CS 202 MODULE 9
CS 202 MODULE 9 CS 202
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Peel on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CS 202 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Ralph E. Hooper in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 276 views. For similar materials see Intro to the Internet in ComputerScienence at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
MODULE 9 NOTES HOW TO MAKE AN IMAGE A HYPERLINK: <!DOCTYPE html> <html lang=”en”> <head> <title>Linking to an image</title> <meta charset=”utf8”> </head> <body> <h1 style=”text align: center”> <a href=”http://ua.edu”> <img src=”denny.jpg” alt=”Denny Chimes on the UA campus” width=”200” height=”360”> </a> </h1> <ul> <li> <a href=”http://ua.cs.edu” style=”textdecoration: none”> UA CS Department </a> </li> <li> <a href=”http://ua.edu” style=”textdecoration: none”> UA </a> </li> </ul> </body> </html> One way to add styles to webpages is by using an inline style as follows: EX1: <h1 style=”textalign:center”> EX2: <p style=”color:green”> EX3: <p style=”fontweight:bold; fontstyle:italic”> There are two other standard ways to include style (Cascading Style Sheets – CSS3) on a webpage: Embedded Style Sheets and External Style Sheets. DESCRIPTION LIST: <dl> the opening description list tag <dt>TERM 1</dt> the first term <dd>description 1</dd> the first description <dt>Term 2</dt> the second term <dd>description 2</dd> the second description </dl> the closing description list tag EX: <dl> <dt>Network</dt> <dd>A group of two or more computer systems linked together.</dd> <dt>Internet</dt> <dd>The global system of interconnected computer networkd.</dd> <dt>Ecommerce</dt> <dd>A term for any type of business or commercial transaction that involves the transfer of information across the internet.</dd> </dl> Here is what it would look like on the internet: Network A group of two or more computer systems linked together. Internet The global system of interconnected computer networks. Ecommerce A term for any type of business or commercial transaction that involves the transfer of information across the Internet. Super Important things to remember about web pages: 1. Your file must have an extension of .html. 2. All content that you see in the browser window must be between the open and close body tags. 3. Copying and pasting code from a source into text editor will often result in some wonky characters (such as the wrong kind of quotes) so don’t copy and paste into your text editor. 4. No spaces in filenames! 5. Know the difference between a tag and an attribute. 6. Make certain you know where you are saving your files. 7. Save your image files and your html files in the same location! SAM Path: Electronics and The Environment Electronic Trash (ewaste): consists of discarded computers, cell phones, televisions, stereos, and the electronics from automobiles and appliances. o According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Americans generate over 2.5 million tons of electronic waste each year. o Some school districts, colleges, and universities have an ewaste recycling program. A large university can generate 350 tons of ewaste each year o Most experts agree that manufacturing and consumers need to work together to address this growing problem. o Makes up 1% of what ends up in a landfill Contains 70% of the total hazardous material found in landfills. o The ewaste is burned or melted to extract heavy metals like copper, iron, silicon, nickel, and gold Harmful chemicals are released into the air or groundwater and soil, presenting a risk that people will develop serious health problems by coming into contact with these toxins. Toxic Electronics/Parts o Chips, circuit boards, disk drives, and plastics contain flameretardants and heavy metals like lead, mercury, hexavalent chromium, and cadmium phosphors Toxic Trade o U.S. exports about 90% of its ewaste to countries like China, India, and Ghana, where environmental and worker safety laws are weak or not enforced. o Countries in west Africa, like Ghana, also receive approximately 75% of European ewaste. o Only recently have the nations that generate ewaste begun to construct agreements not to ship toxic waste to developing countries unless they have adequate waste management facilities. Whether these laws will be successful is still a question. o Countries often allow illegal exports of toxic ewaste and ignore guidelines to recycle and reuse locally. Shipping to faroff countries puts ewaste out of sight, but it eventually affects everyone. Green Computing/Recycling o Green computing is designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of electronic products in ways that are friendly to both people and the environment. o Look for products that have the Energy Star logo, indicating that the product was built using energyefficient systems and reduced hazardous materials. o Buy from manufacturers that accept and recycle their used products; and recycle your used electronics. o Being recognized as an eStewards recycler is the maximum certification a company or recycling business can receive from the international nonprofit environmental watchdog, Basel Action Network. Embedded Computers Automobiles o Google is developing a selfdriving car that uses embedded