access to more wealth, power, or prestige Rank — unequal access to prestige or status, but no unequal access to wealth or power Stratified societies — considerable inequality in all forms of social rewards (power, wealth, and prestige) o Class system: social stratification is based on individual achievement Social mobility Achieved status o Caste system: social stratification is based in ascription (from birth and lasts throughout one’s lifetime). Limited or no social mobility Ascribed status ______________________________________________________________________________ Friday, April 1, 2016 Social Stratification Caste systems shape people’s lives in crucial ways: Powerful cultural beliefs underlie caste systems Determines occupation Mandates endogamy Limits out-group social contact Race and Ethnicity Race — classification based on physical traits. o Race is social construction: people interpret physical differences which are endowed with social meaning. Ethnicity — classification based on cultural characteristics. Prejudice attitude, which predisposes an individual to prejudge entire categories of people unfairly. Discrimination behavior, or and the unfair and harmful treatment of people based on their group membership Racism belief that race determines human ability and as a result, certain races deserve to be treated as inferior and vice versa Institutional (prejudice, discrimination and racism): integral part of the social practices and institutions of a society. Intergroup Relations Pluralism Assimilation Legal protection of minorities Population transfer Long-term subjugation Genocide Social Stratification: Theories Functionalist (Conservative Perspective) o Social inequality exists because it is necessary for the maintenance of society o “it serves as a mechanism for allocating rewards and motivating the best people to fill the key jobs in the society.” Conflict (Liberal Perspective) o Explains social inequality as the result of benefits derived by the upper classes using their power and privilege to exploit those below them. Conflict Theory Bourgeoisie o Karl Marx’s term referring to the middle class (those who own the means of production) Proletariat o The term used to describe the working class who exchange their labor for wages. Inequality in the United States U.S. society is highly stratified, but many people underestimate the extent of structured inequality in US society Question: How is inequality structured? Question: What kind of traits/dimensions interact to produce a person’s place in society, the manner in which people are treated, and their self identity? Intersectionality and Inequalities Connected You are not unequal just because you are a woman, or because you are black; there is other things you need to take into account when you study people that are marginalized. Political Organization and Social Control Power: ability to bring about results Authority: socially recognized right to exert power Dimensions of Political Organization Extent to which political institutions are distinct from other aspects of the social structure Extent to which authority is concentrated into specific political roles Level of political integration (the size of the territorial group that comes under the control of the political structure) Political Structures Un-centralized political systems: Band o The basic social unit found in many hunting-and-gathering societies o Characterized by being kinship-based and having no permanent political structure o Most bands number between 30-50 o Egalitarian o Oldest form o High value on sharing, reciprocity Tribe o Small-scale societies composed of a number of autonomous political units sharing common linguistic and cultural features o Found most often among food producers Centralized political systems: Chiefdom o Political authority is likely to reside with a single individual, acting alone or with an advisory council o Integrate a number of local communities in a formal and permanent way State o Most formal & complex form of political organization o Authority of the state rests on two important foundations Holds exclusive right to use force and physical coercion Maintains authority by means of ideology Why the state? From band to state More wealth More people More sedentism (the practice of living in one place for a long time) More inequality and ranking Less reliance on kinship More internal and external conflict Increased power and responsibility to leaders Increased burden to citizens to support political organization Increase use of formal, legal structures of adjudication The Modern Nation-State Nation: a group of people who share a common symbolic identity, culture, history, and often, religion (more male attributes: Powerful, Assertive) State: a particular type of political structure distinct from a band, tribal society, or chiefdom (more female attributes: Beautiful, Motherland) Nation-State refers to a group of people sharing a common cultural background and unified by a political structure that they all consider legitimate. Nation as “Imagined Community” “…it is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their community.” Changing State Systems of Government Democracy refers to the type of political system in which power is exercised, usually through representatives, by the people as a whole Autocracy refers to the type of political system that denies popular participation in the process of governmental decision making The internet and democracy “The internet makes it possible for anyone with Internet access to have free access to information, for opposition parties to spread their agendas, and for formerly oppressed people to connect with others via e-mail to present a united front against those who would exploit them. The internet has the potential to serve as a powerful tool to fight political repression, racism, and economic exploitation” Political Organization and Social Control Social Control Social norms — expected forms of behavior in a society Deviance is a violation of social norms Sanctions are institutionalized ways of encouraging people ton conform to the norms Universal Mechanisms Socialization Public Opinion Supernatural belief systems/Religion Social Control in Small-Scale Societies Formal laws are limited/rare