computers to control acceleration and braking along with a rooftop sensor and a global positioning system, or GPS, to navigate. o Embedded computers already improve the safety and efficiency of all automobiles manufactured today. Ex: an embedded computer monitors engine emissions in your car and adjusts settings such as idle speed to keep the emissions as low as possible. Cruise control systems use embedded computers to maintain speed. Adaptive systems can detect is your car is following another car too closely and adjust the speed to maintain a safe distance. Airbag sensors can detect the severity of a collision and inflate the airbag accordingly, which reduces airbag injuries o Some cars use telematics, a wireless communication technology, to provide systems such as dashboard navigation and remote vehicle tracking. Public Transportation o Ex: on smart buses, drivers use a touch screen to check traffic, communicate with people waiting for rides, collect fares, and provide travel information. o In addition, many mass transit systems use smart cards instead of tickets or tokens. About the size of a credit card, the smart card contains an embedded computer chip to manage payments and deposits and provide security. o Also can communicate with embedded computers in road signs to reduce traffic congestion, display the safest speed limits for the conditions, and transmit warnings to drivers. Home Appliances o Use embedded computers to reduce energy consumption and enhance daily living. o In some appliances, an embedded computer controls how much energy the appliance is using. You can even set a machine to run when electricity rates are at their lowest. o Other appliances can send messages to your mobile device. Ex: they can alert you when a dryer’s cycle is complete. o You can use a mobile device to control appliances, such as setting a refrigerator’s temperature. o Appliance technicians can use embedded computers to remotely troubleshoot mechanical problems Supermarkets o Near Field Communications (NFC) is a shortrange wireless technology that works with smartphones and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, which are programmable chips embedded in paper or plastic. Ex: if a grocer includes an RFID tag next to the bakery shelves you can hold your smartphone up to the tag to send a coupon or detailed nutritional information to your phone. o Another shopping technology uses a robotcontrolled grocery cart that stores your shopping list, tracks your purchases, and helps you find items anywhere in the store. Homes o Home automation involves controlling systems such as heating, cooling, and security to increase comfort, quality of life, and even health. o Using sensors and embedded computers, you can set up a home automation network and communicate with it from a control pad or mobile device. Ex: you can set music to start playing as party guests arrive, lock or unlock doors remotely, and turn off lights in empty rooms. o Home systems are especially valuable for older people who want to live independently. They can coordinate smart refrigerators that track nutrition, smart ovens that simplify cooking tasks, and monitors that detect when someone needs help. ATMs and Kiosks o Recent innovations are improving card security. Soon, most cards will have an embedded chip instead of a magnetic strip, which is much more difficult to copy. o New technology also makes the machines more personal Ex: using one type of ATM, you can interact with a bank teller by videoconference. o Kiosks enable selfservice transactions in busy locations like airports and hotels, so you don’t have to wait in line to check in for a flight or a room. o Healthcare providers can also use kiosks or tablets. Patients can use them to check in a provide information such as insurance numbers. Connected Homes Online Finances o Today, most people use computers to manage their finances. EX: you might use finance software to balance your checkbook and track your income and expenses. o Most banks and other financial institutions also let you do online banking, where you use a computer connected to the Internet to manage your bank accounts. o At many Web sites, you can plan for retirement, maintain a budget, and calculate mortgage payments. The IRS even has a Web site where you can file your federal tax return. o If you want to play the stock market, you can use online investing tools to buy and sell stocks and bonds without using a broker. Online Education (elearning, short for electronic learning): involves formal education where students connect to instructors, information, and other students using a computer and the Internet. o Some course are asynchronous, which means that instead of receiving instruction live from a teacher, you connect to educational content such as recorded demonstrations and lectures at your own pace. o Other courses are synchronous. The instructor holds a class that you and other students attend virtually. The teacher speaks, plays videos, and shows presentations. When you ask a question, you receive an immediate response from the instructor. o In both types of online education, you interact with other students using blogs and wikis to hold discussions, collaborate on projects, and brainstorm. News and Information o The Web has changed the kind of information provided in news reports, whether they are delivered online, on televisions, or in print media. o TV newscasts feature amateur videos from videosharing to cover events such as weather disasters. Newspapers quote blog members who post eyewitness accounts of events, an activity called live blogging. o You can use the Web to access almost every newspaper and magazine in the world. o On hybrid Web sites that combine news and blogging, you can develop and refine news reports by commenting on them and posting contributions. Entertainment and Media o Moved to online EX: you can download digital books and magazines and then use an eReader or tablet to read them. o Digital books and magazines are easier to acquire, search, and store than printed copies. o Instead of downloading TV shows, movies, and music, you can play them online. o This ondemand media is popular because you can view or listen to it at any time rather than according to a set schedule. o The Web is making entertainment more personal in other ways. EX: using an online music service, you can create a personal radio station by listening to songs and then voting for the ones you like or dislike. Shopping o Etail Web sites are helpful to consumers looking for bargains. These sites provide product descriptions and reviews and let you compare features and prices of similar products. o You can make purchases online or save items in a wish list for you or others to purchase later. o Mobile commerce (mcommerce) involves using wireless mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets to make retail purchases. You can use mobile devices to purchase almost any product or service. o You can use your mobile device to scan a graphic code and then authorize a payment from a connected account. Intelligent Workplaces and Classrooms Enterprises o Have special computing needs because they employ hundreds or thousands of people many locations. o Enterprise computing refers to the computer network a business uses to let employee’s communication with customers, vendors, and other employees. To make that communication easy and familiar, businesses are developing the social enterprise, which uses short blog posts and collaboration tools instead of email and inperson meetings. o Because they can connect to the enterprise network from anywhere, employees who need flexible work schedules can telecommute—an arrangement that lets them work from home and conduct business using the phone and the Internet. When they do come to the office, employees increasingly are bringing their own computing devices, trend called BYOD for “bring your own device.” Manufacturing o New and future factories are bright centers of innovation, primarily due to computeraided manufacturing (CAM). o Manufacturers use CAM to streamline production and ship products out the door more quickly. With CAM, robots perform work that’s too dangerous, detailed, or monotonous for people. o Computers on the shop floor also make it possible to order parts and materials from the warehouse just in time to assemble a custom product according to the customer’s specifications. o Using machinetomachine (M2M) communications, a company’s computers can monitor assembly lines and equipment to keep them running safely and efficiently. Healthcare o Physicians use computers to monitor patients’ vital signs and to research symptoms and diagnoses. o Surgeons use computercontrolled devices to provide precision during operations such as transplant surgeries. o If you live in a remote area or have limited access to healthcare and need to see a specialist, your doctor might use telemedicine to confer with the specialist. Telemedicine involves holding a video conference with another healthcare professional. o Mobile health (mHealth) is a growing trend Doctors and nurses typically use smartphones and tablets to access electronic patient records Patients also can use mHealth devices to monitor their conditions and treatments, reducing their dependence on overburdened healthcare systems. EX: one mHealth application tracks prescription information and reminds patients to take medications by sending text messages to their mobile devices. Transportation Services o The global economy needs hightech transportation services to run efficiently. o If you work in the transportation industry, you use handheld computers to scan codes on packages or containers full of products before loading them on a vehicle, train, ship, or plane. o A computer automatically routes the packages to their destinations as efficiently as possible. You can track the progress of a package using almost any computing device. o If you’re driving a truck or other vehicle, you use an onboard navigation system with GPS, short for global positioning system. A GPS communicates with satellites to determine your exact location. o The entire transportation industry relies on GPS to navigate from one location to another quickly and safely. Elementary Education o Computer games and simulations in the elementary classroom make such investigations possible, helping students visualize processes that are otherwise hard to see. o Schools are using special networking tools designed for education to promote school events, work cooperatively on group projects, and prevent