Punishment is often through naming and shaming Punishment is legitimized through belief in supernatural forces. Social Control in State Societies Increased specialization of tasks relating to law and order Process is more formal and based on law The Purge Power: People that can’t afford protection are victims of the system and the government weeds-out. Eliminates the poor and needy, it’s kind of a social natural selection The idea of the purge is based on the American value on individualism, not caring for anyone else but yourself and maybe your immediate relatives Class Inequality: Poor can’t afford protection Only rich have the power to be safe during the Purge It entitles people to kill and torture Social control: The government control the people by regulating the aggression and mediating the violence that is “natural” for human beings. Allows people a release of all the hatred they have inside War War is the result of antagonisms that emerge when two or more groups struggle for control of resources War benefits corporate, military, and political elites. Causes of War Social Problems Perceived threats Political motivations Moral objectives Functions of War Gives members a “common cause” and a common enemy Serves as a way to gain resources (i.e. land or natural resources) War increases employment and stimulates economy Inspires developments that are useful to certain civilians Serves as a way to foster patriotism Change in family and demographics Technology and War Nations use technology in wars for various benefits. What are those benefits? Also, what are the disadvantages? With the increase of technology in war and presuming that nations will continue have conflicts, what could war look in the future? Global Challenges and the Role of Applied Anthropology The Growth of the Modern World Order Colonialism: The political, economic, and sociocultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign nation European colonialism Exercised total, or near total, control over the political commercial, and social systems of the colonial territories. Imperialism Exploitative Remnants of Colonialism th “Acquisitions of wealth and influence during the 19 century created the world economic order of the 20 century. And most of these former European colonial powers—even though they granted independence to most of their colonies decades ago—have retained their economic and political influence st into the 21 century” (pg. 393) Neo-Colonialism LDC: Lesser developed country Neo-colonialism: the process of developed nations continuing to exert economic, political and military influence over less-developed countries, even though the official period of colonization ended in the 1960s. Structural Power “Power that organizes and orchestrates the systematic interaction within and among societies, directing economic and political forces on the one hand and ideological forces that shape public ideas, values and beliefs on the other.” Hard Power + Soft Power=Structural Power Hard Power: The use of military and economic means to influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies. Soft Power: Ideological persuasion Structural Violence Systematic ways in which social structures harm or otherwise disadvantage individuals. The reformation of culture in a global context Anthropologist Arjun Appradurai coined a set of five terms to describe the dimensions through which cultural materials flow around the world Terms uses the suffix –scape-to show spaces in which flow and exchanges happen Ethnoscapes: The moving groups of people in our world, such as tourists, immigrants, refugees, exiles, and guest workers. These humans move around, carrying goals, values and ideas about themselves and others. Technoscapes: The patterns in which all kinds of technology move at high speeds across the world. Financescapes: Refers to the distribution of capital and such nation- transcending phenomena as currency markets, stock exchanges and commodity speculations. Ideoscapes: The global flows of ideologies (shaped by the State) related to the political discourses of the Enlightenment (i.e. freedom and democracy) Mediascapes: Images and the media that disseminate globally. It profoundly influences how we perceive our lives and imagine the lives of people who live elsewhere. Globalization Refers to the worldwide movement of finance capital but, in its more common broader sense, it refers to the international spread of ideas, materials, technology, labor and even people. Cultural Trends in our Globalizing World Globalization is a major cultural trend Ethnic and religious groups reassert their cultural identities Rising populations – spiraling energy use and expanding consumption – are devastating out natural resources. What problems must be solved for humans to have a viable future? Solutions need to be found to deal with problems posed by: Demographic shifts Unequal distribution of wealth Vanishing natural resources Environmental destruction More powerful technologies Explosive population growth Proponents of Globalization Worldwide market for companies and the people. Open economy spurs fresh innovative ideas from abroad Merges Power among Nations Anti-Globalization A term ascribed to the political stance of groups and individuals who oppose aspects of globalization in its present form A social movement Participants are united in opposition to: o Political power of large corporations o Trade Agreements that undermines the environmental and labor rights. Why it exists? o Environmental implications o Economical o Cultural o Gender o Human Rights Criticism of Globalization Economic globalization causes several social ills today Exploitation of world poor, workers and environment Rich companies act with less accountability Countries individual’s culture are becoming overpowered b Americanization Globalization is all about profit Targets o Multinational Corporations IMF: Promote global financial stability Exchange rate stability (balanced growth of trade) Loans are large for macro-targets ($100s millions- billions) World Bank Long-term economic development Project financing, including infrastructure, energy, education, health Smaller loans ($10s millions-$100 millions)
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