bullying. o As the cost of mobile devices declines, schools are adopting them to help close the digital divide—the gap between those who can access digital information, especially on the Internet, and those who cannot. o In developing countries, programs such as One Laptop per Child bridge the digital divide by providing lowcost mobile computers to schoolage children. Higher Education o EX: college students can visit Web sites such as Academic Earth and connect to resources such as iTunes U to watch video lectures, demonstrations, and performances by worldclass professors. o Instructors can use a learning management system (LMS) to set up Webbased training sites where students can check their progress in a course, take practice tests, and exchange messages with the instructors and other students. o Some schools provide these systems in “the cloud,” which means they are installed on a server so that students can access the systems at any time using their Web browsers. o Schools can then enhance the systems more frequently and easily, keeping pace with commercial software Artificial Intelligence AI Basics o By using artificial intelligence, a branch of computer science devoted to increasing the intelligence of machines. o Computers with AI can collect information to make decisions, reach conclusions, and combine that information in new ways, which is a form of learning. They also can communicate using language. o AI applications fall into two broad categories: conventional AI and computational intelligence Conventional AI takes advantage of a computer’s ability to use logic, or statistics and probabilities, to solve a problem. Systems with computational intelligence perform cycles of tasks and learn from each cycle. EX: financial systems that help investors select the best stocks or bonds use computational intelligence. AI Software o To make an accurate diagnosis for complicated medical problems, your doctor might use an expert system, which is conventional AI software programmed to follow rules specified by an expert in the field. o Expert systems use heuristics, or rules of thumb, to solve problems, just as people do. EX: if it’s a hot summer day and your rash is red and itchy, an expert system would conclude that you might have a heat rash. o In contrast, software that relies on computational intelligence can learn for itself. Neural networks, for instance, use technology to simulate how our brains generate paths from one neuron to another when gaining knowledge. o Neural networks are wellsuited to recognize patterns such as in sounds and symbols, which leads to speech recognition and reading. o Instead of diagnosing a condition using heuristics, a neural network could quickly analyze a mountain of data to recommend the best treatment. Robotics o Robotics is the area of AI that focuses on practical uses for robots, which are machines that can move automatically. o Some robots interact with people by recognizing speech and interpreting gestures and facial expressions. o For the most part, robot’s accomplishments are limited by their programming. EX: A robot vacuum can clean the floor, but not learn which rooms need cleaning the most. o A new generation of robots is being developed that mimic the way people can sense, learn, and adapt as they perform tasks. EX: such robots can clean office buildings, serve as receptionists in hospitals and assist the elderly. Speech o Natural Language Processing is a type of AI that computers can use to understand natural human languages, such as English. Some can even talk back. Makes speech recognition possible. With speech recognition, a computer can understand and react to spoken statement and commands. o Speech recognition software uses AI to gather the sounds of your speech, compare them to a large library of words, phrases, and sentences, and then make a best guess about what you said. Virtual Reality (VR) is a computersimulated, 3d environment that you can explore and manipulate o Use artificial intelligence when creating virtual creatures that make decisions and change their behaviors based on interactions with others. o Outside of games, science and medicine use VR for training and research. EX: medical students can use VR to practice their emergency medical skills. NASA uses VR to simulate space flight and the environment of other planets EX: Within a virtual reality, NASA uses AI to train a robot that performs repairs o VR is most helpful exploring outer space, the depths of the oceans, and other hardtoreach places that, right now, seem just as fantastical as immersive online games. Green Computing Going Green o Companies that create and use computers realize that green computing makes business sense because it saves money and resources o Manufacturers are making an effort to build energyefficient computers and use recyclable cases and packaging o They are also reducing the amount of toxic chemicals in components such as monitors to make them easier to recycle o You can help reduce energy consumption by unplugging energy vampire devices, which are those that draw power even when they are turned off or in standby mode, such as computers, charges, and home electronics. o Conserve resources when you can EX: reading email messages onscreen instead of printing them can save tons of paper over time. Recycling Electronics o Some community and private recycling centers accept electronic equipment, but many charge a fee because they must safely extract the hazardous materials the equipment contains. o Computer manufacturers often collect and recycle their products, and some reclaim parts that they can use to refurbish other products. o Another form of recycling is creative reuse. People have made mobiles and wind chimes from old CDs, mosaics from keyboard keys, and clocks from hard drives. Even the bronze, silver, and gold medals presented at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, Canada, were made from melteddown circuit boards. Recycling Ink and Toner o Laser and inkjet printers that quickly produce highquality text can benefit businesses and consumers alike. But they also generate an enormous amount of ewaste. In North America, people discard over 350 million ink and toner cartridges per year in landfills. These cartridges can take up to 450 years to decompose. o Instead of throwing away ink and toner cartridges, recycle them. Most printer manufacturers provide postagepaid shipping boxes so you can return the cartridges for recycling. o Manufacturers also refill used cartridges and resell them at reduced rates. Refilling cartridges consumes less energy than manufacturing new ones. Paperless Society o Forgoing printed receipts is part of a larger move toward a paperless society, which provides and stores information electronically instead of on paper. o Right now, the U.S. uses about 71 million tons of paper each year, which is close to 1 billion trees’ worth of paper. To combat this, businesses and organizations are cutting down on paper consumption. EX: The U.S. government is phasing out paper checks for Social Security and other benefit programs. o Digital alternatives let you decrease your personal paper use EX: ereaders let you read paperless books, and digital tablets make it possible to write paperless notes, sketches, and even doodles. Donating Computer Equipment o Secondhand stores often accept old computer equipment if it’s in good working order. o Refurbishers repair newer computer equipment and well it or distribute it to groups that need it. To aid refurbishers, include the keyboard, mouse, and other peripherals along with user manuals, original disks, and certificate of authority stickers on windows computers. o Deleting files does not thoroughly remove data Use special diskwiping program to make sure the job gets done properly. Careers Technology Jobs o All types of businesses use computers To manage computer systems and their software, medium and large businesses usually have an information technology (IT) department. As a member of an IT department, you might set up computer equipment, design and maintain systems, train other employees, or develop security practices. o If you work for a company that manufactures computer equipment, your job could range from assembling computer parts to engineering new products. o In the software field, you might write programming code, test programs, design an application, or develop an exciting new computer game. o If you work for a company that sells computers, you will learn to present hardware and software that meets a buyer’s needs. o You also might install, service, and repair computer equipment. Job Searches o Start by learning specific types of technology jobs that suit your skills. o Web sites such as the Bureau of Labor Statistics describe hundreds of jobs, including those in the computer field. o Next, look in many places for job openings, including your local newspaper’s Help Wanted section, your school’s career placement office, and Web resources. Web resources include online newspapers, company Web sites, and job search sites. o Besides listing employment opportunities and requirements, company Web sites often describe the company itself, its goals, and its current employees. Jobsearch sites provide access to millions of job posting and offer advice on writing resumes and interviewing. Resume Preparation o An effective resume is clear, concise, accurate, and easy to read o Resumes you submit electronically, such as by posting on a Web site or sending as an email attachment, probably will be scanned electronically. That means you need to focus on content, not formatting. o Consider creating a Web portfolio, which is a hypertext version of your resume that includes links to samples of your work, such as Web pages you designed or programs you wrote. Career Education o A technical college, also called a trade school or career college, teaches you specific skills in programming, networking, or security, for example You can generally complete a technical college program and receive a certificate or an associate’s degree within two years of fulltime studies. o To earn a bachelor’s degree, you can attend a fouryear college or university and study computer information systems, computer science, or computer engineering. Certification o You can earn certification in a particular area, such as software, hardware, operating systems, networking, or databases o To become certified, you demonstrate your mastery of certain skills and knowledge by taking and passing an exam. 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